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DEMONSTRATIVE (ADJECTIVE) PRONOUNS.

The demonstrative pronouns are this and that, with their corresponding plurals, these and those. They are called demonstrative, because they demonstrate, or point out, persons or things.

This (plur. these) is used in speaking of what is near us; that (plur. those) points to what is at some distance from us. This also refers to the

present time; that, to the past.

The words this, that, these, and those, like other adjectives, are frequently used independently, as nouns, referring to things or persons understood; as, 'Give me that;' 'What are these?' &c.

EXERCISE.

Substitute demonstrative pronouns for the words in italics, and supply them in the blank spaces.

Show me the books (which are near you). What have you done with the pens (which you had yester

day)? Which do you prefer; the desk (on the table near me), or the work-box (yonder)? What can all mean? Both wealth and poverty are temptations: the one tends to excite pride; the other, discontent. What is the cause of

you have; Yes, I know

you spoke of

Did he say

or

noise? Which pens will

? Your brother is arrived. They are disputing about what day when we were in the country. ? Now, is the difficulty (which I am going to explain). apples (before us) are not so good as we bought yesterday. You shall have it minute. He rose - instant from his seat. Luxury and avarice are both injurious to society: the former by its enervating effects; the latter by its Come and look at

manifest injustice.

were the only persons left behind.

book from the shelf.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

insects.

Take

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The words who, whose, whom, which, and what, are called interrogative pronouns when they are used in asking questions; as, Who did that?' "Whose book is this?' • Whom did you

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see?' Which will you have?'

want?'

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• What do you

Who, is used of persons; what, is used of things.

Which, is used both of persons and things. Whose, is used possessively (and means 'belonging to whom?').

Whom, is used objectively, and depends on a verb or preposition.

EXERCISE.

Supply the interrogatives in the blank spaces.

of the brothers is ill?

the weather?

spoke?

do you prefer?

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did you say about

did you give the money?

book is this? Mine.

house

have you done with your needle? have you

can you be thinking of? With

been conversing?

or Tacitus ? affairs?

is the better historian, Livy do you think of the present state of opinion do you approve of?

be the more advisable, to drive or to walk?

you intend to do in this matter?

yours or mine?

will

do

business is it;

do you suppose I met in the

park?

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

The above pronouns are also used as relativesthat is, when they relate to persons or things already mentioned; as, "This is the boy who brought the apples;' 'The pen which I mended ;' 'He whose opinion was asked.'1

The person or thing referred to by the relative is called its antecedent.

What, is used relatively for the thing or things which; as, "This is what you want.'

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That, is frequently used for the relative who or which:

1. In speaking of things without life; as, 'The box that I bought.'

2. After an adjective in the superlative degree; as, 'The most beautiful view that can be imagined.'

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3. After the interrogative pronoun who;' 'Who that thinks deeply on such matters can fail to arrive at this conclusion?'

as,

EXERCISE.

Let the pupil supply the proper relative or interrogative pronouns in the blank spaces.

The man brought these books is the person to I paid the money. Where is the rose

I gave you this morning? I have just met with something will suit you exactly. These are the dresses

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any feeling can do you think of this

we were speaking of. Who has
resist such an appeal?
affair? They

think so are very much mistaken.

you said.

I did not quite understand
you been talking about? This is the best plan

have

I

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you can adopt. I have lost some of the paper

bought yesterday.

is the boldest design

cannot be the boys

I saw at your house.

was ever conceived. They

you have, the apple or the pear? I do not care

will

he of

Give me the pencil
I spoke.
He did not neglect

This is

was here just now. I said is perfectly correct. he conceived to be his duty.

of you has done this?

happen to-morrow.

can doubt of this truth?

this the letter

cannot tell

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that reflects for a moment notion was that? Is

you showed me this morning? I you may be thinking of. Demosthenes

was the greatest orator -ever lived.

VERBS.

A verb is a word which expresses action or being; as, be, come, talk, think.

Verbs have number, person, mood, tense, and conjugation.

They have two numbers, singular and plural, as in nouns; and three persons, the first, second, and third, in each number.

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or manners of expressing an action: 1st, the Indicative; 2nd, the Imperative; 3rd, the Potential; 4th, the Subjunctive; and 5th, the Infinitive.

1. Indicative means 'pointing out,' or 'showing.' Those forms of the verb in which an action

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