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His opinions and habits.

of Andejan,1 appointed Khoda-berdi Taimur-Tash his guardian and regent, and sent him off to his government. His person. Omer-Sheikh Mirza was of low stature, bad a short bushy beard, brownish hair, and was very corpulent. He used to wear his tunic extremely tight; insomuch, that as he was wont to contract his belly while he tied the strings, when he let himself out again the strings often burst. He was not curious in either his food or dress. He tied his turban in the fashion called Dest&r-p&h (or plaited turban). At that time all turbans were worn in the char-pSch (or four-plait) style. He wore his without folds, and allowed the end to hang down. During the heats, when out of the Divan, he generally wore the Moghul cap.

'As for his opinions and habits, he was of the sect of Hanifah, and strict in his belief. He never neglected the five regular and stated prayers,2 and during his whole life he rigidly performed the Kaza,3 (or retributory prayers and fasts.) He devoted much of his time to reading the Koran. He was extremely attached to Khwajeh Obeidullah, whose disciple he was, and whose society he greatly affected. The reverend Khwajeh, on his part, used to call him his son. He read elegantly: his general reading was the Khamsahs,4 the Mesnevis,5 and books of history, and he was in particular fond of reading the Shahnameh.6 Though he had a turn for poetry, he did not cultivate it. He was so strictly just, that when the caravan from Khita7 had once reached the hill-country to the east of Andejan, and the snow fell so deep as to bury it, so that of the whole only two persons escaped; he no sooner received information of the occurrence, than he dispatched overseers to collect and take charge of all the property and effects of the people of the caravan; and, wherever the heirs were not at hand, though himself in great want, his resources being exhausted, he placed the property under sequestration, and preserved it untouched; till, in the course of one or two years, the heirs, coming from Khorasan and Samarkand, in consequence of the intimation which they received, he delivered back the goods safe and uninjured into their hands.8 His generosity was large, and so was his whole soul; he was of an excellent temper, affable, eloquent and sweet in his conversation, yet brave withal, and manly. On two

1 Andejan, it will be recollected, was the capital of Ferghana, and the name is often given to all that country.

2 It is very well known that the Musulmans must, by their law, pray five times a-day regularly; at dawn, at noon, between noon and sunset, at sunset, and about an hour and a half after sunset.

3 These are prayers and fasts performed, if the expression may be allowed, by pious Musulmans, to make up for any omissions at the stated times. If sick, if on a journey, or in war, they are not bound to fast at the time, but should do so afterwards.

4 Several Persian poets wrote Khamsahs, or poems, on five different given subjects. The most celebrated is Nezami.

5 The most celebrated of these Mesnevis is the mystical poem of Moulavi Jilaleddin Muhammed. The Sufis consider it as equal to the Koran.

s The Shahndmeh, or Book of Kings, is the famous poem of the great Persian poet Ferdausi, and contains the romantic history of ancient Persia.

7 North China, but often applied to the whole country from China to Terfan, and now even west to the Ala-tagh Mountains.

• This anecdote is erroneously related of Baber himself by Ferishta and others.—See Dow's Hist, of Hindostan, vol. II. p. 218.

occasions he advanced in front of the troops, and exhibited distinguished prowess; once, at the gates of Akhsi, and once at the gates of Shahrokhia. He was a middling shot with the bow; he had uncommon force in his fists, and never hit a man whom he did not knock down. From his excessive ambition for conquest, he often exchanged peace for war, and friendship for hostility. In the earlier part of his life he was greatly addicted to drinking buzeh and talar.1 Latterly, once or twice in the week, he indulged in a drinking party. He was a pleasant companion, and in the course of conversation use 1 often to cite, with great felicity, appropriate verses from the poets. In his latter days he was much addicted to the use of Maajun,2 while under the influence of which, he was subject to a feverish irritability. He was a humane man. He played a great deal at backgammon, and sometimes at games3 of chance with the dice.

