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mained in it three or four years; he then took leave of me and went to Kashghar to the
Khan; but as

Everything returns to its original principles,
"Whether pure gold, or silver, or tin;

it is said that he has now adopted a commendable course of life and become reformed.
He excels in penmanship, in painting, in fletchery, in making arrow-heads, and thumb-
lets for drawing the bow-string. He is remarkably neat at all kinds of handywork.
He 1ms also a turn for poetry, and I have received an epistle from him, the style1 of
which is by no means bad.

Another of the Khan's wives was Shah Begum ; though he had other wives besides gnan Bc. these, yet he had children by these two only. Shah Begum was the daughter of Shah 8umSultan Muhammed, King of Badakhshan. The Kings of Badakhshan are said to trace back their descent to Sekander Filkus.2 This Sultan Muhammed had also another daughter, elder than Shah Begum, who was married to Sultan Abusaid Mirza, and bore to him Ababekir Mirza. Yunis Khan had two sons and two daughters by Shalt Begum. Among these, Sultan Mahmud Khan was younger than the three daughters sultan who have been mentioned, and elder than the other three children. In Samarkand and Mahm&a

. Khan.

these quarters he is generally called Janikeh Khan. Sultan Ahmed Khan was younger 6uiun AIi. than Sultan Mahmud Khan, and is well known by the name of Ilcheh Khan. He re- med Khanceived this denomination from the following circumstance:—In the language of the Kilmaks5 and Moghuls, they call a slayer Ilaji; and, as he several times overcame the Kilmaks with great slaughter, he on that account was generally spoken of under the name of Ilaji, which, in pronunciation, was converted into Ilcheh. It will often be necessary to make mention of these Khans in this history, when their transactions and affairs shall be fully detailed. Sultan Nigar-Khanum was the youngest of all the fa- Saltan Nimily, except one daughter. She was given in marriage to Sultan Mahmud Mirza (the B*r-Kl"»son of Sultan Abusaid Mirza), by whom she had one son, named Sultan Wais, who will be mentioned in the sequel. After the death of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, this princess, having taken her son along with her, without giving any notice of her intention, proceeded to Tashkend to her brothers. A few years afterwards, her brother married her to Uzbek Sultan,4 one of the Sultans of the Kizaks,3 who was descended of Juji Khan, the eldest son of Chengis Khan. When Sheibani Khan defeated the

1 The Insha, or Art of letter-writing, in Persian, is quite a science, requiring a long study to be perfectly understood. It is generally the art of telling insignificant things in an involved and rhetorical style. The number of bienteance* to be observed, is quite overwhelming.

3 Alexander the son of Philip, concerning whom the Persians have many traditions and idle stories. The King of Derwaz, a small territory north of Badakhshan, still claims descent from the Macedonian hero.

3 The Kilmaks, or Kalemaks, are our Kalmuks, one of the chief divisions of the Moghuls.

1 The Persian has Awik Sultan.

'The Kirghis tribes at this day call themselves Sara-Kaizdk, or robbers of the desert, and occupy the deserts about Tashkend. The name Cossack is a corruption of the same word.

Khans, and took Tashkend and Shahrokhia, she fled with ten or twelve of her Moghul attendants to Uzbek Sultan, by whom she had two daughters: one of them was given to one of the Sheibani Sultans, and the other to Rashid Sultan, a son of Sultan Said Khan.1 After the death of Usbek Sultan, she married Kasim Khan, the chief of the horde of the Kizaks. It is said that no one of the Khans or Sultans of the Kizaks ever kept the horde in such complete order as Kasim Khan. His army amounted to nearly three hundred thousand fighting men. After the death of Kasim Khan, she went to Uoulet Sul- Kashghar to Sultan Said Khan Kashghari. Doulet Sultan Khanum, who was the num. youngest daughter of all, at the sack of Tashkend fell into the hands of Taimur Sul

tan, the son of Sheibani Khan. By him she had one daughter. She left Samarkand along with me, and lived three or four years in Badakhshan, after which she went to Kashghar to Sultan Said Kashghari.2 Omar. Another of Omar-Sheikh Mirza's wives was Ulus Aghai, the daughter of Khwajeh

other wives. Hussain Beg; by her he had one daughter, who died young. A year, or a year and a riusAghai. half after her marriage, she was removed from the Haram.

