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remedy; the markets however, were, regulated; wages of fervants could not, though there appeared to be in Calcutta 30,000 fervants and 6000 horfes, and the wages one halt more at Calcutta than at the above-mentioned foreign factories. A bank was eftablifhed by individuals in Calcutta; the Bengal Gazette, 23d of March, 1786, contained the plan, and the legal opinion of Mr. Dunkin and Mr. Davies, which enabled every perfon to know that the plan flood on private confidence until the Legiflatu're, or a charter from the Crown, incorporated and regulated a bank. But Mr. MacpherfotfA certificate plan eftablifhed at once confidence in the Company's paper, which he iflued, as a fubftitute to the deficiency of fpecie from the remittances, to the Coaft and China; he publifhed in the Bengal Gazette the names of the holders, and number of the certificates, and pledged payment of every certificate according to priority of date, whereby it is obvious he deftroyed the poflibility of continuing private management or preference to the prejudice of the Company's creditor.

By a regulation of March, 1785, in the revenue department, every farmer, Zemindar, or landholder, was required, at the dofe of the year, to pafs his bond, at 12 percent. intereft, to the Company for whatever balance remained unpaid, to be cancellable only by the order of Directors, whereby it is obvious he cut up the fyftem. of fraudulent balances and compofitions; thefe appeared fundamental principles, and led me to inveftigate the degree of. fecurity which was given to the meaneft landholder, native pottah holder, bound by his heritable pottah or grant, to pay a certain portion of the produce, or an equivalent in money, to the protecting lovereign: the reference I make to Mr. Grant's information is fufficient to fhew at leaft that I have been convinced his fyftem alone will realife practicable fecurity to native landholders, and to the Britijh nation. The honourable diftinction of a Baronetage conferred on Mr. Macpherfon, followed his fuperceffion, and the thanks of the Company, hitherto without their liberality, have acknowledged the extent of the

reforms completed during his adminiftratioti.

Grand total eftablimed charges of the Bengal government, as they ftood 31 ft of January, 1785, when Sir John Macpherfon received charge of the government, per month, - C. R. 29,60,627 2 3

Grand total of the fame

charges, as they flood

3oth June, 1786, two

months and feveuteen

days before Lord Corn

walltis acceffion to the

government — 19,76,742 4 3

Total monthly decreafe

of charges or reduction 9,83,884 14 o

Total annual reduction in the eftabtifhed charges of the Bengal government, from the ^ift of June, 1785, to the 3oth of June 1786, 1,18,06618 8 current rupees, or about £.1,200,000 fterling.—See comparative account charges of Bengal government, difpatched from the Accomptant

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I could not pass over this period, from which I have derived much instrućtion, without direéting the public attention to it, particularly as Sir john Macpherson has for some time been absent among the Durhars of the continent of Europe, and Mr. Grant has been judiciously settling the Doul Bundobust with his tenants in the North of Scotland, where the Board of Control might fend for the original native accounts of British India, under the Moghul seal of office, and for the valuable historical library, in Persian, which with so much modesty Mr. Grant refers to in the extract I have made from his political survey of the Northern Circars, which information, H believe, could not be obtained in any Public or other private collection in Europe.

CHAP. VII.

On the Certificates concerning the Defitution of Zemindars.

JVlUCH ftrefs has been laid on the definition of the word Zemindar; in Europe it may appear excefsof delicacy and purity of Britijh adminiftration; in India it can only appear evidence of our extreme ignor ranee. If we are ignorant, we ought to be cautious from what fource we gain information; and • the neceffity of connecting the definition of office with the Sunnud, will appear even from confidering the Company's tenure of their Jageer in the Carnatkj and their Zemindaries in Bengal. Mr. Dalrymple informs us*, that he ufes the term Jaghire geographically only, for if it was properly jfaghire, there would be fervice due; whereas, the lands being free

* Short account of the Gcntoo mode of collecting rctenue, p. 5. Elm/ley, 1783.

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