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Iiog»r. Lohuger1 is another Tuman, the largest town of which is Cherkh. Moulana Yakub,2

on whom be mercy, was of Cherkh; the Mulla-zadeh Mulla Osman is also from Cherkh. Sejawend3 is also one of the towns of Lohuger, whence are Khwajeh Ahmed and Khwajeh Yunis. Cherkh has numerous gardens, but there are none in any of the other villages of Lohuger. The men are AugMn-Shal, a term well known in Kabul; it is probable, that the phrase Afghun-Shaar (or Afghanlikc) has been converted into Aughdn-Shul. (ihazni. There is also the country of Ghazni,4 which is often denominated a Tuman. Ghazni

was the capital of Subaktegin, of Sultan Mahmud, and of the dynasty sprung from them. Many call it Ghaznein. This was also the capital of Shehab-ed-din Ghuri, who, in the Tabkut-e-Ndseri, and many of the histories of Hind, is called Moezzeddin. It is situated in the third climate. It is also named Zabul, and it is to this country that the term Zabulistan relates; many include Kandahar in Zabulistan. It lies to the west of Kabul,5 at the distance of fourteen farsangs.6 A person setting out from Ghazni at early dawn, may reach Kabul between noonday and afternoon prayers. Adinapiir is only thirteen farsangs" distant; but, from the badness of the road, it is never travelled in one day. Ghazni is a country of small extent. Its river8 may be large enough to drive four or five mills. The city of Ghazni, and four or or five other districts, are supplied from this river, while as mauy more are fertilized by subterraneous9 water-courses. The grapes of Ghazni are superior to those of Kabul, and its melons more abundant. Its apples too are excellent, and are carried into Hindustan. Cultivation is carried on with great difficulty and labour, and whatever ground is cultivated is obliged to have a new dressing of mould every year; but the produce of the crops exceeds that of Kabul. The madder is chiefly cultivated here, and is carried over all Hindustan. It is the most profitable crop in this district. The inhabitants of the open country are Hnzaras and Afghans. Ghazni is a cheap place compared with Kabul, The inhabitants are Moslems of the sect of II an if ah, and orthodox in their faith. Many of them fast for three months10 in the year, and their wives and children live in a correct and sequestered manner. Mulla Abdul Rahman was one of the eminent men of Ghazni. He was a man of learning, and always taught a class. He was a holy, pious, and virtuous person. He took his departure from this world the same year with Nasir Mirza. The tomb of Sultan Mahmud is in one of the suburbs of Ghazni, which, from that circumstance, is termed Rozeh.u The best grapes in Ghazni are from Rozeh. The tombs of his descendants, Sulten Masaud and Sultan Ibrahim, are in Ghazni. There are many holy tombs at that city. In the year

1 Lohgar, or Loger, is situated S.E. from Kabul about seventeen miles.

I Now called Cherkh Beraki. * Sejawan lies between Cherkh and Speiga.

4 This country is famous in history as the seat of government of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznevi, and of the Ghaznevi dynasty.

5 Ghazni is rather south than west of Kabul.

6 Fifty-six miles. 7 Fifty-two miles.

8 The river of Ghazni runs north to Lohger, and joins the Kabul river. Kariz.

10 Some very pious Musulmans fast all the months of Hejeb, Shaban, and Ramzan. The Mohammedan fasts only by day. The night is often given to feasting.

II The garden. The tombs of the more eminent Musulmans are generally in gardens, and surrounded by elegant parterres.

in which I took Kabul, after ravaging Kohat, the plain of Banu, and Afghanistan with great slaughter, I proceeded by Duki, and having come on to Ghazni, along the banks of Ab-istadeh,1 I was told, that in one of the villages of Ghazni, there was a mausoleum, in which the tomb moved itself whenever the benediction on the Prophet was pronounced over it. I went and viewed it, and there certainly seemed to be a motion of the tomb. In the end, however, I discovered that the whole was an imposture, practised by the attendants of the mausoleum. They had erected over the tomb a kind of scaffolding; contrived that it could be set in motion when any of them stood upon it, so that a looker-on imagined that it was the tomb that had moved; just as to a person sailing in a boat, it is the bank which appears to be in motion. I directed the persons who attended the tomb to come down from the scaffolding; after which, let them pronounce as many benedictions as they would, no motion whatever took place. I ordered the scaffolding to be removed, and a dome to be erected over the tomb, and strictly enjoined the servants of the tomb not to dare to repeat this imposture.

