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h is hard, as in hat, heel, hit; or mute, as in heir, herb, honest.

j has the sound of g soft; as in jest.

k, l, m, n, and p, have always the same sound; as, in kick, late, map, not, pen.

q is always followed by u, and is sounded as in quake, queen.

r is rough, as in rob; and smooth, as in hard,

more.

8 is soft, as in those; hard, as in this.

t, v, and w never change; as in tin, vain, win. x has three sounds; as in Xenophon, fix, exist. y and z are invariable; as in you, yes, day, zeal.

Of these band p are called labials, or lipletters; g (hard) and c (hard) are called gutturals, or throat-letters; d and t are called palatals, or letters made with the tongue and palate; f and v are called dentals, or tooth-letters, made by placing the upper teeth on the lower lip; 8 and z are called sibilants, or hissing-letters; h is called an asperate, or rough-breathing letter ; and l, m, n, and r are called liquids, or semivowels.

j, q, and x are called double letters; for j dg; q=cw, and x = ks or gs.

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These are more clearly exhibited in the following table:

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Point out all the vowels, diphthongs, and consonants in

the following words :—

From-instant-woman

disperse

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corn short

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gain cotton spoiled — prisoner · letter

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― people — sometimes thousand-finger.

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Certain simple sounds are represented by two letters; these are ng, sh, ch, gh, ph, th (hard), th (soft); as in song, shall, choose, ghost, pheasant, thief, this.

EXERCISE 2.

Mark these combinations in the words of the following sentences; also, point out all the consonants in italics, as being labials, gutturals, dentals, &c.

The doctor was displeased. They lifted the ladder. You said you would sing that song. Three men were threshing. The key was kept in the cupboard. His

cough continues to trouble him. They were chatting together very cheerfully. Gather the gooseberries. The father found fault with his son. The baker brought the bread. Give me the pen, ink, and paper. They travelled in the train from Tring. The victors vowed vengeance on the vanquished. There are five zones, and twelve signs of the Zodiac. His haughtiness has made him hated. The man made me miss the The night draws near. The robbers were resThe judge took a long journey. Six pounds of flax will be wanted. Philip shot three pheasants. His nephew looked ghastly pale.

train. cued.

SYLLABLES.

A syllable is that division of a word which makes but one sound.

Every syllable must contain at least one vowel. 1. Words of one syllable are called monosyllables.

2. Words of two syllables are called dissyllables. 3. Words of three syllables are called trisyllables.

4. Words of more than three syllables are called polysyllables.

Rules for the division of syllables.

1. Proper names, and words of one syllable, must never be divided; as, 'strength,' thought.' 2. A long vowel must stand alone at the end of a syllable; as, 'cá-ble,'' ré-gal,' 'í-dle,' ' nó-ble,' 'dú-ty.'

3. A short vowel, when accented, attracts the following single consonant into the same syllable with itself; as, 'ráv-el,' 'bév-y,' 'vís-it,' 'bód-y,' 'bús-y.'

4. When two consonants come together in the middle of a word, one goes to each syllable; as, 'ad-ding,' 'er-ror,' 'shil-ling,' 'rob-ber,' 'murder.'

5. The double letter x, between two vowels, must be put with the former syllable; as, 'ex-alt,' 'ex-empt,' ex-ist,' 'ex-otic,' ex-ult.'

EXERCISE.

Divide the following words into their syllables according to the above rules; and mark them 1, 2, 3, &c., according to the number of syllables they contain.

My sister begs you will excuse her this evening. He deserted his benefactor in his difficulties. The ladies addressed the little children. Divide this orange between you. The country was inhabited by a barbarous people. Last autumn provisions were abundant. We spent a most agreeable evening with some very sensible and sociable companions. The gardener planted potatoes on Thursday afternoon.

CAPITALS.

Capitals, or large letters, must be used in the following cases:

1. The first letter of the first word of every sentence; as, 'Hither shalt thou come, and no further.'

2. The first letter of every line in verse, as

Then, in the scale of life and sense, 'tis plain,
There must be somewhere such a rank as man.'

3. Proper names in any part of the sentence; as, 'Here come James and John.' 'The Thames is the most important river in England.'

4. Qualities personified; as, Come, gentle Spring.'

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5. Epithets; as, Charles the Bold,' William Rufus.'

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6. All the names of God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost; as, Maker,' 'Creator,' 'Redeemer,' 'Comforter,' &c.

7. All pronouns referring to God; as

'Here finished He, and all that He had made
Viewed, and behold all was entirely good.'

8. The pronoun I, and the interjection Oh! 9. Titles of rank or dignity, when followed by the names of their possessors; as, 'The Duke of Monmouth;' King Louis;' Doctor Thompson.'

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10. The titles of books, and the divisions of printed works; as, an Essay on Satire; Book the First; Section the Second; Chapter the Sixth; Volume the Tenth, &c.

11. The names of nations, used either as nouns or adjectives; as, the English people; the French army; the German literature; the American republic, &c.

12. Names of religious sects, used either as

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