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provinces. At the period of advancing, the weavers were aflembled at the waflnng or head factory of each divifion, and there paid their advance, having at the fame time delivered to them a paper, called Hand&//, as their account current, in which they were debited for the fum paid them, and which they acknowledged afterwards to the perfon keeping the Englijh accounts, who checked off"; they alfo at the fame time acknowledged their balance of the former year, and if they had fuffered any grievances, then ftated them.' After this check they went home, and as they delivered their cloth, received a depofit receipt from the Gomajlah of the divilion; when their cloth was valued at the warning factory, their account could be made up; frequently the cloths were returned, being too bad. Previous to the valuation of any cloth for the year, a meeting, by order, was held at the head factory of all the weavers, that is, each divifion fent two, three, or four, as they pleafed, to reprefent them; they were generally two days adjufting the price of the cotton thread, endeavouring to obtain as large an allow
ance as they could, although they ought to have had the real and true price only; in this article they were always gainers confiderably. The price of the thread adjufted, the whole was completed, and the paper was drawn out ftating particulars; thus the value of each piece was afcertained, the weight, length, breadth, and number of threads conftituting that breadth were fet down, and the price of the cotton per Seer; to this was added the fixed price allowed for weaving each piece, and the true price of the beft piece that could be made was fettled. The weavers then endeavour to impofe: I have known one fixth, nay one fifth, of the number of threads deficient, confequently the piece muf t be inferior; for the valuation I employed brokers, at an allowance per piece, and they valued in the prefence of all who chofe to attend; fome weavers were always prefent; they made a proportionate value of A, B, C, D, &c. thus they could do their bufinefs with eafe and expeditioufly. I am clear, if the Company adopted this mode throughout their whole provifiou of inveftment, that they would procure in general better p;oods and cheaper, after allowing their agent commiffion of 5 per cent, in coft and charges, and \ per cent. for lofles, as Ibme muft happen and balances acrue, the agent fwearing he will not act otherwife than for the advantage of the Company, to the beft of his ability. I apprehend the difference between the Company advancing themfelves through factors to the weavers on a 5 per cent. commiftion, payable at the end of each year, would be a gain of 10 per cent, to them, becaufe contract includes charge, coft, and profit; providing through agents, produces a larger quantity of goods from the weavers for the proportionate amount, and the charges are monthly only, the 10 per cent. profit is therefore an extra quantity of goods. . The lame fixed fervants for the provifion of 30,000 pieces of inveftment can get up 5 lacks, the eftimate therefore is thus: 5 lacks at 3 rupees coft in a medium from the weaver, and j rupee charges for fervants, repairs, profits, tranfportation, &c., is 4 rupees a piece, making 125,000 pieces in contract: now, I imagine that 60,000 rupees would do for all
expences, confequently 4,40,000 rupees advanced, produces at 3 rupees 1,40,000 pieces, or 21,000 pieces gain from this, at 4 rupees, 84,000; deduct 5£ per cent. coramiffion on 5 lacks, 27,500, leaves 56,500, Or 10 per cent., profit. This calculation will hold through the whole inveftment, but not under a provifion of 5 lacks in fine goods. The advances fhould be made regularly, and the expences paid monthly, to fixed fervants; to others, as neceflary for the beft management, the profits on the defective goods fold by auction will return a great part of the expences at the end of each feafon: the expences might be 10,000 rupees more than the above eftimate: this is only a rough eftimate.
Originally the weigh, number of threads, length and breadth, and the price fixed for weaving, was the mode by which the whole inveftment and all the clothes were provided; it has latterly been much out of ufe, though in fome places partly endeavoured to be kept up. The management of the Aurung of which I had charge was as follows: The whole was divided into seven parts, termed grand divisions; these divisions were again divided into others; at all these divisions, about thirtyone was a Gomasiah; those at the grand divisions were superintendants of the others in their division, and had the charge of bleaching and dresfing the cloths of their divisions, and of conveying them to the grand magazine, fituated on the banks of the river, in order to their being trans. ported to the Company's warehouses when a sufficient quantity was collečted; each grand division Gomaffah had also under him a Mohirir and Naib, or clerk and affistant, to enable him to keep his accounts exact. The Gomasahs of his division had only to colleót into their Cooties, or factories, the cloths from the weavers, rough as they came from the loom, to mark thereon with charcoal the weaver's names, and to forward them to the Gomaffah of the grand or washing division, where they were va. lued, and the weaver's name and valuation recorded; the cloths were then delivered to the washermen to be bleached; there were Tugudgears, hasteners, who went from house to house to inspect the work,