He fought three great battles; the first with Yunis Khan, to the north of Andejan, His wars. on the banks of the Seihun, at a place (•ailed Tika-Sakaratku,4 which derives its name from this circumstance, that the river, in flowing past the skirt of a hill, becomes so much contracted in breadth, that it is said that, on one occasion, a mountain-goat leaped from the one bank to the other. Here he was defeated, and fell into the hands of Yunis Khan, who treated him with great generosity, and sent him back to his own country. This is termed the battle of Tika-Sakaratku, because it was fought at that spot; and it is still used as an era in that country. Another battle he fought in Turkestan, on the banks of the river Aras,5 with the Uzbeks, who, having plundered the territory of Samarkand, were on their return back. The Aras being frozen over, he passed it on the ice, gave them a severe defeat, and recovered the prisoners and effects which they had carried off, all of which he restored to their families and owners, retaining nothing to himself. The third battle was fought with Sultan Ahmed Mirza, between Shahrokhia and Uratippa, at the place named Khawas,6 where he was defeated.

His father gave him the country of Ferghana. He held for a short period Tashkend His domiand Seiram,7 which his eldest brother Sultan Ahmed Mirza had given him. He was also, at one time, in possession of Shahrokhia, which he gained by a stratagem. Finally, however, he lost both Tashkend and Shahrokhia, and only retained Ferghana, Khojend, and Uratippa, the original name of which is Usrushta, and which is also called Austerush. Many do not reckon Khojend to be included in Ferghana. When Sultan Ahmed Mirza went to Tashkend against the Moghuls, whom he engaged, but

1 Buzeh is a sort of intoxicating liquor somewhat resembling beer, made from Millet. Talar I do not know, but understand it to be a preparation from the poppy. There is, however, nothing about buzeh or talar in the Persian, which only specifies shertib, wine or strong drink:

3 Any medical mixture is called a maajun; but in common speech the term is chiefly applied to intoxicating comfits, and especially those prepared with bang.

3 These to Musulmans are unlawful. * The he-goat's leap.

5 Could it be by confounding it with this river that some ancient authors called the Chirr or Jaxartes the Araxes? The Aras seems to be one of the rivers flowing into the Sirr along which the richer part of Turkestan lies.

6 Khawas was in the Uratippa territory. 7 Seiram lies on the Sirr, considerably below Tashkend.


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was defeated on the banks of the river Chirr,1 Haliz Beg Duladai, who was in Uratippa, delivered it up to Omer-Sheikh Mirza, from which period it continued in his possession.

He had three sons and five daughters. Of the sons I, Zehireddin Muhammed Baber, was the eldest. My mother was Kutlak-Nigar-Khanum. The second son was Jehangir Mirza, who was two years younger than myself. His mother was sprung of one of the chiefs of the race of the Moghul Tumans, and was named Fatima Sultan. The third was Nasir Mirza, whose mother was of the country of Andejan, and a concubine, by name Umeid. He was four years younger than I. Of all the daughters, the eldest was Khan-Zadeh Begum, who was born of the same mother as myself, and was five years older than I. The second time that I took Samarkand, although my army was defeated at Sire-pul, I threw myself into the town, and sustained a siege of five months; when, no succour or assistance coming from any of the neighbouring kings or Begs, in despair, I abandoned the place. During the confusion that ensued, Khan-Zadeh Begum fell into the hands of Muhammed Sheibani Khan, and had by him a son named Khurram Shah, a fine young man, who had the country of Balkh assigned to him; but, a year or two after his father's death, he was received into the mercy of God.2 When Shah Ismael defeated the Uzbeks at Merv, Khan-Zadeh Begum was in that town; out of regard for me, he paid her every attention, and caused her to be conducted in the most honourable manner to join me at Kundez.— We had been separated for ten years, when I and Muhammedi Gokultash went out to meet her; the Begum and her attendants did not know us, not even after I had spoken; but in a short while they recognized me. The second daughter was Meherbanu Begum, who was born of the same mother as Nasir Mirza, and was two years older than I. The third daughter was Sheherbanu Begum, who was likewise born of the same mother with Nasir Mirza, and was eight years younger than I. The fourth daughter was Yadgar Sultan Begum, whose mother, Agha Sultan, was a concubine. The youngest daughter was Rokhia Sultan Begum, whose mother, Sultan Makhdum Begum, went by the name of Karaguz Begum, (the black-eyed princess.) These two last were born after the Mirza's death. Yadgar Sultan Begum was brought up by my grandmother Isan, Doulet Begum. When Muhammed Sheibani Khan took Andejan and Akhsi, Yadgar Sultan Begum fell into the hands of Abdallatif Sultan, the son of Khamzeh Sultan. When I defeated Khamzeh Sultan and the other Sultans in Khutlan, and took Hissar, Yadgar Sultan Begum came and joined me. During those same troubles, Rokhiah Sultan Begum had fallen into the hands of Jani Beg Sultan, by whom she had one or two sons, who died young. I have just received information that she has gone to the mercy of God.