FatimaSul- Another of his wives was Fatima Sultan Agha, who was the daughter of one of the tan g Begs of the Moghul Tumans. Omar-Sheikh Mirza married her first of all his wives. Karag&z There was yet another named Karaguz Begum (or the black-eyed Princess), whom

Begum. nc marrjcd towards the end of his days. She was tenderly beloved by Omar-Sheikh Mirza, and, in order to flatter him, they affected to derive her origin from Minocheher Mirza, the elder brother of Sultan Abusaid Mirza. Hisconcu- He had many women and concubines. One of them was Omeid Aghacheh, who died before the Mirza. In the Mirza's latter days he had one called Yiin Sultan, of Moghul extraction. Another was Agha Sultan. His Amln. Of his Amirs, one was Khoda-berdi Taimurtash,3 who was of the family of the elder di TaTmuH brother of Akbugha Beg, the Hakim of Heri. When Sultan Abusaid Mirza besieged tash. Juki Mirza in Shahrokhiah, he gave the country of Ferghana to Omar-Sheikh Mirza,

and sent Khoda-berdi Taimurtash with him as Master of his Household.4 At that time Khoda-berdi Taimurtash was only about twenty-five years of age, but young as he was, his method, his arrangements, and regulations were excellent. One or two years afterwards, when Ibrahim Bcgchak ravaged the territory of Ush, Khoda-berdi Taimurtash having pursued and overtaken him, a severe battle ensued, in which Khoda-berdi was defeated and slain. When this event occurred, Sultan Ahmed Mirza was among the Yailak (or summer habitations) of Uratippa, called Ak Kechghai, eighteen fiiraangs5 to the east of Samarkand, and Sultan Abusaid Mirza was at Babakhaki, which is twelve farsangs6 to the east of Heri, when this intelligence was transmitted to him

, i The Chief of Kashghar.

2 Here closes the long digression concerning the family of Baber's mother. He next proceeds to mention his father's other wives.

3 Most Turki names, both of persons and places, have some signification. Thus Khoda-berdi means given-of-God, and Taimurtash, iron-stone. %

1 That is, as Prime Minister. s About seventy-two miles. « About forty-eight miles.

express by Abdal Wahab Shaghawel. The messenger accomplished this distance, which is one hundred and twenty-six farsangs,1 on horseback in four days.

Another of his Amirs was Hafez Beg Duladai, the son of Sultan Malek Kashghari, Hafez Beg and a younger brother of Ahmed Haji Beg.2 After the death of Khoda-berdi Beg, he u a was appointed Master of the Household, and sent to succeed him. As he was unpopular among the Begs of Andejan, on the death of Sultan Abusaid Mirza, he repaired to Samarkand, and entered into the service of Sultan Ahmed Mirza. When the news arrived of the defeat of Sultan Ahmed Mirza in the battle on the Chirr, he was governor of Uratippa, and when Omar-Sheikh Mirza had reached Uratippa on his way to attack Samarkand, Hafez Beg delivered up the place to the Mirza's. people, and himself entered into his service. Omar-Sheikh Mirza again intrusted him with the government of Andejan. He latterly went into the service of Sultan Mahmud Khan, who gave him the charge of Mirza Khan with the government of Dizak.3 Before I took Kabul he had set out by way of Hindi with the intention of making a pilgrimage to Mekka, but, on the road, he departed to the mercy of God. He was a plain unassuming man, of few words, and not very profound.

Another was Khwajeh Hussein Beg, who was a good-humoured man, of plain, sim- Khwijeh pie manners; he excelled in singing at drinking parties, as was the fashion of the time, Beg. what was called T&iHk, a sort of Moghul drinking-song. f

There was another named Sheikh Mazid Beg, who was first appointed my governor. Sheikh MaHis arrangements and discipline were excellent. He had been in the service of Baber z' CB" Mirza.4 No man stood higher in the esteem of Omar-Sheikh Mirza than himself. He was, however, of grossly libidinous habits, and addicted to pederasty.

