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Pride is odious. His verses are considered very beautiful. Demosthenes is said to have been the greatest orator of antiquity. The young lady was silent. The big tears chased each other rapidly down his aged cheeks. What can be more delightful than to see a happy and united family. All nature looks cheerful and gay. He told me a long story about his misfortunes. The Rhine is very wide at Cologne, and is a much larger river than the Moselle. They began the campaign with a bold move. His character was eccentric in the extreme. This nobleman possessed profound and extensive learning. A victim was necessary. This interview was delightful.

ADJECTIVES USED AS NOUNS.

Though every adjective really belongs to, and qualifies, some noun, that noun is not always expressed; as, "The memory of the just is blessed; but the name of the wicked shall rot.' (Here just and wicked, signify just and wicked men or persons.)

EXERCISE.

Copy out the following sentences, underlining all the adjectives used as nouns.

"Such place Eternal Justice had prepared

For those rebellious

The young and the old, the rich and the poor, the wise and the ignorant, have all duties to perform. Burke wrote a treatise on the Sublime and Beautiful. The righteous shall flourish like a bay tree. The un

godly shall not stand in the judgment. This level is used for a cricket-ground. Time will show whether this be for good or evil. See that thou do no wrong to

any man. You have no right to do this. That is the long and the short of the matter. The poor ye have always with you. They sailed across the bosom of the deep. The boys are playing on the green. I prefer blue to pink. The Roman emperors were invested with the purple. He was dressed in black. She has the best of the argument. The crooked shall be made straight. It is the folly and misfortune of mankind to prefer the present to the future, the agreeable to the useful, the shining to the solid.

When adjectives denote qualities perceptible to the senses, they are used concretely; as, a cold stone, a bright sun.

When they qualify states of the mind, they are used abstractly; as, a cold heart, a bright thought.

EXERCISE.

Copy out the sentences below, marking all the adjectives with a C or an A, accordingly as they are used in a concrete or in an abstract sense.

The children are diligent. In hot weather, the little boys play under the shady trees. I received a warm welcome. The girls sat at a long table. It is a long time since I saw him. This lesson is very hard. The sky is bright and clear. hard bed. This dark deed was strong reasons for thinking so.

That is a bright thought. He gave me a cold look. The prisoner lay on a

discovered. I have Do not be so cross.

Brewers must have strong horses; they drag heavy loads. One dark night, the boy fell into a deep well.

At this spot the stream is very shallow.
He has a shallow mind.

It is but a

Life is short.

This wine

His

temper is

short distance. There is a wide difference in their opinions. is sour. The streets are very wide. sour. The plot was ripe for execution. She has a sweet disposition. He has filled the highest offices. The fruit is ripe and sweet. Snowdon is a very high

mountain.

Adjectives derived from proper names are called proper adjectives; as, French, from France; Shaksperian, from Shakspere, &c.

When two nouns come together, the one qualifying the other, the qualifying noun must be considered as an adjective; as, watch-chain, breadbasket, &c.

EXERCISE.

Mark the proper adjectives in the following sentences with a P, and the qualifying nouns (adjectives) with an A.

The Russian fortress was bombarded by the English and French. She wore a silk dress. The chain pier at Brighton is an elegant structure. The Spanish commander approached the castle walls. The Pompeian decorations are remarkable for their brightness of colour. He took a cedar pencil from his pocket-book. The Spenserian stanza consists of nine lines. belongs to the Elizabethan age of our literature. salt water is brought through iron pipes. said to have collected the Homeric poems.

This poem

The

Lycurgus is
The woman

had on a cotton gown. They live in a brick house. The Italian language is melodious. The Alexandrian library was celebrated. He drew out a gold watch. The garden was laid out in gravel walks and grass plots. The Provençal poetry flourished in the tenth century. The Troubadour language was used in the South of France. The Reform Bill was passed in March, 1832. Put a paper cover on your book. Alexander destroyed the Persian empire. They have just built a new cattlemarket.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

Numbers, or numeral adjectives, qualify beings or things as to their number or order.

Numbers are divided into three classes—cardinal, ordinal, and multiplicative.

1. Cardinal numbers are one, two, three, four, &c. 2. The ordinal, which express the order in which any person or thing is mentioned, are, first, second, third, fourth, &c.

3. The multiplicative numeral adjectives are, single, double, triple, &c.

EXERCISE.

Point out the cardinal, ordinal, and multiplicative numerals used in the following sentences.

The first time I saw him he was not more than sixteen years old. I shall require a double lining to this cloak. Tuesday is the third day of the week. The battle of Hastings was fought on the fourteenth of October, 1066. He had eight faults in his exercise;

this is the second time he has written it so badly. Give me two or three apples. There is not a single letter in that word well formed. He was confined to

the house for six weeks. It happened on the twenty

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Pronouns are words which stand for nouns, or qualities; some of them have the nature of nouns, and some of adjectives.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Personal pronouns are those which stand for, or represent, persons. They have number and gender, like nouns. There are three persons in

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The FIRST person is the person who speaks or acts; as (sing.), I am thirsty; (plur.) we are tired.

The SECOND person is the one spoken to; as (sing.), thou art powerful; (plur.) you are happy. The THIRD person stands for the person or

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