The principal wife of Omer-Sheikh Mirza was Kutlak-Nigar-Khanum, who was the second daughter of Yunis Khan, and the elder sister of Sultan Mahmud Khan and

1 The Chirr, Sirr, or river of Khojend, the ancient Jaxartes. It is also called the river of Chach or Shaah.

3 A well-educated Musulman is very unwilling to say directly that a man died. He uses some circumlocutory expression, which gives the fact by inference.

Sultan Ahmed Khan by the same mother. Yunis Khan was of the race of Chaghatai Descent Khan, the second son of Chengis Khan, and his genealogy runs thus: Yunis Khan, Khan" ,!* the son of Wais Khan, the son of Shir Ali Oghlan, the son of Muhammed Khan, the son of Khazer Khwajch Khan, the son of Tughluk Taimur Khan, the son of Aishbugha Khan, the son of Dawa Khan, the son of Burak Khan, the son of Isan-bugha, the son of Mutukan, the son of Chaghat&i Khan, the son of Chengis Khan.

Since the opportunity thus presents itself, I shall now briefly state a few particulars History of regarding the history of the Khans. Yunis Khan and Isan-bugha Khan,1 were the tjleJP"18 sons of Wais Khan. The mother of Yunis Khan was of Turkestan, and was either Moghuls. the daughter or grand-daughter of Sheikh Nur-ed-din Beg, who was one of the Amirs of Kipchak, and had been brought forward by Taimur Beg. On the death of Wais Khan, the Ulus (or Horde) of the Moghuls divided into two parties, one of which adhered to Yunis Khan, while the majority sided with Isan-bugha Khan. This Yunis occasioned a separation of the tribe. Before this time the elder sister of Yunis Khan" had been engaged by Ulugh Beg Mirza to be married to his son Abdal-Aziz Mirza. This connexion induced Airzin, who was a Beg of the Tuman * of Narin, and Mirak Turkman, who was a Beg of the Tuman of Khiras, to carry Yunis Khan, attended by ]caves Mrthree or four thousand families3 of the tribe of Moghuls, to Ulugh Beg Mirza; in the 6huli»--inexpectation that, with the assistance which he could afford them, they might reduce the whole of the Moghul tribe under the authority of the Khan. The Mirza did not give them a favourable reception, but with great unkindness,4 imprisoned some, and dispersed the rest in all directions over the face of the country; so that " the Dispersion of Airzin" has become an era among the Moghuls. The Khan he sent into Irak. Yunis Khan accordingly remained in Tabriz for upwards of a year, at the time when Jehan-Shah Barani Kara-koiluk5 (of the black sheep) was sovereign of Tabriz. Thence he proceeded to Shiraz, where Shahrokh Mirza's second son, Ibrahim Sultan Mirza, then reigned. Five or six months after his arrival, this prince died, and was succeeded by his Ron Abdulla Mirza. The Khan engaged in the service of Abdulla Mirza, and remained in Shiraz and that country for seventeen or eighteen years. When the disturbances between Ulugh Beg Mirza and his sons broke out, Isan-bugha Khan, seizing the opportunity, came and plundered the country of Ferghana, as far as Kend-badam, took Andejan, and made all the inhabitants prisoners. Sultan Abusaid had no sooner mounted the throne, than he collected an army, advanced beyond Yangi,6 and gave Isan-bugha Khan a severe defeat, at a town in Moghulistan,

1 Also called Aisbugha Khan

- These Tumans are the septs or divisions of the larger tribes or associations.