Ali Mazid Beg Kochin was another. He twee rebelled, once in Akhsi and once in Ali Mazid Tashkend. He was a libidinous, treacherous, good-for-nothing hypocrite.

Another was Hassan Yakub Beg, who was frank, good-tempered, clever, and active. Hassan \a. The following verses are his—

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Return again, 0 Huma,5 for without the parrot clown of thy cheek
The crow will assuredly soon carry off my bones.

He was a man of courage, an excellent archer, and remarkable for his skill in playing the games of choughan6 and leap-frog. After the death of Omar-Sheikh Mirza, he

1 Upwards of five hundred miles.

1 The Persian has Ahmed Chachi Beg. * Jizzikh.

• This Baber Mirza was the son of Baiesanghar, the son of Shahrokh, one of Taimur Beg's sons. He was an active prince, was for some time master of Khorasan, and died A. Ii. 1457.

4 The Huma is a bird much celebrated in oriental poetry. It never alights on the ground, and it is believed that every head which it overshadows will one day wear a crown. The verses here quoted are written in the character of one in adversity, who had formerly indulged better hopes.

6 The choughan is a game played by men on horseback, with long crooked sticks. They divide into two parties, each party trying themselves to hole a ball and to prevent the other party doing it. It requires both strength and skill. See Ayeen Akbery, vol. I. p. 249.

became Master of my Household. He was, however, narrow-minded, of small capacity, and a promoter of dissension. Kasim Beg Another was Kasim Beg Kochin, who was one of the ancient Begs of the army of Andejan. He succeeded Hassan Beg as Master of the Household. As long as he lived, his power and consequence with me went on increasing uninterruptedly. He was a brave man. On one occasion, a party of Uzbeks having ravaged the country round Kasan,1 were on their retreat, when he pursued, overtook, engaged, and gave them a severe defeat. He had also distinguished himself by his gallant use of his scymiter in presence of Omar-Sheikh Mirza. In the war of Yasi-kijet2 he made some bold forays. During my difficulties, when I proposed going from the hill-country of Masikhi to Sultan Mahmud Khan, Kasim Beg separated from me, and went to Khosrou Shah. In A. D. 1504. the year 910, when I took Khosrou Shah and blockaded Mokim in Kabul, Kasim Beg came again and joined me, and I showed him my wonted affection and regard. When I attacked the Turkoman Hazaras in the Dera, or glen of Khish, as Kasim Beg, notwithstanding his advanced years, displayed more ardour than many younger man, I gave him the government of the country of Ban gash as a reward for his services. Afterwards, on my return to Kabul, I appointed him governor to Humaiun.3 He was received into the mercy of God about the time I reduced the Zemin Dawer.4 He was a pious, religious, faithful Moslem, and carefully abstained from all doubtful meats. His judgment and talents were uncommonly good. He was of a facetious turn, and though he could neither read nor write, had an ingenious and elegant vein of wit. Baba Kuli Another was Baba Kiili Beg, of the family of Sheikh Ali Behader. After the death B"s- of Sheikh Mazid Beg, he was appointed my governor. When Sultan Ahmed Mirza

led his army against Andejan, he went over to him and delivered Uratippa into his hands. After Sultan Mahmud Mirza's death, he fled from Samarkand, and was on his way to join me, when Sultan Ali Mirza, issuing out of Uratippa, encountered, defeated, and slew him. He was remarkable for maintaining his troops in good order, and with excellent equipments. He kept a watchful eye over his servants, but neither prayed nor fasted, and was cruel, and like an infidel in his whole deportment. -Mir Ali Another was Mh* Ali Dost Taghai, who was of the Begs of the Tumans of Saghri

hai.1 *S eni, and related to my maternal grandmother. Isan-doulet-begum. I showed him great favour from the time of Omar-Sheikh Mirza. I was told that he would be an useful man ; but during all the years that he was with me, I cannot tell what service he ever did. He had been in Sultan Abusaid Mirza's service, and pretended to be an enchanter.4 He was Grand Huntsman, and was a man of disagreeable manners and habits, covetous, mean, seditious, insincere, self-conceited, harsh of speech, and sour of visage.

