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rors found it convenient to elude control either of Mcgul or of Britijh government. It wa» hardly to be expected that Mahomed Ali Khan fhould impofe on himfelf all the control of the pure fyftem of Akbar if the Company chofe to ftand forth Dewans and not Soubab, when they allowed the territorial revenues to be received in their behalf.
The alienations in the Bengal provinces*, and in the northern Circars-\-, at the acquifition of the D"wannee, and fmce the year 1-7^5, could not have efcaped detection if the regifter office, under the name of Cantngoe in Bengal, and of Defpandeah in the Decan, had been reftored to the exercife of its duties defcribed on Mr. Grant's information J. Without an argument, its difufe is evident, by reference to the records of Parliament for the definition of the ** Canongoe office §."
* Page 267.
$ Sixth Report of the Committee of Secrecy, p. 314. '773
"The nature and fervices of this office are fully explained in the proceedings of the Moorjhedabad Council of Revenue, 2d July, 1/72; the Committee are of opinion that their utility is almoft fupprefled, from the change which has taken place in the revenue fyftem; out of tcndernefs, however, to the ancient form of government, and deference to the grants which they hold for their office from the Court of Delhi, the Committee think the Head Canangae may he continued, either receiving their prefent Ruj/boms, or whatever may be confidered as an adequate pen/ion, but that all the dues allotted for the fupport of their officers (inferior Canongoes) in the diftricts may be attached, and thofe officers enrolled among the monthly officers of each Cutcherry; thus the government will ftill reap the benefit of their knowledge and experience in carrying on the bufinefs, while a conjiderabl e faving will be produced from the refumption of the dues they have hitherto received."
Note*. ** The office of Canongoe is of * Sixth Report, Committee of Secrecy, p. 314.
Royal inftitution, of long ftanding, and, in many places, hereditary; it is frequently exercifed by deputy, though the emoluments are enjoyed by the principal j in fome diftri&s it has been long abolifhed. The Canongoes have ufually had the care of the Sudder and Mofujfil records, and all papers attefted by the Canongoe are received as authentic and decifive in all difputes relative to lands, their boundaries, or property of that nature."
It is farther obferved in the reports*, that " Canangoes, Regtfttrs of land, have no authority, but caufes of land are often referred to their decifion by the Nazitn De
When I looked into the Ayeen Akberry for the defer iption of the inferior Canongoes of diftri&s thrown off from the Head Canongoe, it appeared that, by the regulations of Akbar, Canongoes were paid by Government according to their rank, and Pvtwarrees were paid by the villages by a Suddu-cy, or allowance of 2$ per cent.it they are thus defined: "The Puttuarry is employed on the part of the hufbandman to keep an account of his receipts and difburfements, and no village is without one of thefe. The Canongoe is the prote&or of the hufbandman, and there is one in every purgunnah*"
* Seventh Report of Committee of Secrecy, p.
If the Canongoes had little to do in 1772, we mall find, by the Bengal revenue confultations in 1789, that the Mocurrery plan did not include thofe officers f. "The Canongoes will have nothing to do when the village allotment takes place." "When the Mocurreys mall be confirmed the Canongoe office becomes ufelefs; the old officers may receive their falaries for life, for as the rent of each village with its meafurement are herein particularifed, the old records are not neceflary J." "T'ehfeeldars might employ the ufelefs Canongoes in the
* Ayeen Akberry, Vol. I. p. 358.
\ Mr. Law has withheld his Appendix E relating t« the Canongoe office, p. 223. Sketch of late Arrangements.
%. Ibid. page 170.
receipts*." In Bahar the Canongois Sepoordaneh, on the report of the Tehfeeldar, was ordered to be abolHhed as an impofitton -f. The confequent alteration of the Reyufs fituation is ftriking in every point of view; inftead of his heritable Pottah regiftered by the Canongoe and guaranteed by the Sovereign, he is turned over to the Zemindar, his liege lord and proprietor of the foil. A village by the Mocurrery plan is defined to be " an average afleffment of an extent of foil, which the proprietor muft allot in the beft mode for himfe!f%;" and it being generally allowed that the affeflment was unequal, and the meafurement inaccurate §; Mr. Shore obferves» "that irregularities in the afleffment are. acknowledged to be of lefs importance to the frate than the variable uncertainty of its amount is to the fubjecT:; it is, however, a defirable object in fixing the quit rent in, perpetuity to render it in the firft inftancc as equal as poffible; whether, under all cir
* Sketch of late Arrangements, p. 170. t Ibid. p. 147. % Ibid. p. 99. § Ibid. p. 106.