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ling in his heart, now all went in such a state of distress and humility, to present themselves before him. For had I not deprived Khosrou Shah of his army and retainers, and reduced him to his present helpless condition, and had not I taken Kabul from Mokim, Zulnun's son, they never would have thought of going to wait upon the Mirza. Badia-ez-zeman was only as dough in the hands of the other two, and never attempted to swerve from their advice. Sultan Hussain Mirza received them all in a gracious manner, without reminding them of their offences, and made them a variety of presents. After some time Khosrou Shah asked permission to return to his own country, alleging that, if he were allowed to go, he could now reduce the whole of it to subjection. As, however, he was without arms, and without any means of success for such an enterprize, objections were made to his return. On perceiving this, [he only persevered with the greater importunity to be allowed to take his leave. As his importunities increased, Muhammed Berenduk retorted on him sharply; "When you had thirty thousand men, and the whole country in your hands, what did you effect, that now you are so anxious to set out with five hundred men, and the country in the hands of the Uzbeks?" However judicious the remonstrances made to him were, as his destined end was drawing near, he refused to listen to them. The urgency of his representations increasing, he was at last permitted to take his departure; and, attended by three or four hundred men, he advanced directly to the confines of Dehaneh. t

At this very juncture Nasir Mirza had passed over to the same quarter. He had a conference with Nasir Mirza in the territory of Dehaneh.1 The chiefs of Badakhshan had invited Nasir Mirza alone, and did not wish for Khosrou Shah's return; but all the efforts that Nasir Mirza made to prevail on him to separate from him, and proceed to the hill-country, had no influence on Khosrou Shah, who saw the Mirza's motives. Khosrou Shah's plan was to employ Nasir Mirza's name as a cover to his designs, and after acting in his name so as to get possession of these countries, to seize and put him to death. As, however, they could not come to an understanding, each of them put his adherents in array in the territory of Ishkemish,2 and having clothed them in armour, and drawn them out ready for action, they separated from each other, shaUad- ant* Nasir Mirza proceeded towards Badakhshan; while Khosrou Shah, having colvances to lected a naked and disorderly rabble, to the amount of a thousand men, good and bad, went to lay siege to Kundez, and took post at Khwajeh Chartak, one or two farsangs distant from that city.

After Muhammed Sheibani Khan had taken Sultan Ahmed Tambol in Andejan, he had advanced against Hissar; upon which Khosrou Shah, without either battle or effort, had abandoned his territories and fled. Sheibani Khan reached Hissar, in which was Shirim Chihreh with some brave soldiers, who, although deserted by their superiors, who had fled the country, would not surrender the fortress, but made every exertion for its defence. Sheibani Khan left Khamzch Sultan and Mehdi Sultan to conduct the blockade of Hissar, and himself proceeded against Kundez; he conferred the government of Kundez on his younger brother Mahmud Sultan, and himself

1 Dehaneh, or Dehabeh, south from Balkh. * South-east from Kundez.



without delay marched for Khwarizm against Chin Sufi. He had not yet reached Samarkand, when his brother Mahmud Sultan died in Kundez, on which he gave the command in Kundez to Kamber-bi of Merv. When Khosrou Sbah arrived, Kamber-bi was in Kundez; and instantly dispatched messengers to Khamzch Sultan and the other Sultans who had been left behind, to call them in to his aid. Khamzeh Sultan having himself advanced as far as Serai,1 on' the banks of the river Amu, sent on his army to Kundez, under the command of his sons and Begs, who marched on to battle the instant they arrived. Khosrou Shah could not stand his ground, and his » deflated, gross body was not sufficiently alert for flight; so that Khamzeh Sultan's men unhorsed him, and brought him in as a prisoner. They also slew Ahmed Kasim, his sister's son, Shirim Chehreh, and a number of his best troops. They then carried and put to Khosrou Shah to Kundez, where they struck off his head, which they sent to Sheibani "* Khan at Khwarizm. Khosrou Shah had no sooner entered the Kundez territory, than, as he had predicted, the conduct and demeanour of his old followers and retainers, who had taken service with me, was visibly changed. Numbers of them began to draw off, and marched for Khwajeh Riwaj and the country in its vicinity. The greater part of my force at this»time consisted of his old retainers. Several Moghuls of note went off, and the rest had begun to form combinations together; the moment the news of his death arrived, the spirit of discontent was quenched, as when water is thrown on fire. .


