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but he did wonders in grafping for Great Britain an empire which his abilities had brought within his reach.

Before we take leave of this period, to which, for the purpofes of good and permanent fyftem for Britim India, we mall often recur, more for inftruftion than imitation, we muft remember the concur* rent plans of France, and the ability of Bu/y

"The French appear to have been the firft European power that trained the natives of India to regular difcipline, as well as the firft who fet the example of acquiring territorial pofleffions, of any great extent, in India*, in which they have been fo fuccefsfully followed by the Englim." In another part of his Memoir, with a liberality of fentiment, and a love of truth which guides the pen of that invaluable geographer, Major Rennell informs us that, "had it not been for the marches of M. BuJJy (the only monument remainIng to the French nation of their former fhort-lived influence and power in the Decan) the geography of thofe parts would have been extremely imperfect; but they extend through more than four degrees of latitude, and more than five of longitude.'' Mr. Grant examined in detail the financial plans of Mr. Bujjy in the Decan, interrupted by his being recalled fuddenly into the Carnatic by Lal/y, juftly accufed of being jealous of Buffi's fame. It will always be an honour to the Britifh name, that the character of that great man, M. Bujjy, has been refcued from the nibblers at his fame, by Mr. Onnis inveftigation of his military and political career—by Mr. Rennell'vn. his geographical—and by Mr. Grant in his financial plans: and it will be gratifying to every Englifhman, that an Englifh Clive, m ability, decifion, and fuccefs, mould live preeminent in the page of hiftory; and it is no fmall confirmation of Mr. Grant's opinions, that, on a plan fimilar to his own, Bujjy intended to eftablifh the power of France in India.

* Rennell's Memoir, Introd. p. xci.

CHAP. II.

.HAVING ftated the principle of govern-* ment and revenue at the period of the acquifition of the Dewannes, we muft enumerate the financial experiments of the De* wan, under the orders of very refpectable and able fervants of the Company, to whofe lot it fell to endeavour to combine all the profits of the Moghul, the peculations of1 the Soubah, to a rack-rent of the territory, by a revenue-adminiftration fuppofed to correfpond with the Moghul fyftem, fupported by the force of the Britim arms. The veil of a nominal government naturally threw the whole of the detail into the hands of native managers; and the above extracts from Governor Holwell fhew how little the natives had to expecT: from the moderation in the demands of Britifh management, and how difficult it was to inveftigate the native forms or inftitutions, Mr. C^rani admits* that Lord dive could not have found a more refpectable Mujjulman than Mahomed Reza Khan, a more experienced Hindoo than Rajah Doelubram, nor a more intriguing and fkilful manager of the complex and involved obfcurity of Indian finance, that Rada Kunt Singh, the elder brother of Gunga Go-vind, father of Praen Kijhen;'ytt under their management every fource of information was completely ftopped, and fucceffive governments have been foiled in every attempt to execute their plans.

During the firft period of the Dewannee, or M. R. Khans adminiftration, the veil of nominal Moghul government was ftrictly adhered to; but the Company's government, after a very fhort trial, found its profits not correfponding to their expectations, to which, indeed, they themfelves do not feem to have placed limits. The fubject was taken up in Parliament, and a Committee of the Houfe of Commons endeavoured to develop the intricacy of the double government in Britim India; from the Reports of which Committee, in 1772, 1773, and Mr. GranfsAnalyfa of the Revenues of Bengal in 1785, any diligent financier may afcertain the innovations artfully introduced in the revenue fyftem of the Bengal provinces at this period, both in the definition of perfons and things, to render the Moghul fyftem unintelligible, and to cover their peculation from the pofCble control of the Company; or, if in candor we can give to the native adminiftration the colour of pious fraud, to fave their countrymen from the avarice of their new conquerors, and to obtain the exclufive direction of the internal government.

* Analyfis of the Revenues of Bengal, MS.

CHAP. III.
Second Period Dewannee.

UNDER all this real and artificial fufion began the fecond period, by Mr

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