Ghazni is but a poor, mean place, and I have always wondered how its princes, who possessed also Hindustan and Khorasan, could have chosen such a wretched country for the seat of their government, in preference to Khorasan. In the time of the Sultan, there were three or four mounds for collecting water.2 One of these, which is of great dimensions, was formed by the Sultan of Ghazni, on the river of Ghazni, about three farsangs up the river, on the north-west of the town. The height of this mound is about forty or fifty gez,3 and its length may be about three hundred gez.4 The water is here collected, and drawn off according as it is wanted for cultivation. Alaeddin Jehansoz* Ghuri, when he subdued this country, broke down the mound, burned and destroyed many of the tombs of the royal family of the Sultan, ruined and burned the city of Ghazni, and plundered and massacred the inhabitants. In short, there was no act of desolation and destruction from which he refrained. Ever since that time, the mound had remained in a state of ruin. In the year6 in which I conquered Hindustan, I sent by Kbwajch Kilan a sum of money for the purpose of rebuilding it, and I entertain hopes that, by the mercy of God, this mound may once more be repaired. Another mound is that of Sakhen, which lies to the east of Ghazni at the distance of three or four farsangs7 from that city. This also has long been in a state of ruin, and is not reparable. Another mound is that of Sirdeh," which is in good repair. Some books mention, that in Ghazni there is a fountain, into which, if any filth or ordure be thrown, immediately there rises a tempest and

1 Ab-istadeh, a lake south from Ghazni.

2 In the East, where the success of cultivation depends chiefly on the supply of water, it is usual to dam up the bottoms of narrow valleys, or of low meadows, so as to collect all the water into one body, whence it is afterwards distributed for the supply of the country below. These artificial lakes in India are sometimes several miles in circumference, and are perhaps the most useful works in the country.

3 Eighty, or a hundred feet. * Six hundred feet.

'- Jehansoz, the burner or desolator of the world. He is said to have got this name from his horrible massacre at Ghazni. « A.H. 932.—A.D. 1585. » Twelve or sixteen miles

8 Sirdeh lies S.E. from Ghazni.'

hurricane, with snow and rain. I have seen in another history, that, when the Rai of Hind besieged Subaktegin in Ghazni, Subaktegin ordered dead flesh and other impurities-to be thrown into this fountain, when there instantly arose a tempest and hurricane, with rain and snow, and by this device he drove away the enemy.1 I made strict inquiry in Ghazni for this well, but nobody could give me the slightest information about it. In these countries, Ghazni and Khwarizm are celebrated for their cold, in the same manner as Sultaniah and Tabriz are in the Iraks and Azerbaijan.

Zurmet. Another Tuman is that of Zurmet,2 which lies on the south of Kabul, and south

cast of Ghazni. It is distant twelve or thirteen farsangs from Kabul, and seven or eight from Ghazni.'1 It contains seven or eight districts or villages, and the residence of the Daragha is at Gerdez. In the walled town of Gerdez, the greater part of the houses are three or four stories in height. Gerdez is of considerable strength; and when the inhabitants were in a state of hostility to Nasir Mirza, occasioned the Mirza no small trouble. The inhabitants of Zurmet are Avghan-shdl (Afghans in their manners). They apply to agriculture, and the raising of corn, but not to orchards or gardening. On the south of this Tuman, there is a mountain which is termed the Hill of Turkestan;4 on the skirts of which, on a rising ground, is a fountain, near which is the tomb of Sheikh Muhammed Muselman.

Fermul. Another Tuman is that of Formal,' which is of small extent, and little importance;

but its apples are tolerable, and they are carried even to Multan and Hindustan. The Sheikh-zadehs (descendants of Sheikhs), who were treated with such distinguished favour in Hindustan during the time of the Afghans, were all of Fermul, and descended of Sheikh Muhammud Muselman.