In the month of Moharrem,2 my mother, Kutluk-Nigar Khanum, was seized with the Death of pustulous eruption, termed Khasbeh,3 and blood was let without effect. A Khorasan ^"n physician, named Syed Tabib, attended her; he gave her water-melons, according to the practice of Khorasan; but as her time was come, she expired, after six days' illness, on a Saturday, and was received into the mercy of God. Ulugh Beg Mirza had built a garden palace on the side of a hill, and called it Bagh-e-Nourozi (the Garden of the New Year). Having got the permission of his heirs,4 we conveyed her remains to this garden; and on Sunday, I and Kasim Gokultash committed them to the earth. During the period of mourning for my mother, the news of the death of the younger Khan, my uncle Ilacheh Khan, and of my grandmother Isan Doulct Begum, also arrived. The distribution of food on the fortieth day after the Khanum's decease was near at hand, when the mother of the Khans, Shah Begum, my maternal grandmother, Miher Nigar Khanum, the widow of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, with Muhammed Hussain

1 Probably the Saliserai Bo often mentioned in the history of Tamerlane. * The Muhammedan year 911, began on 4th June 1.50.5.

3 Khasbeh with a soad, signifies a spotted fever; also the measles. With a stn, a slow fever. The different copies which I have consulted have a sfti.

4 It will be observed, from several instances in these Memoirs, that the Musulmans are most scrupulously cautious not to erect a burial-place in any ground gained by violence or wrong.

Gurkam Doghlet, arrived from Khorasan. Our lamentation and mourning now broke out afresh. Our grief for the separations we had suffered was unbounded. After completing the period of mourning, food and victuals were dressed and doled out to the poor and needy. Having directed readings of the Koran, and prayers to be offered up for the souls of the departed, and eased the sorrows of our hearts by these demonstrations of love, I returned to my political enterprizes which had been interrupted, and by the advice of Baki Cheghaniani, led my army against Kandahar. We had marched as far as the auleng (or meadow) of Kush-Nadir, where we had halted, when I was seized with a fever. It came most unseasonably. Whatever efforts they made to keep me awake, my eyes constantly fell back into sleep. After four or five days, I got somewhat better. Great earth- At this period there was such an earthquake that many ramparts of fortresses, the qua' summits of some hills, and many houses, both in the towns and villages, were violently

shaken and levelled with the ground. Numbers of persons lost their lives by their houses and terraces falling on them. The whole houses of the village of Pemghan1 fell down, and seventy or eighty respectable householders were buried under the ruins. Between Pemgharj and Bektob, a piece of ground, about a stone's throw in breadth, separated itself, and descended1 for the length of a bow-shot; and springs burst out and formed a well in the place that it had occupied. From Isterghach2 to the plain, being a distance of about six or seven farsangs,3 the whole space was so rent and fractured, that in some places the ground was elevated to the height of an elephant above its old level, and in other places as much depressed; and in many places it was so split that a person might have hid himself in the gaps. During the time of the earthquake, a great cloud of dust rose from the tops of the mountains. Nur-alla, the lutanist, happened to be playing before me on the mandolin, and had also another instrument with him; he instantly caught up both the instruments in his hands, but had so little command • of himself, that they knocked against each other. Jehangir Mirza was at Tibah, in the upper veranda of a palace built by Ulugh Beg Mirza. The moment the earth began to quake, he threw himself down, and escaped without injury. One of his domesties was in the same story, when the terrace of this upper floor fell on him. God preserved him, and he did not sustain the slightest harm. Many rising-grounds were levelled. That same day there were thirty-three shocks; and for the space of a month, the earth shook two or three times every day and night. The Begs and soldiers had orders to repair the rents and breaches in the walls and fortifications of the fortress. By great diligence and exertions, in twenty days or a month, all the parts of the walls that had been damaged or thrown down were repaired and rebuilt. Expedition My expedition against Kandahar had been delayed by my sickness and the earth?P «Stt - quake; but as soon as I had regained my health, and restored the defences of the fortress, I immediately resumed my former plan. When we halted below Shniz,* we had notyct finally decided between marching against Kandahar, and sending out de

1 Or Peghman. It lies south, or south-west, from Kabul.
5 Istergach has been already mentioned as north from Kabul.

3 Twenty-four or twenty-eight miles.

4 Shniz is north of Shashgou, to the west of the road between that and Lora.

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tachments to scour the hills and plains. I called Jehangir Mirza and the Begs to a council of war; when Jehangir Mirza and Baki Cheghaniani warmly supporting the proposition for proceeding against Kilat, it was settled that we should move and attack it. On reaching Tazi, I gained information that Shir Ali Chehreh and Kuchek Baki Diwaneh, with some others, had formed the plan of deserting. I instantly had them seized; and as Shir Ali Chehreh had been notoriously guilty of various seditious and mutinous practices, both while in my service, and when in the service of others, and in various countries, he was delivered over to the executioner. Having, deprived the others of their arms and horses, I let them go.