"Literally houses; the Tartars reckon the numbers of the families in their tribes by households, tents, and sometimes by kettles.

1 This happened in the lifetime of Shahrokh Mirza, Ulugh Beg's father, who had given the government of Samarkand to his son.

'.. The Kara-koiliik or Kara-koinlu Turkomans, that is, the Turkomans of the black sheep, so called from their banner, are celebrated in the history of Persia and of Baghdad.

"Yangi, or Yengi-kent, that is Areui 7Wn, the Alkarieh-al-jadideh of the Arabian geographers, better





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A. D. 1505.


A. D. 1503.

named Ashpera. In order still more effectually to secure himself from such inroads, he was induced by his connexion with Yunis Khan, to invite him back from Irak and Khorasan, Yunis Khan's elder sister having been married to Abdalaziz Mirza. On the Khan's arrival he made a great feast, received him in the most friendly manner, acknowledged him as Khan of the tribe of Moghuls, and sent him into their country to assert his rights. At that time it happened that all the Begs of the Tuman of Sagharichi had come to Moghulistan, highly displeased with Isan-bugha Khan. Yunis Khan went among them. The greatest of the Begs of the Sagharichi, was then Shir Haji Beg, whose daughter, Ais-doulet Begum, Yunis Khan married. Shir Haji Beg having seated the Khan and Ais-doulet Begum on a white felt,1 according to the Tureh, or ancient Institutions of the Moghuls, they proclaimed him Khan.

The Khan had three daughters by Ais-doulet Begum, of whom the eldest was Meher-nigar Khanum, whom Sultan Abusaid Mirza took for his eldest son Sultan Ahmed Mirza. By the Mirza she had neither son nor daughter. In the succeeding wars she fell into the hands of Sheibani Khan; but after I went to Kabul, she accompanied Shah Begum from Samarkand to Khorasan, and thence to Kabul. When Sheibani Khan invested Nasir Mirza in Kandahar, I proceeded to Lamghan, and Khan Mirza, Shah Begum, and Meher-Nigar Khanum, set out for Badakhshan. Mobarek-shah having invited Khan Mirza to the fortress of Zafer, they were met on the road, attacked and plundered by one of Abu-beker Kashghari's marauding parties, and Shah Begum and Meher-Nigar Khanum, with their whole family and attendants, were taken prisoners; and, in the prisons of that wicked miscreant, they departed from this perishable world.

The second daughter, Kutluk Nigar Khanum, was my mother, and accompanied me in most of my wars and expeditions. Five or six months after the taking of Kabul she departed to God's mercy, in the year 911.

The third daughter was Khub Nigar Khanum, who was married to Muhammed Hussain Korkan Doghlet.a He had by her one daughter and one son. The daughter married Abeid Khan, and when I took Bokhara and Samarkand, was residing there, and being unable to effect her escape, staid behind: when her paternal uncle Syed Muhammed Mirza came to me in Samarkand as ambassador from Sultan Said Khan,3 she accompanied him back, and was married to Sultan Said Khan. She had a son, Haider Mirza, who, after his father was slain by the Uzbeks, entered my service and re

known as Otrar, is a city of Turkestan low down on the river Sirr. Ashpera, which is mentioned in the histories of Tamerlane, lies N.E. from it, on a small river which flows towards the Sirr.

1 Petis de la Croix, in his history of Genghiscan, describing the general diet held by that prince at Tonkat, says, "They erected a magnificent throne for Genghiscan, and forgot not to place on an eminence the black felt-carpet on which this prince was seated when he was proclaimed Grand Can. -And this emblem of the poor estate of the Mogols at that time was always held in great veneration by them so long as their Empire lasted."—P. 358. Eng. Translation. See also Hist, de Timur-Bec, vol. I. p. 78.

8 Muhammed Hussain Korkan Doghlet held the government of Uratippa under Sultan Mahmttd Khan.

3 Sultan Said Khan was Prince of Kashghar.

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