Bangash. Bangash 6 is another Tuman. It is entirely surrounded by hills inhabited by Af

ghan robbers, such as the Khugiani, the Khirilchi, the Buri, and the Linder, who, lying out of the way, do not willingly pay taxes. Being occupied by many affairs of superior importance, such as the conquest of Kandahar, Balkh, Badakhshan, and Hindustan, I never found leisure to apply myself to the settlement of Bangash. But if Almighty God prosper my wishes, my first moments of leisure shall be devoted to the settlement of that district, and of its plundering neighbours.

Alalu«ai. One of the Baluks of Kabul is Alah-sai,7 which lies two or three farsangs to the east of Nijrow, from which you advance in a straight level direction towards Alah-sai. On reaching a place named Korah, you proceed by a small kotal, or hill-pass, towards Alah-sai. In this quarter, the space between the warm climate (Germsil) and the cold (Serdsil) is merely the extent of this hill-pass of Korah. By this hill-pass, at the beginning of the spring, the birds take their flight from the one to the other. The

1 Baber has here reversed the situation of Subaktegin and the Hindu Raja. Subaktegin besieged the Raja, and, after being repelled, was informed in a vision of the quality of the well.—Leyden. * Zurmet lies east of Ghazni, on the sources of the Khuram river.

3 That is 48 or .'>2 miles from Kabul, and 28 or 32 miles from Ghazni.

4 Leyden reads Barkestan.

'' Fermul lies S.E. from Ghazni, and, as has been already remarked, is probably Urghun.

6 Bangash occupies the lower grounds from Gerdez to Kohat.

7 Alah-sai, now called Tugow. Baber reckons it in the Germsil. The great difference of climate, however, takes place farther east, between Alisheng and Uzbin.

people of Pachghan, a place dependent on Nijrow, catch a great number of birds in their passage. In the ascent of the pass, they build from distance to distance cots of stone, in which the fowlers sit and conceal themselves. They fasten one side of a net strongly, at the distance of five or six gez ;' one side of it is fixed down to the ground by stones, the other end, as far as half its length, three or four gez,2 they fix to a stick, one end of which is held by the fowler, who is concealed, and sits on the watch, looking through lioles left in the cot for the purpose, and waiting for the approach of the game from below. As soon as the birds come close up, he elevates one end of the net, and they rush into it by their own impulse. By this device, they take a great quantity of fowl; they boast, that sometimes they take such a number, that they have not time to kill them in the mode commanded by the law.3 In this country, the pomegranates of Alah-sai are famous: for, although they are not very excellent, yet there are none better in the country. They carry them all to Hindustan. Its grapes too are pretty good. The wines of Alah-sai are not stronger, but are pleasanter than those of Nijrow.

Bedrow4 is another Baluk, which lies close by Alah-sai. Here there are no fruits, Bedrow. and the cultivators are all Kafers. They raise corn.

As in Khorasan and Samarkand the possessors of the Wolds are the Turks and inhabiAimaks, so, in this country, the inhabitants of the Waste are Hazaras and Afghans. The most powerful of the Hazaras in this territory, are the Sultan Masaudi Hazaras, and the most powerful of the Afghans are the Mehmend Afghans.

. The amount of the revenue of Kabul, whether arising from settled lands, or raised Revenue, from the inhabitants of the wastes, is eight lak of shahrokhis.3

The mountainous country on thtfeast frontier of Kabul is broken and of two kinds, Pasture. and the mountainous country on the west of Kabul is also of two sorts, in which it hills. differs from the hilly countries in the direction of Anderab, Khost, and the Badakhshanat, which are all covered with the Archeh, or mountain pine, well watered with springs, and abounding with soft and smooth heights; the vegetation on these last, whether on the hills, the gentle heights and eminences, or the valleys, is all of one sort, and is of good quality. It abounds with the grass named hah-butheh, which is excellent for horses. In the county of Andejan, they also call this grass butkeh-a&ti, but I was not acquainted with the origin of the name. In this country I learned that it is so called because it grows in butch, knots or patches. The yailaks, or summer residences of Hissar, Khutlan, Samarkand, Ferghana, and Moghulistan, are all the same kind of yailaks and pasturages as these; and though the summer retreats of Ferghana and Moghulistan are not to be compared with the others, yet the hills and pastures are of the same sort. Nijrow again, and the bill country of Lamghanat, Bajour, and Sewad, are of another kind, having many forests of pine, fir, oak, olive, and

1 Ten or twelve feet. * Six or eight feet.

3 That is, by repeating the Musulman confession of faith, and cutting their neck. It is usual to lay only Bismilla (in the name of God.)

