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abdominal air-bladder alisphenoid animal appendages arises artery articular articulated attached backward Batrachia body bones bony brain branch branchial branchial arches called canal capsule cartilage cartilaginous caudal cavity centrum cerebellum cervical Chelonia coalesced condyle coracoid cranial cranium Crocodile Crocodilia dentine developed distinct dorsal exoccipitals expanded extends external fibres filaments fins fore forward Frog frontal ganglion gills haemal arch haemal spine homology inner inserted Lepidosiren ligament limbs longitudinal lower jaw mastoid maxillary median membrane modifications muscles muscular myelon nasal nerve neural arch neural spine notochord occipital olfactory optic lobes orbitosphenoids organ Osseous Fishes ossification outer pair palatine parietal pectoral pectoral fins pedicle Plagiostomes plates pleurapophyses posterior premaxillary prosencephalon pterygoid rays Reptiles ribs scapula scutes segment Sharks side skeleton skull slender species spinal Sturgeon surface symphysis tail teeth terminal tooth transverse trunk tympanic upper vascular veins ventral ventricle vertebra vertebral column vertical vomer
xxxii 페이지 - ... has to maintain against the surrounding agencies that are ever tending to dissolve the vital bond and subjugate the living matter to the ordinary chemical and physical forces.
394 페이지 - A true idea of the structure of a poisonfang will be formed by supposing the crown of a simple tooth, as that of a boa, to be pressed flat, and its edges to be then bent towards each other, and soldered together so as to form a hollow cylinder open at both ends. The flattening of the fang, and its inflection around the poison-duct...
x 페이지 - Analogue, a part or organ in one animal which has the same function as another part or organ in a different animal.
616 페이지 - The whole time spent in this part of the operation may be about twenty minutes. She now scrapes the loose sand back over the eggs, and so levels and smooths the surface, that few persons on seeing the spot...
232 페이지 - The sternomastoideus, fig. 150, 22, arises from the middle of the inner surface of the entosternum, and is inserted into the mastoid. The diaphragmaticus, figs. 148, 149, 150, 42, 42, arises by three sheets from the bodies of the fifth and fourth dorsals, and from the rib of the third dorsal ; the two posterior unite to apply themselves and adhere to the mesial surface of the lung ; the third sweeps over to the outer surface, 42, fig. 150, and 42, fig. 151, and is reflected from its lower border...
598 페이지 - ... for her ova, a portion of which she deposits, and again turning upon her side she covers it up by the renewed action of the tail ; thus alternately digging, depositing, and covering the ova, until the process is completed by the laying of the whole mass, an operation which generally occupies three or four days.
259 페이지 - It is true that the serpent has no limbs, yet it can outclimb the monkey, outswim the fish, outleap the jerboa, and, suddenly loosing the close coils of its crouching spiral, it can spring into the air and seize the bird upon the wing: all these creatures have been observed to fall its prey.
403 페이지 - In a tooth thus formed for cutting along its concave edge, each movement of the jaw combined the power of the knife and saw : whilst the apex, in making the first incision, acted like the two-edged point of a sabre. The backward curvature of the full-grown teeth enabled them to retain, like barbs, the prey which they had penetrated. In these adaptations we see contrivances which human ingenuity has also adopted in the preparation of various instruments of art.'1...
394 페이지 - ... and lobes of the gland are compressed and emptied of their secretion. This is then conveyed by the duct to the basal aperture of the poison-canal of the fang. We may suppose, that as the analogous lachrymal and salivary glands in other animals are most active during particular emotions, so the rage which stimulates the venom-snake to use its deadly weapon must be accompanied with an increased secretion and great distension of the poison-glands ; and as the action of the compressing muscles is...
357 페이지 - Owen, the highest authority on this subject, as 'a hard body attached to the mouth or commencement of the alimentary canal, partially exposed when developed. Calcified teeth are peculiar to the vertebrates, and may be defined as bodies primarily, if not permanently, distinct from the skeleton, consisting of a cellular and tubular basis of animal matter containing earthy particles, a fluid, and a vascular pulp.