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and fee it was getting forward. I effe&ed a complete regifter of the weavers under the whole Aurung, particularizing names, and the number of men and looms in each houfe; thus I could form an eftimate what fums were neceffary to be advanced to each family; thefe advances ought to be made twice in the year, the firft in or about January, and the other in or about July, the inveftment would then be got up without difficulty, io as to come home in all February following.
After the advances had been made a reafonable time, a month for inftance, and few or no cloths brought in, and they were wanted, every Gomajlah was written to, to notify to the weavers, that if they did not fupply as they ought, MohuJJils * would be placed on them; they generally took no notice of this, therefore MohuJJils were fent out. In my regifter were about 6,000 families of weavers; about 50 or 60 Mohuffils, twice in a year, being on each advance, was fufficient to anfwer the purpofe of getting in their cloths in general, becaufe MohuJJih being fent out, fpread through the Aurung in a few days, and the weavers brought in their cloths to prevent MohuJJih being placed over them, and thofe fent out were generally difmifled by the Gomaftah in a day or two. There are good and bad in all bodies of men, and among thefe weavers it was fbmetimes neceflary to fend out MohuJJih to act as he ought, that is, not permit the weaver to do other bufinefs till he had finifhed his quota of cloth, fo that feverity was in forne inftances abfolutely neceflary. When I was firft appointed to my ftation, I difapproved of the Gomaftahs, as was, and had been, the cuftom, placing Mohujjils at their pleafure, and ordered that no Gomaftah mould do it, on any pretence, in future; that they fhould addrefs me for orders, and if I faw it to be proper, I would place them. For tKis purpofe I had a feal cut large in the Perjian characters, the impreffion of which was made in ink on the' MohuJJil Chitty*, and to which was alfo my fignature and date in Eng/ijh: the particulars were in Bengalefe; weavers names, village, Cootie, pieces advanced for, pieces received, and balance; and then recited, " you are a perfon advanced to; make hafte, and deliver your goods according to your engagements." Trm was delivered to a Peon, who had his name fet down at the back of it as MohuJJil, and then entered in a book; when he arrived at the Cootie, the Gomaftah could difcharge the MohuJJil on any fufficient reafon, and was then to endorfe at the back of the Chit the number of days that he had a&ed, for which the weaver paid him 7 Puns of Cowrees per day, (4 Puns are an Anna], and the Chit was then brought back to the head factory and put on a file in cafe of reference. Several weavers indebted in large fums would abfcond, and when found out by my feirvants, and I had fent Peons to apprehend them, have applied to the Fougedarry, complaining againft Gomajlahs, Peons, &c. and I generally could not in fuch cafes effect their being brought to me, although my people, acding by my orders, had authority for what they did; I for what I did; and thus Nn
* Mohufftl fignifies arreft.
the weaver complaining, fought forry againft the factory. By this fort of bufinefs the Aurung was thrown into cottfufion, every man being willing to keep what he had in advance, and it was irnp&ffihle for me to do atherwife than complain, for the Taynadars, the force of the £0untry, were ordered to protect thefe my debtors agaiuft me, by which I lofe fame 8 or 9,000 ru.pees, as thefe difputes were uev«r fettled wholly.",
From the above information, I was enabled to confider the pretenfions of the dif» ferent (Competitors for the labour of the manufacturer, an4 to eftimate the impo<> tanoe of good admiuiflration. If the Company will not, at all events, provide advances for the manufacture, at proper times, and to certain amount, the country, as well as European traders, will fuffer. Jt is clear that if the power of arreftiug a debtor is withheld, and the power to appoint MofuJJil to fepure advances is alfb forbidden* and ai» appeal to Adaulets an.4 Fo.ugedarri.es is made neceffary in every cafe, Jthe merchant would be r.uincd; ft>
give the power to every merchant is impoffible; to give the power to certain claffes .of merchants would inftitute petty monopolies, which would become great itnonopolies. The Company, to the extent of its advances, becomes entitled to the preference, becaufe it can apply the revenue in aid to commerce, and to the well-being of the natives. It is not of importance to eftimate the proportion of the manufacture which paft advances •have covered, the irregular advances and -demands of the Company enable very different ftatements to be made in different years; it cannot be difputed that manufactures can be pufhed to any extent to which advances fhall be made, for cloth as well as for other manufactures and produce; font it is equally obvious, that the occafional market, opened by an American or Imperial fhip, cannot be the foundation on which even fugars can enrich Bengal*; nor ought the agriculture to depend on fortunate contingency -j- of droughts on the
* Sketch of late Arrangements, p. 73. it Ibid. p. 66.