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Grant called Provincial AdminifT;ration: a Jummabundy of the Dewanny lands was fettled with Zemindars by the Council of Revenue at Moorfiedabad in 1771 to aid and control Englijb fupervifors, then recently appointed to acl: in the laft year of . the Naibut of M. R. Khan; they depended chiefly on him for official information, and conformed, for. the moft part, to his fyftem. Mr. Hajiings at this period was called on to produce an oftenfible plan, which is recorded in detail in the Reports of the Committee of Secrecy of the Houfe of Commons; the occafion arofe from the neceffity of putting a period to the native adminiftration, under the veil of double government, impenetrable even to the Proprietors and Directors *. The Bengal Government was informed that "the Company have determined to Jland forth as Duan -j-; the fervants employed in the collections fhall be ftiled Collectors" inftead of the prefent appellation of Supervifors; a fixed Dewan to be nominated by the Board; lands to be let for five years, and to confift of an entire Pergunnah, not exceeding one lack of rupees; the Bundebuft to be made by a Committee of the Board in a circuit of the province: thefe were the outlines of the revenue plan; it was immediately executed, and the plan of fettlement for five years, exclufive of the form of leafe by auction, feems generally modelled to the Bundebujl of 1765; and its improved amount, by Mr. Grant's calculation, exceeded CoJJim Al'is net Malgoozary revenue by three lacks.
* Eaft India, 6th Rep. Com. Seer. p. 307.
t Letter of the Directors per Lapwing, par. 12.
The flattering profpects which were held forth, and had influenced the meafure of appointing a Committee of Circuit, with powers to make a five years fettlement with temporary farmers or renters of the revenues, foon vanifhed, and clofed the farming fyftem; for inftead of profit, there enfued alarming diminution of revenue, joined to an increafed expenditure, without a portability to forefee or prefcribe a limit to the mifchief. The Zemindars, excluded from the functions of their office in collecting the rents from the Reyuts, which gave them influence in the country, excufed themfelves from performance of their jufticiary duties, whereby, in all the principal towns, Moorfhedabad, Patna, Dacca, Houghfy, Purneah, Rajetnal, &c. the Soubahdar himfelf, his Naib, and Fougedars, refided with falaries, ftipends, and allowances, more than fufficient to fupport all the tribunals of criminal juftice neceffary for all Hindqftan; while another fet of individuals was invefted with the rank and dignity of thofe officers, with appointments larger than they could have enjoyed in the moft fplendid periods of the Moghul government. This impolitic expence and parade to the delegates of Eritijh adminiftration, diverted the refpect of the natives from the Britijh to their native agents, who, to increafe their patronage and profits, fuggefted lefler "Fougedary tribunals, and had the art to continue thefe Fougedary incumbrances, even after the Zemindars were reinftated in their full jurifdiflions, when all fhould have reverted to the for-* mer order.
The fecond Period, corrected by Aft of Par* liament.
IN this ftate was the fyftem of revenue management when the Legiflature of Great Britain prefcribed an amendment; a Supreme Civil Government, a Supreme Court of Judicature, a limitation of the Company's dividend, an aflumption of three fourths of the furplus of the net revenues in behalf of the nation, and the feparation of the revenue from the commercial department, were the principal features of Lord North's plan for the better adminiftration of Britijh India, to preferve it for Great Britain, after he had ably aflerted the rights of the State againft the claims of the Company to the territory. At the expiration of the five years fettlement of the Committee of Circuit, Mr. Hajlings, profiting by experience, wifhed to revert to the conftitutional fyftem of Moghul fettlement on the beft information he could obtain: his real difficulty, his miftruft of Ameens and conviction of abufes, and of an exifting regular fyftem in the country, by this production a Kurcha * of a Reyut mould be taken collectively with the acknowledgement which clofes Mr. Ha/lings' minute of the I2th November, 1776, "I am not prepared to propofe a complete plan, and decline giving a premature and partial opinion while I am profefledly feeking for the grounds which are to determine it-f*," they fully evince the mind of the Governor General, and the motive of his experiment. To Mr. Francis it appeared, on the contrary, that there was no neceffity for the iuterpofition of Government between the Zemindar and Reyut; " if they are left to themfclves they will foon come to an agreement, in which each party will find his advantage]:;" "we have no fafer rule to direct us, than the actual receipts of the three laft years, hecaufe they fhew bejl the actual ftate of lands;" "that Government muft make an eftimate for a