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merce with heavy duties, which produced a confiderable income; but fince 1782 the commerce has been totally funk, and with it Tippoo has loft his duties. If the policy of Hyder Ally had operated on the coaft fouth of Mount Delhi, he probably would have monopolized the Pepper and Cardamums, and left the other articles open to all traders paying heavy duties. Under Tippoo's policy, his father's monopoly would be maintained at the fmalleft expence, by lowering the fakries of the managers at the ports of export, and their neceffities would oblige them to participate in the abufes which their duty directed them to check; and if they realifed the limited monopoly on behalf of Tippoo, they would monopolize all the other articles on their own account in the name of native merchants, at firft by arbitrary duties on the trade of others, balancing their official accounts, and exempting their own concerns from duty, till the whole trade would abfolutely veft in their hands, and the trade becoming unprofitable to the importer, would be abandoned; and when no part of the open trade remained, the Government monopoly would be perverted to the benefit of the officers, and probably, by fimilar connivance with natives or foreigners, fcarcely fufficient profit would be fpared to the fovereign to enable him to defray the miferable ftipends of the eftablifhment. Thefe confequences might be inftanced in the Company's former fyftem; but the prefent act, properly exercifed, cuts up the fource of this evil; the participation of profits cannot be maintained without grofs perjury, from the Directors downwards, and the penalty and conviction is fimplified; there is, however, only one plain and honeft way of managing this department, which will apply to all others: give a falary adequate to the truft to the officers neceflarily eftablifhed; fubject all articles of import or export to equal privilege or to equal duty in all the Britijb ports of India; the duty on goods imported by the Company mould be brought to account with vouchers, as well as private adventure; an Infpector General of imports and exports mould annually make up the general account of all the fettlements to be fent home by the Governor General. The Company's commerce would not be more burthened than it is at prefent, but the accounts would check fraud, and regifter the achial ftate of the commerce. But to fuppofe that a country can profper under monopoly of all its produce, or that officers will give up the prime of life without the hopes of earning a reafonable income for their latter days, cannot enter into the contemplation of Commiffioners, or of Parliament, confequently the whole of the commercial eftablifhments muft be carefully, but liberally confidered, and connected with the general fyftem: it will be difficult for theorifts to fubftitute powers more adequate to this purpofe than thofe which have obtained parliamentary fanction, if exercifed with intelligence and probity.

CHAP. XIV.

On the Benefit of Parliamentary Control

AFTER Lord CBve had ftated the neceffity of control to preferve the principles of Government in India, endangered by licentioufnefs, extortion, venality, and by whatever eludes, though it may not totally fubvert, the laws *, the Company thought it neceflary to adopt very arbitrary rules, which they promulgated in general orders -}" to narrow the appeal of covenanted fervants to juftice, denouncing immediate difmiffion from their fervice to every fervant who mould go to Europe to inftitute a fuit, or feek redrefs for grievances: and had the covenanted fervants, according to thefe orders, remitted their complaints, perhaps through the very perfon complained of, no rule or period was limited for their expe&ation of the determination of the Directors. In 1785 the Directors

* Vide page 310. t In 1771 and 1778.

not only informed the governments in India that if ** copies of any papers, correfpondance or records, fhall be difcovered with any perfons not warranted to have them, at home or abroad, we fhall take meafures to difcover by what means the communications have been made, and difmifs from our fervice thofe who (hall have made fuch communication," but alfb denounced •* the feveref t tokens of difpleafore to thofe who difobeyed their order to difcontinue unreferved correfpondance with private perfons on public afiairs."

Parliamentary invefKgadon demonfirated that the act of 1/84 could not be inveloped and executed in myftery; the records of the Company were opened to committees, and their contents made the fubjecl of parliamentary debate. Mr. Macpbcrfons recorded opinion was quoted * by Mr. Francis. "I fhould be particularly happy to fee the Committee in a capacity to execute thefe important duties, independant of that general agency and improper

* Padiamentary Debates, T<J. 39, p. 108. pp

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