When we reached Kilat,1 without having arrayed ourselves in armour, or erected Kilat taken any engines for an attack, we instantly made an assault. The conflict was severe. y'""' Kuchek Beg, the elder brother of Khwajeh Kilan, was a most courageous and gallant man, and had many a time wielded his sword with great effect in my presence, as has already been mentioned in these Memoirs. He had clambered up a tower on the south-west of Kilat, and had nearly gained the top, when he was wounded in the eye with a spear; and he died of this wound two or three days after Kilat was taken. Kuchek Baki Diwaneh, who had been seized while attempting to desert with Shir Ali, here atoned for that act of treachery, being killed with a stone under the rampart, while attempting to enter. Two or three other persons of note were killed. The fight continued in this way till about the time of afternoon prayers ; when, just as the assailants, who had fought bravely, and exerted all their vigour, were almost exhausted, the garrison demanded quarter, and surrendered. Zulnun Arghun had bestowed . Kilat on Mokim, and two of Mokim's partizans, Ferakh Arghun and Kara Biilut, held it' at this time on his part. They came out with their bows, quivers, and scymitars hanging round their necks, and I forgave them. It was not my wish to treat this family harshly; for had anything severe been practised among us at a time when such an enemy as the Uzbeks was close at hand, what would not have been said, both far and near, by those who either saw or heard of it? As this enterprize had been undertaken at the instance of Jehangir Mirza and Baki Beg, I gave up Kilat to the charge of the Mirza, but he would not accept of it; neither would Baki Beg undertake to keep it, though he could offer no satisfactory excuse for declining; so that all our exertions and our success in the assault and taking of the place, were completely thrown away.

Proceeding southward from Kilat, we plundered the Afghans of Sawa-Sang, Ala- Baber r«tagh,- and that neighbourhood, and then returned to Kabul. The night that I arrived Kju8,10 in Kabul, I proceeded to the fortress, leaving my tents and horses at the Charbagh". That same night a Khezelchi thief came and stole from the Charbagh a bay horse of mine, caparisoned as it was, and one of my own sabres.

From the time that Baki Cheghaniani had joined me on the banks of the Amu, no Baki chegperson about me had been in higher estimation or authority than himself. Whatever iitcOBl was done or said, was said or done by his ascendancy; although I had never expe- tented.

1 Kilat, east of Kandahar, in the vale of Ternek, and now called Kilat-e-Ghilji. - Ala-tagh is the Ilulla Tagh of Mr Elphinstone's map, south-east of Kilat. Sawa-Sang may be Torkani (black stone).


rienced from him that duty which was to have heen expected, or that propriety of conduct which is indispensably necessary. Indeed, on the contrary, he had done many unjustifiable acts, and shown me many marks of disrespect. He was mean, sordid, malicious, narrow-minded, envious, and cross-tempered. He carried his meanness to such a length, that when he broke up from Termez, and came and joined me with his family dnd property, though his own flock of sheep amounted to thirty or forty thousand, and though every march numbers of them passed before our face, while my servants and retainers were tortured with hunger, he did not give us a single sheep; at last, when we reached Kehmerd, he then gave them fifty sheep! Although he had himself acknowledged me as his King, he used to have the nagarets beaten before his tent. He liked nobody, and could see no one prosper. The revenue of Kabul arises from a Temgha 1 (or stamp-tax). This Temgha I bestowed on him; and made him at the same time Darogha of Kabul and Penjhir; gave him the property^-tax levied from the Hazaras, and conferred on him the office of Captain of my Guards, with absolute power in my household. Though distinguished by such marks of favour, he was never either thankful or contented ; - but, on the contrary, cherished the most wicked and dangerous projects of treason, as has been mentioned. I never, however, upbraided him with them, nor mentioned them to him. He constantly affected great chariness, and asked leave to go away. I gave in to his dissimulation, and in a tone of apology, refused him the permission he solicited.

lias leave Every day or two he returned again, and used again to begin asking his discharge. His dissimulation, and eternal requests for liberty to depart, at length exceeded all bounds; so that, wearied to death with his conduct and teazing, I lost patience, and gave him his discharge. Disappointed and alarmed at this, he was now in the utmost perplexity; but to no purpose. He sent to remind me that I had made an agreement with him, that I would not call him to account till he had been guilty of nine offences towards me. I sent him by Miilla Baba a list of eleven grievances, the justice of which he was forced to' acknowledge one after another. He submitted, and having obtained leave, proceeded towards Hindustan with his family and effects. A few of his own retainers accompanied him as far as Kheiber, and then returned back. Having joined the caravan of Baki Gagiani, he passed by Nilab. At this time Yar-Hussain Delia Khan was in Kecheh-Kot. This man had converted into a Sanad the Firman which he had received from me on leaving Kohat; and having enlisted in his service a number of followers, who were partly Afghans of the tribes of Dilazak and Yusefzai, and partly men of the Jat2 and Giijer tribes, his sole occupation now was ravaging the country, and robbing on the high-ways. Having got notice of Bald's approach, he occupied the road, and took prisoner Baki himself, and every person that was along with him.

His death. He put Baki to death, and took his lady. Though I gave Baki his discharge, and did him no harm, yet he was caught in his own evil, and taken in his own toils.

1 All animals, goods, clothes, &c. brought into the country, are stamped or marked, and a tax collected.

2 The Jats compose the greater part of the agricultural population over the west of India, down to the mouth of the Indus.

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