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and plunders it.

tin: name of the place; but as my principal man, and the one who possessed most influence and authority in the army, had urged our marching against Kohat, and had even called in evidence to fortify his opinion, I gave up my plan of crossing the river and invading Hindustan; and therefore, marching off from Jam, and crossing the Bareh,1 advanced up to Muhammed Pekh and Abani, and encamped not far from them.

At this time the Gagiani Afghans were in Peshawer, and, from dread of my army, they had all drawn off to the skirts of the mountains. At this encampment, Khosrou Gagiani, one of the chief men of the Gagiauis, came and paid me his respects. I took him to accompany Pekhi, in order to have the benefit of their advice regarding the roads and the country.

Marching from this station about midnight, and passing Muhammed Pekh at sunrise, we fell upon and plundered Kohat2 about luncheon-time,3 and found a great many bullocks and buffaloes. We also made a great many Afghans prisoners; but the whole of these I sought out and released. In their houses immense quantities, of grain were found. Our plundering parties pushed on as far as the river Sind, on the banks of which they staid all night, and next day came and rejoined me. The army, however, found none of the riches which Baki Cheghaniani had led us to expect; and Baki was greatly ashamed of his expedition.

Having tarried two days and two nights in Kohat, and called in our plundering detachments, we held a council to consider whither we should now bend our course; and it was determined that we should ravage the lands of the Afghans in Banu and Bangash, and then return back by way of Naghz4 and Fermul. Yar Hussain, the son of the Deria Khan, who had come and joined me in Kabul, and tendered his allegiance, requested that instructions might be issued to the Dilazaks, the Yusuf-Zais, and Gagianis, to act under his orders, pledging himself that he would carry my power beyond the Sind. I granted him the authority which he required, and he took leave of me at Kohat. Marchc* by Taking our departure from Kohat, we marched up5 towards Bangash, by the route of Hangu. Between Kohat and Hangu there lies a valley, with a high mountain on each side, through which the road passes. When in the course of our inarch we had reached this glen, the Afghans of Kohat and that quarter having collected, occupied the hills that overhang the glen on both sides, raised the war-shout, and made a loud clamour. Malek Bu-said Kamari, who was well acquainted with the whole of Afghanistan, was our guide. He told us that, a little farther on, there was a small hill on the right of the road, and that, if the Afghans should pass from their mountain to that hill, which was detached, we might then surround them on all sides, and get hold of them. Almighty God accomplished our wishes. The Afghans having descended upon us, came and occupied that detached hill. I instantly dispatched a party of my men to take possession of the neckof ground between the mountain and the hill. I ordered

1 The river of Peshawer.

2 The valley of Kohat lies south-east from Jam. It is about twelve miles in diameter.
* Eleven o'clock. 4 Or Naghr.

1 The road from Kohat to Bangash is west by south.

the rest of the army to attack the hill on both sides, and, moving regularly forward, to punish them for their temerity. The moment my troops advanced upon them, the Afghans found that they could not stand their ground, and in an instant a hundred or a hundred and fifty of them were brought down; of these some were brought in alive, but only the heads of the greater part of them. The Afghans, when they are reduced to extremities in war, come into the presence of their enemy with grass between their teeth; being as much as to say, " I am your ox." This custom1 I first observed on the present occasion; for the Afghans, when they could not maintain the contest, approached us with grass in their teeth. Orders were given for beheading such of them as had been brought in alive, and a minaret2 was erected of their heads at our next halting-place.

On the morrow, I marched on and encamped at Hangu. The Afghans of that quarter had fortified a hill, or made it a Sanger. I first heard the word Sanger"' on coming to Kabul. They call a detached piece of a hill strongly fortified a sanger. The troops, immediately on coming up to the sanger, stormed and took it, and cut off a hundred or two hundred heads of the refractory Afghans, which they brought down along with them. Here also we erected a minaret of heads.

Marching from Hangu, the second stage brought us to a place called Til, at the bottom of the upper Bangash. The soldiers set out to plunder the Afghans of the neighbourhood. Some of them, who had made an attack on a sanger, returned without success.

Marching from thence, and proceeding in a direction in which there was no road, Reache we halted one night, and on the day after reached a very precipitous declivity, where Banuwe were obliged to dismount, and descended by a long and steep defile, after which we encamped in Banu.4 The soldiers, as well as the camels and horses, suffered extremely in the steep descent and the narrow defile; and the greater part of the bullocks, which we had brought away as plunder in the course of this expedition, dropped down by the way. The common road was only a kos or two to our right; and the road by which we were conducted was not a horse-road. As the herds and shepherds sometimes drove their flocks of sheep and marcs down this descent and by the defile, it was for that reason termed Gosfend-lidr, or the Sheep-road, lidr signifying a road in the Afghan language.5 Our chief guide was Malek Bu-said Kamari; and the soldiers in general attributed the taking of this left-hand road to some design in him.

