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Irregular Plurals (continued).

FOREIGN PLURALS.

Many foreign nouns adopted in English form their plurals irregularly.

I. Italian.-Bandit, virtuoso, and dilettante, make in the plural, banditti, virtuosi, and dilettanti.

II. French.-Beau makes beaux; madam, mesdames; and monsieur, messieurs (contracted into Messrs.)

III. Latin.-The following words ending in us form their plurals by changing us into i:

1. focus

genius!

magus radius

stimulus
terminus

The following change the a final into œ:

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The following change on final into a in the plural:

2. automaton

criterion

ephemeron
phenomenon

Antipodes, illuminati, literati, and minutiæ, have no singular forms.

Genus makes genera; ephemeris, ephemerides; aphis, aphides; and sphinx, sphinges in the plural.

Apparatus, congeries, hiatus, series, and superficies are alike in both numbers.

Cherub and seraph, make cherubs and seraphs, as well as cherubim and seraphim, which are Hebrew forms.

Dogma and stamen, make dogmas and stamens, as well as dogmata and stamina (their classical plurals). Simile has similies in the plural. Index makes indexes (tables of contents), and indices in a mathematical sense.

EXERCISE.

Add the plural terminations to the nouns in italics in the following sentences.

I have made some memorand in my pocket-book concerning the errat of that book. The termin of the railways meet at that point. He has several amanuens at work. The nebul are not visible to the naked eye. Medicines which excite the nerves are called stimul. I have not yet seen the addend. Many of the phenomen of nature are wonderful. The heavenly bodies revolve on their ax. There are three or four oas in the Great

African Desert. We cannot decide correctly from such criteri. The wise men of the East were called mag. These words must be put in parenthes. The animalcul in water may be seen through a microscope. The effluvi from such deposits are highly injurious. In one of these violent cris, we thought he would expire. It is among the desiderat of modern science. The book has three distinct (indexes, or indices?) I was surprised at these sudden metamorphos. They stood like so many automat. In the science of botany, flowers are arranged in orders, gen, and speci. I met with several hiat in the manuscript. Extract all the simil from the first book of 'Paradise Lost.' The cherub and seraph veiled their countenances. On what dat do you arrive at that conclusion? The superfici of these solids are equal to one another. England has produced many geni. Two sphin guard the entrance to the hall. The Orientals believe in geni. The dogm of Plato were received by many. They were attacked in the mountains by Italian bandit. The parcel was addressed to (Monsieur?) Smith and Thomson. Many encomi have been passed on this work. The critic entered into the minuti of the question. There were many beau at the ball. The school is conducted by (Madame?) Le Blond and Piret. The question was argued upon false hypothes. The moon appears in various phas. Who will ever penetrate all the arcan of nature?

ON THE USE OF NOUNS.

In the construction of sentences, nouns are used in various ways:

1. Subjective

2. Possessive
3. Objective

4. Vocative

5. Absolute

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1. A noun is used as a subject when it is the word concerning which an affirmation is made. When so used, it is generally, with some few exceptions, put before the verb; as, The gardener locked the gate.' Here, gardener is the subject; as it is concerning the gardener that the sentence is written.

N.B. Every subject must have its verb. There can be no subject without a verb, expressed or understood.

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2. The possessive form of the noun is marked by an apostrophe (') followed by an s final; as, My friend's books are lost.' This means, the books belonging to, or possessed by, my friend are lost.

N.B. When the plural ends in s, the possessive plural is expressed by an apostrophe placed after that s; as, 'My friends' books are lost;' that is, the books belonging to my friends are lost.

3. When a noun follows and depends on a verb, a participle, or a preposition, it is used objectively that is, it is the object of that verb, participle, or preposition; as, 'Putting the keys in his pocket, he left the room.' In this sentence, the noun 'keys' is an object governed by the participle putting;' the noun 'pocket' is an object governed by the preposition ‘in;' and the noun 'room' is an object governed by the verb 'left'

4. Nouns are used vocatively when they ex

press persons or things addressed; as, 'Henry, do not tear your book.' 'Breathe soft, ye winds.' In these examples, Henry' and 'winds' are both used vocatively.

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5. Nouns are used absolutely when placed apart, with an adjective or participle, and independently of the other parts of the sentence; as, 'The lesson being finished, the scholars departed.' 'The evening being chilly, we were well wrapped up.' In these examples, the nouns lesson' and evening' are used absolutely.

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EXERCISE.

Copy out the following sentences, marking all the nouns sub., poss., obj., voc., or abs., according to their construction.

God created the world. a letter from his friend. Health is the best of gifts. lighted with his simplicity. My dear friend, I am quite of your opinion. The danger being over, we had leisure to consider our condition. My cousin accompanied me to the next village. The captain allowed three weeks' absence to the sailors. 'O wretched fellow-citizens, what madness is this!' A change had taken place in the ministry. The majority being absent on this occasion, their forces were rallied the next day. 'Macbeth, beware Macduff!' Tyrant, think on this. His brother's essay was by far the best. 'The summit gained, behold the proud alcove.' Man is a creature formed for Heaven's highest pur

My brother has just received The rain will spoil the flowers. His companions were de

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