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nouns or adjectives; as, a Christian; a Mahometan; a Presbyterian, &c.

13. Adjectives derived from proper names; as, Shaksperian; Miltonian; Elizabethan, &c.

EXERCISE ON CAPITALS.

To be written from the teacher's dictation. The pupil is required to state why he writes certain words in it with capital initials.

My brother Robert is just arrived from Oxford. They say the Emperor of Morocco is dead. The Spenserian stanza consists of nine lines. The battle of Trafalgar was won by Lord Nelson in the month of October, 1805. On that occasion, the combined French and Spanish fleets were almost annihilated. You will find the passage in Canto the Second of Lord Byron's 'Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.'

'Some ne'er advance a judgment of their own,

But catch the spreading notion of the town.'

As for me, I shall take no further steps in this matter. The majority of the Scotch adopt the Presbyterian form of Christianity. The Mosaic account of the Creation is given in Genesis. Let us be obedient to Him from whom no thoughts are hidden.

'Father of all, in every age

And every clime adored;
By saint, by savage, or by sage,
Jehovah, Jove, or Lord!'

The reign of Louis XIV. is called the Augustan age of French literature.

'this, and what needful else

That calls upon us, by the grace of Grace

We will perform in measure, time, and space.'

ETYMOLOGY.

Etymology is that part of grammar which treats of the nature and derivation of words.

Words are divided, according to their nature, into classes, or parts of speech.

There are, in English, nine classes of words, or parts of speech, viz. noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, participle, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.

1. A NOUN is a word which expresses the name of some being or thing; as, man, tree, virtue.1

2. An ADJECTIVE is a word which expresses the quality of a being or thing; as, hard, soft, white, good.2

3. A PRONOUN is a word which stands for a noun; as, I, he, they.3

4. A VERB is a word which expresses action ; as, come, go, think, read.1

5. A PARTICIPLE is a word which expresses a

1 The word noun is derived from the Latin nomen, through the French nom ('name').

2 Adjective comes from the Latin adjicio, 'I place to,' or 'put close to it is a word put to (or added to) a noun, to show some quality the noun possesses.

3 Pronoun, from the Latin pro, for,' or 'instead of,' and

nomen, noun.'

4 Verbum is the Latin for 'word.' The verb is so called in Grammar from being the chief or most important word in a sentence.

state or condition of things, and is always derived from a verb; as, coming, loved, seen.1

6. An ADVERB is a word put to or with a verb, to qualify an action; as, slowly, here, then.2

7. A CONJUNCTION is a word used to connect nouns or sentences together; as, but, and, though.3 8. A PREPOSITION is a word used to show the relation between things or persons; as, in, from,

to.4

9. An INTERJECTION is a word used to express some strong feeling; as, oh! ah! alas!5

EXERCISE ON THE PARTS OF SPEECH (1.)

The learner is to copy out the following sentences, marking the parts of speech of every word; n for noun, adj. for adjective, &c.

tree.

My bed was in that room. The huntsman walked through the dark forest. That pretty bird flew into the The fire burns rapidly and brightly. Good men are happy. His brother will go to school to-morrow. My father and mother are both of that opinion. Oh, my

1

Participle is from the Latin participium, compounded of pars, 'part,' and capio, 'I take'; and is so called because it partakes of the nature of the verb (action) and the nature of the adjective (quality).

2 Adverb is from the Latin adverbium, compounded of ad, 'to,' and verbum, ' verb.'

4

3 Conjunction, from the Latin conjungo, I join together.' Preposition is derived from the Latin præ, before,' and pono, I place'; because it is placed before certain nouns or • pronouns in the sentence.

5

6

Interjection, so called from the Latin interjicio, ‘I throw in'; because it is an expression thrown in, or put between the parts of a sentence.

dear friend, how glad I am to see you! Though he was in the room when I told that story, he did not say a word. I found the children prepared to go out. Ha! what has happened? Show me how I am to do this. My cousin arrived in this country from India last week. They were repeating their lessons to the master. Every man is expected to do his duty. Some men are more skilful than others. The book which I lent you is beautifully bound.

EXERCISE 2.

The same word may, under different circumstances, be a different part of speech.

The learner is to copy out the following sentences, marking the words in italics, n., a., v., conj., &c., accordingly as they may be nouns, adjectives, &c.

I

own my

It was a calm day. Calm yourself. A calm ensued. fault. It was his own estate. That boy tells me that he cannot use the pen that you mended for him. This is a round table. The girls were running round the garden. The room was hung round with black. The boy is blind. The snow and dust blind the eyes. They all went but me. I called on my friend, but did not find him at home. "Rage, thou angry storm!" He flew in a violent rage. The secret was well kept. I placed the letter in a secret drawer. Where is the rest of this cloth? The paper is covered with blacks. sold for slaves. The servant was

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You require rest. Rest, warrior, rest." The black men were desired to black the

shoes. The weather is very cold. A severe cold prevented him from going out. He is guilty of base ingratitude. Cæsar fell at the base of Pompey's statue.

My uncle leaves us to-day. Put all the leaves together. I long to go out. We took a long walk. Do not be. long. It is a common practice. The sheep are grazing on the common. It stands as firm as a rock. The firm has failed. This is a beautiful view. I view the matter differently. Give me a nail. Help me to nail up this board. The man came back yesterday. They were obliged to back the horses. I have broken the spring of my watch. Spring from the ground. There is grave cause to fear. The grave was fifteen feet deep. In fine, his cause was desperate. The magistrate imposed a heavy fine. It was a fine morning. They determined to fine him for this offence. You need not do this. "A friend in need is a friend indeed." This book is for you. He did not come; for he was unwell. Go in. You will find your brother in the study. Stay here till I come. He put the money in the till. It is difficult to till rocky ground. What kind of book do you want? mean to fell that oak. I like this like his brother. She is quite well. seventy feet deep. He left his son Keep to the left side of the road.

She is very kind. He fell ill. They better. He is very The well is nearly

all his property.

Fetch me a light.

He was carrying a light parcel. Light the candles. He is a mean fellow. What does this mean? I have just seen him. He is a just man.

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