4 Bedrow is perhaps the upper part of Tugow, now called Bahaghai. It is evidently higher up, by its having no fruits, and belonging to the Kafers. *

5 The rupee being equal to two shahrokhis and a half, the shahrokhis may be taken at tenpence, thus making the revenue only L.33,333, 6s. 8d.—See Ayeen Akberg, vol. II. p. 169.

mastick, but the grass is by no means equal to that of the hill country just mentioned. It is abundant enough, and likewise tall enough, but good for nothing, and not kindly either for horses or sheep. Though these mountains are not nearly so elevated as those that compose the other hill-country, and appear diminutive in comparison, yet they are singularly hard hills; there are indeed slopes aud hillocks which have a smooth, level surface; yet hillocks and hills are equally hard, are covered with rocks, and inaccessible to horses. In these mountains there are many of the birds and animals of Hindustan, such as the parrot, the sharok, the peacock, the lokheh, the ape, the nil-gau, and the kotch-pai (short-foot), and besides these, many other kinds of birds and animals, exceeding in number what I have heard of even in Hindustan.

\Vextern The mountainous country which lies to the west is composed of the hills that form

the valley of Zindan,1 the vale of Suf, with Gurzewan and Gharjestan, which hills are all-of the same description. Their grazing grounds are all in the valleys; the hills, or hillocks, have not a single handful of grass such as is to be found on the mountains to the north, nor do they even abound much with the Archeh pine. The grass in the grazing grounds is very fit for both horses and sheep. Above these hills, the whole country is good riding ground, and level, and there all the cultivated ground lies. The deer are very numerous in these mountains. The courses of the streams are generally profound glens, often quite perpendicular, and incapable of being descended. It is a singular circumstance, that, while in all other mountainous tracts, the strengths, and steep and rugged places, are at the top of the hills, in these mountains the strong places are all towards the bottom. The hill-countries of Ghur, Karbu,2 and Hazara, are all of the kind that has been described. Their pasture-grass is in the valleys and plains. They have few trees, and even the Archeh pine does not grow in them. The grass is nutritive to horses and sheep. The deer are numerous; and the rugged and precipitous places, and strengths of these hills, are also near the bottom.

Southern This hill-country, however, bears no resemblance to the hill-countries of Khwajeh

hi1'5, Ismacl, Desht,3 Duki, and Afghanistan, which have all an uniformity of aspect, being

very low, having little grass, bad water, and not a tree, and which are an ugly and worthless country. At the same time, the mountains are worthy of the men; as the proverb says, "A narrow place is large to the narrow-minded." There are perhaps scarcely in the whole world such dismal-looking hill-countries as these.

p" . In Kabul, although the cold is intense, and much snow falls in winter, yet there 1s

plenty of firewood, and near at hand. They can go and fetch it in one day. The fuel

1 This valley seems to run oast and west, or north-east and south-m-et, across the road from Sarbagh to F.ibak. The Dereh-suf, often mentioned by the Arabian writers, seems to lie west of Bamiaii ; Gurzewan stretches west from the river of Balkh, north of Charkcnd, to the head of the Murghab. Gharjistan seems to have had Herat on the west, Furra on the south, and Ghour on the east.—Mines de • 'tOrient, vol. I. p. 325. It must, therefore, have corresponded with Sihabend and the Firozkohi, perhaps

including part of the Jemshedi country. In a passage of Ebn Haukal, p. 327, the learned De Sacy proposes to read Isfer&in, for Esfer&r. Perhaps it would offer less violence to the text to read Isfezdr, which differs from the latter word only by one diacritical point. Isfezar is the tract of country lying between Herat and Furra, to the south of Sebzar.

* In my Persian MS. it is sometimes called Gaznu, sometimes Karnud.

* Desht is Daman; Duki is the Ilindki for a hill. Baber always uses it for the south-eastern hills of Afghanistan.

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