1 A city to the north of the Sirr.

2 So denominated from the battle fought at Yasi-kijet, A. H. 904.

3 Baber's son, who succeeded him in his dominions.

4 The district of Zemin Dawer lies about ninety miles west of Kandahar, on the right bank of the Hermend, towards the upper part of its course, after it issues from the mountains.

1 For an account of the Yedeh and Yedeh-ji-geri, see the Introduction, p. xlvii. These magicians pretended chiefly to bring rain by rubbing the Yedeh stone.

Weis Laghari was another. He was from Samarkand and of the Tokchi tribe, and Wei» L»was latterly much in the confidence of Omar-Sheikh Mirza. He attended me on my g expeditions. He was a man of excellent understanding and talents, but a little disponed to be factious.

Mir Ghias Taghai, the younger brother of Ali Dost, was another. None of all the Mir Ghiis young Moghul Emirs in Sultan Abusaid Mirza's court was a greater favourite, and the fc Great Seal1 was delivered to his custody by that prince. He was in very great favor with Omar-Sheikh Mirza in his latter years, and was on intimate terms with Weis Laghari. From the time that Sultan Mahmud Khan got possession of Kasan, till the end of his life, he remained in the service of the Khan, by whom he was treated with great consideration. He was an extremely witty and jocose man, but fearless in debauchery.

There was another named Ali Dervish, a native of Khorasan, who served in the AliDetvhh. Khorasaii Bands under Sultan Abusaid Mirza; for when that prince got possession of Samarkand and Khorasan, be formed such of the young men of these two kingdoms as were fit for service into bands of household troops, which he termed the Bands of Khorasan, and the Bands of Samarkand. He made a gallant charge in my presence in the affair at the gate of Samarkand. He was a brave man. He wrote the Nastaiik character after a fashion. He was, however, a gross flatterer, and sordidly mean and miserly.

Kamber Ali, Moghul, an Akhteji,2 was another; when his father came to the coun- Kamber try, he for some time exercised the trade of a skinner, whence he got the name of A^i JI°" Kamber Ali Selakh, (or the skinner.) He had served Yunis Khan in the capacity of Ewer-bearer, but finally arrived at the rank of Beg. From me he received distinguished favours. Till he had attained high rank, his conduct was exceedingly good; but, after he had gained a certain elevation, he became negligent and perverse. He talked a great deal and very idly; indeed there can be no doubt that a great talker must often talk foolishly. He was a man of contracted capacity, and of a muddy brain.

At the time when this fatal accident3 befel Omar-Sheikh Mirza, I was in Andejan, lOJune,! at the Charbagh palace. On Tuesday the fifth of Ramzan, the news reached Ande- i4?4"r jan; I immediately mounted in the greatest haste, and taking with me such of my tempts Arfollowers as were at hand, set put to secure the castle. When I had just reached what eian* is called the Mirza's gate, Shirain Taghai seized my horse's bridle4 and carried me towards the Id-gah.5 The idea had entered his mind that, as Sultan Ahmed Mirza,

1 Moher-charsui, the square seal. Chardin, in describing the seals used in the Persian court in his time, says, " Le sceau carre est le plus consider*.', et celui auquel on obeit le plus regulierement; e'est proprement le sceau ou le seing du roi, car il le porte a son cou; et ses ancetres, de puis Abas le Grand, en ont fait de meme."—See Voyages de Chardin, torn. V. p. 461, of the edition of M. Langles.

2 D'Herbelot informs us that Akhteji, in the Moghul tongue, signifies a vassal who holds his states of a liege-lord.—See Art. Akhtagi, in the Bibliotheque Orientale. In the Turki it signifies a gelder.

3 Baber now returns to the death of his father, who was killed by falling from the pigeon-house at Ahsi.

4 These words mean also, metaphorically, "stopped me by the way."

5 The. Id-gah or Namazzah is generally an open terrace, with a wall on the side towards the kibleh, and on the outside of the town, whither oh festival days the people go out in crowds to pray.

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