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To judge soundly on such things requires us to be experienced. We should always say what is true. It is sometimes necessary to be bold. To be beautiful is of less advantage than to be intelligent. It is frequently necessary to be patient. To know is to be powerful. It is the duty of all men to be honest. This rash project ruined the speculator.

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Gender is the distinction between male and female species of beings.

There are two genders-the masculine and the feminine.

Nouns denoting beings of the male species, are of the masculine gender; as, man, boy, bull. Nouns denoting beings of the female species, are of the feminine gender; as, woman, girl,

cow.

Nouns denoting objects without life, have, properly, no gender; but they are frequently referred to as masculine or feminine. In this way, the sun is masculine; the moon feminine; a ship, feminine. Abstract nouns personified, and the names of countries, as England, France, &c., are also, in this sense, feminine.

Many nouns are of the common gender-that is, they are either masculine or feminine; as, parent, prisoner, child.

Feminine are distinguished from masculine nouns in various ways:

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3. By the termination ine; as,— landgrave landgravine hero.

4. By a different prefix; as,

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inheritrix

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mediatrix

heroine

man-servant. maid-servant male-child. female-child

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Change the masculine nouns in the following sentences into their corresponding feminines, and vice versâ.

The prophet predicted great calamities. The master spoke harshly to the boys. The mother promised her daughter a new desk. The countess is an excellent

woman. A bull broke through the fence, and damaged. my father's garden. A shepherd was tending his flocks. At the ball given by the lady mayoress, the queen held a long conversation with the viscountess. The testatrix has left most of the property to the niece of the princess. The marquis desired the man-servant to take the letter to the post. The author of that work is nephew to the Duke of Lancaster. The nuns chanted a hymn. The mistress was left executrix to the estate. His uncle is a son of Baron B. My brother was left heir to a large estate. Some village lads were playing on the green. The widow drove the goose across the common. The Jewess acted as mediatrix between the mother and daughter. The bridegroom rode a bay horse. My son, with his wife and two daughters, is coming to pay us a visit. The women and girls are haymaking. He was regarded as the hero of his age. This emperor was a zealous patron of the arts. She was

burnt for a sorceress. The maid-servant told the girls that tea was ready. The king invited the duke to dinner. The cows were driven into the meadow. They believed he was a wizard. My sons are all at school. His aunt was extremely kind to him. What has become of that little boy?

EXERCISE 2.

Mark the nouns which have no gender with an N; personified nouns with an M or F; and nouns of the common gender with a C.

The table was thrown down in the scuffle. England is remarkable for the number and wealth of her colonies. The children are walking in the fields. Where is your

cousin? Italy will probably secure her independence. My parents are dead. The prisoner was brought into court. Some of the furniture was destroyed by the people. The sun cheered the whole prospect with his bright rays. My friend told me the whole story. France is increasing her navy. The doctor is gone to visit his patients. The moon unveiled her peerless light. I am no judge of these matters. The vessel, with all her crew, was lost on a reef of rocks.

NUMBER.

Number treats of nouns as one, or more than

one.

There are two numbers, the singular and the plural.

The singular number expresses one being or thing; as, lion, book.

The plural number expresses more than one being or thing; as, lions, books.

General Rule.

The plural is formed from the singular by adding 8; as, pen, pens; table, tables.

Particular Rules.

1. When a noun ends in y preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by changing the y into ies; as, fly, flies; lady, ladies.

2. But if the y final be preceded by a vowel,

the plural is formed by the general rule; as, chimney, chimneys; valley, valleys.

3. Some nouns ending in ƒ or fe, form their plurals by changing these endings into ves; as, loaf, loaves; wife, wives.!

4. Nouns ending in ch (soft), sh, ss, x, or o, preceded by a consonant, form their plurals by adding es to the singular; as, church, churches; dish, dishes; loss, losses; box, boxes; negro, negroes.2

EXERCISE.

Change all the singular nouns in the following sentences into their plurals, and all the plural into their singular forms.

Give me the watches. I see the newspaper on the tables. She introduced me to her son. I encouraged the lady to proceed. The stories were interesting. He related his grief to me. The ship is close to the wharf. Lend me your knife. The roof of the house is injured. The attorneys have just finished their duties. Put the sashes in the drawers. The solo was well sung. The farmers sustained great losses. The knives are clean. The churches were well filled. Pick up the leaf. The chimney smokes. This match will not light. The box is arrived. Drive the calf into the stable. The valley was illuminated. The wolf attacked the boys. They performed a long journey. The ally was successful. We walked down the alley. The thief stole the loaf.

1 Chief, handkerchief, grief, hoof, roof, reproof, turf, gulf, fife, strife, and safe, form their plurals by adding s.

2 Canto, junto, portico, duodecimo, octavo, quarto, solo, and tyro, take s only in the plural.

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