Immediately on descending from the hills of Bangash and Naghz, Banu appeared in sight. It has the appearance of a flat and level champaign. On the north are the hills6 of Bangash and Naghz. The Bangash river7 runs through the Banu territory, and by means of it chiefly is the country cultivated. On the south are Choupareh and the river Sind; on the east is Dinkot, and on the west is Desht, which is also called Ba

1 It is as old as the time of the heroes of the Shahnaraeh, or at least of Ferdansi.
8 This barbarous custom has always prevailed among the Tartar conquerors of Asia.

3 Sanger is now in constant use in Kabul and Persia for an entrenchment or field-work.

4 These last marches must have been southerly.

5 It has still the same signification in the Pushtu. s The Salt-range of Mr Elphinstone's map.

7 The Koorrum of Mr Elphinstone's map.

zar and Tak.1 Of the Afghan tribes, the Kerani, the Kivi, the Sur, the Isa-Khail, and Niazi, cultivate the ground in this country. On ascending into the Banu territory, I received information that the tribes inhabiting the plain had erected a sanger in the hills to the north. I therefore dispatched against them a body of troops under Jehangir Mirza. The sanger against which he went was that of the Kivi tribe. It was taken in an instant, a general massacre ensued, and a number of heads were cut off and brought back to the camp. A great quantity of cloth was taken on this occasion by the army. Of the heads a pile of skulls was formed in the Banu country. After the taking of this sanger, one of the chiefs of the Kivis, named Shadi Khan, came to me with grass in his mouth, and made his submission. I spared and gave up to him all the prisoners who had been taken alive.

After the sack of Kohat, it had been resolved that, after plundering the Afghans about Bangash and Banu, we should return back to Kabul by way of Naghz or Fermul. After ravaging Banu, however, persons perfectly acquainted with the whole routes represented to me that Desht was near at hand; that the inhabitants were wealthy and the roads good; and it was finally determined that, instead of returning by Fermul, we should plunder the Desht, and return back by that road.2 Arrives in On the morrow, we marched thence, and halted on the banks of the same river, at khail" a viH8^ oT" tne Isakhail.3 The Isakhail having had notice of our approach, had becountry. taken themselves to the Choupareh mountains.4 I next marched from the village of the Isakhail, and encamped on the skirts of the Choupareh mountains, while the skirmishers, ascending the mountain, stormed a Sanger of the Isakhail, and brought back sheep, cattle, and cloths, in great quantity. The same night, the Isakhail Afghans attempted a surprize; but as I had been particularly cautious, they did not succeed. The whole army had been drawn up in battle-array, with right and left wing, centre and van, at their stations, armed and ready to maintain their posts; and there were foot-soldiers on the watch all round the camp, at the distance of rather more than a bowshot from the tents. In this manner the army passed the night. Every night I drew out the army in the same manner; and every night three or four of my most trusty chiefs in turn went the rounds about the camp with torches. I myself also took one round. Such persons as had not repaired to their posts had their noses slit, and were led about the camp in that state. On the right wing was Jehangir Mirza, with Bald Cheghaniani, Shirim Taghai, Syed Hussain Akber, and several other Begs; on the left wing were Mirza Khan, Abdal Rizak Mirza, Kasim Beg, and some other Begs; in the centre there were none of the superior Begs, all of them were Begs of my own household; in the van5 were Syed Kasim, the chamberlain, Baba Ughul Alaberdi, and

1 All through his operations in Banu, Baber uses west for south, and the other points of the compass accordingly. Hence we have on the east Choupareh and the Sind, on the north Dinkot, on the south Desht or Daman. Tak seems to be the Tuk of Mr Elphinstone's map; and Bazar is there laid down west of it. Tak is said long to have been the capital of Daman.

2 This road was more to the south, and more circuitous than the other.
8 The Isakhail are one of the principal tribes of Afghans.

* The Choupareh mountains seem to be the ridge between Largi and the Sind.
6 Irawel.

several other Begs. The whole army was divided into six bodies, each of which, in its turn, was appointed to keep watch for one whole day and night.

Leaving the skirt of this mountain I marched towards the west,1 and halted between Mode of Desht and Banu,8 in a tank in which there was no water. The soldiers here digging J^1"R wa" in the dry bed of a river, procured water for themselves, their flocks, mares, and cattle. By digging a gez or a gez and half into the dry channel, water was found; and it is not in this river alone that this occurs, but in all the beds of rivers in Hindustan, water is with certainty found by digging down a gez or a gez and a half. It is a wonderful provision of providence, that though in Hindustan there is no permanently running water except in the large rivers, yet that water should be found so near the surface in all the dry channels of the rivulets.

