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Determination published in the order of the zoth of May, 1789 -- — — 414

The immediate confequence arifing from the order of a ten-years fettlement in Babar, and the new definition of perfons — — — 421

Sir John Shore admits its defects and his error 422

Advifes to maintain the aflcflinent and to temporize 423

Mr. Roufe maintained the errors in England after they had been exploded \r\Bengal — — 424

Opinion of the iettlement, publifhed in Bengal, and addreffed to the Board of Revenue — — 425

The Revenue Department appear deficient in their knowledge of native MofuJJil management — 430

Innovation of the Bahar fettlement, introduced by extending the principle of the fubfequent Bengal fettlement to Bahar.—Difficulty in fettling the Sair, or internal duties 431

Having changed the principle of ihe Iettlement of 1789, it became neceffary to fuit the regulations of

1787 to the reformed fyftem of 1791 432

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CHAP. IX.

Progress of Courts of Judicature in Britifli India.

Original charter of Judicature — Mayor's Court in 1757—The privileges of the Company extended to plunder and booty — — — 433 Cauies of univerfal relaxation of fyftem — — 434 The Company fland forth Devjans and appeals to Parliament — 438

Confequences of introducing Britijh judicature — 439 The Supreme Government fuccefsfully checks the

progrefs of the Supreme Court — — 440 And Parliament, in 1781, defines its powers — 441 Difficulty of defining the extent of the Deivannee Adauht and of the Fougedarry Courts 442

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Oppreffion from concurrent juiifdictions 443

In 1787 concurrence eff»-ct.uiiy corrected by verting the collections and the civil and criminal judicature

in the Collectors. 444

The collifion of thcfe dmiei uith native jurifdictions

fuggeft the neceffity of Courts of Circuit — 445 Number of caufes undecided in December 1791 — 447

A farther reformation expected in 1793 448

The practice of the Supreme Court, under no precife

rule of qualification, rcfufcd to a Barriftcr lent with

a licence from the Directors—Difficulty in felecting

among the authorities for Mahometan law — 450

Mr. Laiv's character of the Cauzcct in 1789 — and in

the Parliamentary Reports, 1772 —— 453

Abufe both of Mahometan and Briti/h Courts to be avoided 454

CHAP. X.

Alienations of Revenue connefted with political Error.

The expediency of native forms in the Mofujfil ZcminJary, or ordinary eftablifhment of internal government of the provinces, having been illuflrated in the firft part, this fubject is purfued in the SuJdcr, or extraordinary civil and military eftablifliment incident to Britijh government—Caufes of its intricacy 456

The means by which it may be examined — 457

The difference of llatement by the Directors and by the Board of Control in 1793 459

The fame fources of inaccuracy in 1772 at prefent exifls —461

The c\'jil audit defective —— 462

The corn rent, or a divifion of crops, now fubject to no uniform rule 463

Alienations could not have arifcn if the Canongoe office had been maintained —— 463 Page

Definition of the Canongoe office in 1773 ••• -,, 464

Its definition in the Aycen Atterry —• 465

Its definition in 1789 _— 466

The difference of the Mocurrery plan and the eld native fyftem '••" 467

The fituation of the Reyut or tenantry under the revenue fyftem of Sir John Short — — 468

Charges of the new fyftem — 472

Mr. Law's apology for not following Mr. Francis's

plan of fettlement in every refpeft 474

A great prevalence of opinion in favour of Sir John

Shore's financial opinions ibid.

And of a fubjidiarj inftead of z farming fyftern df the

landed territory —•—— — 475

A general avowal of ignorance of any certain amount

or rule of afleflrneiit —— • 476

Errors which tend to perpetuate defalcations — 478 Illuflrated by tracing the fyftetns of Government im

poft, Sair, fince the acceffion to the Dewannee — 480 In 1772 and 1773 — — — 481

In 1776 . 484

In 1780 • 486

In 1781 488

In 1785 492

The ftatement of Mr. Dundas and Mr. Riiffell in 1793

as to cuftoms confidered 49^

The right of the public proved to be abforbed by the Company's fyftems 496

CHAP. XI.

Circumflances of Britifh India require conftant Superintendance.

To preferve the country from famine 498

Policy of former periods 500

New policy of Sir John Shored fyftem —— 501

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Situation of the natives in the Circan, \ 792-3, ftated

by Dr. Anaerfan 503

Humane intention of Lord Caraivallis and of the Madras Government —— 505

Obfervations on the requifites to avert the calamities

which exift from defect of fyftem 511

CHAP. XII.

On the political necejjity of a general Plan for Britifh
India.

Its political extent 516

The beft bafis of a permanent fyftem 517

Example of the Company's management of its Ally, .

the Nabob of Arcot J \ 8

Ruinous in every period 519

Circumftances of the country when Hydcr had invaded

it in 1781 521

Errors of judgement of temporary effeft diftinguifhed

from errors of permanent fyftem • 525

Means by which juftice has been eluded, and the public opinion mill J ——— 527

Refponfibility of Minifters, and the control of Parliament, under the aft of 1793, adequate to the eftablifhment of good fyftem 52!

CHAP. XIII.

On the commercial Necejjity of a general Plan for
Britilh India.

Importance of collecting local information — 529
The degree and influence of the fluctuation of money

in Bengal in 1790-91 531

Remedy fuggefted 531

I, Salt monopoly under the Mogul government — 550

Salt duty referved by Meer Jaffier 551

Mr. Grant's account of the falt lands — — 552

The Crown's allowances to the Molungea, or boilers,

in fpecie, and lands free of taxes 553

Properly refumed by the Erittjh Government — 554

State of the confumption and price of falt in Bengal

at different period.-;, how fupplied — — 555

Fcroo/h Ncmuck grofs produce of its f;ile 556

Strinjammy charge; of manufacture and fales 557

Net profit 558

Meiuha." Teh/il Soulabdary fait collection in 1763

under its proper heads 559

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