Marching from this dry river in the morning, the light cavalry moving forward Reaches the without anything to encumber them, about afternoon prayers reached the villages of, Desht.3 The skirmishers immediately proceeded to ravage several of the villages, and brought off much spoil in raiment, flocks of sheep, and horses bred for sale. All this night till morning, and all next day till night, the beasts of burden, flocks of sheep, camels, and foot-soldiers of the army, which had been left behind on the road, continued to drop in. During the day that We remained here, the pillaging parties went out, and brought in numbers of sheep and oxen from the villages of Desht. Having also fallen in with some Afghan merchants, they took a great quantity of white cloth, aromatic drugs, sugar, both candied and in powder, the stout species of horses called Tipchak, and other horses which they had for sale. Midi Moghul dismounted Khwajeh Khezer Lohani,4 who was one of the most noted and eminent of the Afghan merchants, cut off his head, and brought it to the camp. Shirim Taghai had gone out in the rear of the pillagers. He met an Afghan on foot, who struck him a blow with his sword that cut off his fore-finger.

On the next morning we marched forward, and halted at no great distance, among the villages of Desht. Our next march was to the banks of the river Gomal. From Reaches the Desht there are two roads that lead to the west. One of them is the road of Sang- nm' aurakh, which reaches Fermul by way of Burek. The other is along the banks of the Gomal, which also conducts to Fermul,5 but without passing Burek. The road along the Gomal is generally preferred. During the few days that I had been in the Desht, it had rained incessantly; and the Gomal had in consequence swelled so much, that it was with great difficulty that we found a ford by which we could pass. Persons who knew the road informed me that it would be necessary by the Gomal road to cross the river several times; which would be attended with extreme difficulty if the flood

1 That is, as explained, the south.

s Baber has now crossed the Kurum and Gambila, and is advancing south to the Desht or Daman. Between Daman and Banu, and also between Daman and Isakhail, which Baber considers as part of Banu, there is a halt without water by whichever way you go.


* Lohani is the general name for most of the tribes of Daman, the greatest merchants of Afghanistan. The word is frequently written Nuhani in all the copies.

B The first of these roads is probably the direct one by Kaniguram to Urghun, the residence of the Fermulis. The one by the Gomal takes the Pass of Gholeri. - . ing should continue as high as it then was. Some hesitation still remained respecting the propriety of taking this route; nor were our opinions quite settled next morning when the drum beat for the march. It was my intention to have conversed over the matter as we mounted our horses, and to have followed the route that should then ap7th March pear best. It was the Ide-fitrJ and I was engaged in performing the ceremonial ablutions required on account of that festival, while Jehangir Mirza and the Begs were conversing on the subject. Some of them suggested that the mountain on the west of the Desht, which they call the Mehter Sulemani mountain,2 lies between Desht and Duki; that if we could turn the extremity of the mountain we should come to a road that was level, although it might make a difference of a march or two. This plan meeting with their approbation, they directed the march of the army towards the edge of the mountain.3 Before I had completed my ablutions, the army was in full march for the skirts of the mountains, and many had even passed the river Gonial. As none of us had ever- been this road, we were perfectly ignorant of its length or shortness. It had been adopted on mere idle surmise. The stated prayers of the Id were recited on the banks of the Gomal. In this year the nouroz* fell remarkably near the Ide-Jitr, there being only a few days between them. On the subject of this approximation I composed the following ghazel:—

{Persian.)—They are blest who see the new moon and the face of their beloved at the same time:

But I, far from the countenance of my beloved and her eyebrow, experience only sorrow. \

(The concluding lines only are given.)

O Baber, deem thou the face of thy love the best of new moons, and an interview the best of Ids! For a better day than that thou canst not find, were there a hundred festivals of Nouroz, and a hundred Bairams.

March Leaving the banks of the Gomal, we directed our course towards the south, and

•outhwarO. marohed along the skirts of the mountain. We had advanced a kos or two, when a body of death-devoted Afghans presented themselves on an eminence close upon the mountain. We instantly proceeded to charge them at full gallop; the greater part of them fled away; the rest foolishly attempted to make a stand on some small hills, which were on the skirts of the heights. One Afghan took his stand on a detached hillock, apparently because all its other sides being steep and a direct precipice, he had no road by which to escape. Sultan Ali Chanak rode up, gained the summit, engaged and took him. This feat, which he performed in my presence, was the occasion of his future favour and advancement. In another declivity of the hill, Kutluk Kadam engaged an Afghan in combat, and while they grappled, both of them fell tumbling from a height of ten or twelve gez ;5 at last, however, Kutluk cut off his head, and brought it in. Kopek Beg grappled with another Afghan on a steep knoll, when both the com

1 The Ide-Jitr, or Greater Bairdm, is the feast on the conclusion of the fast of the Ramzan. It commences as soon as the new moon of Shawal is seen. * The mountain of the Prophet Solomon, called also the Takhte Suliman, or Solomon's Throne. J The army would seem to have marched by Pezu. 4 The Nouroz is the feast of the old Persian new-year. i Twenty or twenty-four feet.

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