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'Do thou resign to Fate him who injures thee;

For Fate is a servant that will not leave thee unavenged.

This winter we remained encamped in the Charbagh, during one or two of the first Babcr atfalls of snow. Down to the time of, my arrival in Kabul, the Turkoman Hazaras had Turkoman been guilty of numerous insults and depredations; I therefore determined to make an Hazaras. excursion against them, and having gone into the city, and taken up my residence in the palace of Ulugh Beg Mirza, called Bostan-Sera, I set out from thence in the month1 of Sliaban, with the intention of making a foray on the Turkoman Hazaras. A detachment was pushed on, which made a sudden attack on a small party of Hazaras at Jangelik, in the mouth of the valley of Khesh, and dispersed them. A few Hazaras had lain in ambush in a cave near the valley of Khesh. Sheikh Dervish Gokultash had been in many an action along with me, held the office of Korbegi,2 and was distinguished for the strength with which he drew the bow, as well as the sureness of his aim. He had gone up close to the mouth of this den, without suspecting anything, when a Hazara from within shot him with an arrow under the nipple, and he died the same day. The great body of the Turkoman Hazaras had erected their winter habitations in the valley of Khesh; we now pushed forward to fall upon them.

The valley of Khesh is a particular kind of glen. For about half a kos from its mouth there is a strait, which makes it necessary for the road to pass along ftie face of the hill. Below this road is a precipice of fifty or sixty gez3 perpendicular descent. Higher up than this road runs a pathway, by which one horseman only can pass at a time. Having passed this strait, we proceeded forward the same day till between noonday and afternoon prayers, when, not having come upon the enemy, we halted. A fat Shuterluk4 belonging to the Hazaras was found, brought in, and killed. We ate part of its flesh roasted, part of it sun-dried. I never eat such fine-flavoured camel's flesh; many could not distinguish it from mutton.

Marching thence next morning, we began to approach the place where the Hazaras had. taken up their winter quarters. It was about the end of the first watch, when a man came from the advance with information, that, in a narrow defile, the Hazaras had fortified and strengthened a ford with branches of trees, and had stopped the advance of our troops, who were now engaged with them. On hearing this, we instantly quickened our pace, and when we had advanced a little way, reached the place where the Hazaras had made their stand, and were in hot action. That winter the snow lay very deep, which rendered it dangerous to leave the common road. The banks of the stream, about the ford, were all covered with ice; and it was impossible to pass the river at any place off the road, on account of the ice and snow. The Hazaras had cut . down a number of branches of trees, with which they had fortified the opposite landing-place. They ranged themselves both on horseback and foot, as well in the chan

1 Shaban commenced on the 28th December 1505. » Was armour-bearer, or perhaps provost-marshal.

3 Upwards of a hundred feet.

4 The Shuterluk is a species of camel which has very little hair, and is used for carrying burdens.

nel as along the banks of the river, and maintained the fight by discharges of arrows. Muhammed Al i Mobasher Beg, one of the new Amirs,-whom I had distinguished by particular marks of favour, and who was a very brave and able man, and a deserving young officer, had neglected to put on his coat of mail; as he advanced rather near to the place where the road was blocked up by the branches, he was struck by an arrow in the kidneys, and expired on the spot. We had come up hurriedly, and many of us had not taken time to put on our armour. One or two arrows passed whizzing by, and missed us. Ahmed Yusef Beg, in evident alarm, said every time, "You should not have come here unarmed—you must go hack. I have observed two or three arrows graze close by your head."—I replied, "Be you bold: as good arrows have many a time passed my head." At this very moment, on our right, Kasim Beg, with his band, discovered a place where the stream could be crossed, and having gained a footing on the opposite side, no sooner pushed on his horse to the charge, than the Hazaras, unable to keep their ground, took to flight. The party that had got in among them, followed them in close pursuit, dismounting and cutting numbers of them down. In reward for his bravery on this occasion, I bestowed Bangash on Kasim Beg as a provision. Khatim Korbegi also signalized himself on this expedition, on which ac. count I gave him the office of Korbegi, which had been held by Sheikh Dervish Gokultash. To Kepek Kali Baba, for his good conduct, I gave Muhammed Ali MobaSfer Beg's office. Sultan Kuli Chinak went in pursuit of them, but it was impossible to leave the road on account of the quantity and depth of the snow. I myself accompanied the pursuers; we fell in with the sheep and herds of horses of the Hazaras, near their winter habitations. I collected, for my own share, to the number of four or five hundred sheep, and twenty or twenty-five horses. Sultan Kuli, and two or three other persons who were at hand, were joint sharers. I myself went twice on a plundering party. This was one of the times. The other was also against these very Turkoman Hazaras, when, on my return from Khorasan, I led a foray against them, and brought off numbers of their horses and sheep. The wives and little children of the Hazaras escaped on foot to the snow-covered hillocks, and there remained. We were rather remiss in following them. The day, too, was far spent; we therefore went and halted at the huts of the Hazaras.

This winter the snow lay very deep. At this place, off the road, it reached up to the horses' cruppers; the picket1 appointed for the night-watch round the camp, were obliged to remain on horseback till day-break, in consequence of the depth of the snow.

Next morning we began to move back, and passed the night in the winter huts of the Hazaras, within the valley of Khesh. Marching thence we halted at Jenglik. Yarek Taghai and some others having lagged a little behind, I directed them to proceed and take the Hazaras who had shot Sheikh Dervish. These wretches, infatuated by the blood on their heads, still remained in the cave. Our people, on coming up, filled the cave with smoke, took seventy or eighty Hazaras, and passed a greater number under the edge of the sword.

1 Cheghdawel.

On finishing this inroad against the Hazaras, we moved down the river Baran, into Goes to the vicinity of Ai-toghdi, for the purpose of collecting the revenue of Nijrow. While ''tog I remained at Ai-toghdi, Jchangir Mirza waited upon me from Ghazni.

At this time, on the 13th of Ramzan,.I was attacked with so severe a lumbago, that His illness. for forty days I was unable to move, and was obliged to be turned from one side to i50fi>e' the other by my people. Among the glens of the valley of Nijrow, that of Bechghan is the chief, and is the principal district in the valley. The headman, Hussain Ghaibi Agha, and his younger brother, were noted for their rebellious and contumacious spirit. I dispatched a division against him, under the command of Jehangir Mirza, whom I made Kasim Beg accompany. The detachment went, attacked, and took by storm, a rough stone fort, or sanger, which had been thrown up, and inflicted on part of them the punishment they deserved. In consequence of the pain I suffered from my lumbago, they made a sort of litter, in which I was conveyed from the banks of the Baran to the city, where I was lodged in the Bostan-Sera, and spent there some part of that winter. My first complaint was not removed, when I was seized with boils on my right cheek, which I got lanced. I also used laxatives for this disorder.

On getting better I moved into the Charbagh. Jchangir Mirza came thither to pay Defection his respects to me. Yusef and Bchlol, the sons of Ayub, from the time they had join- jjjrja-ant5ir ed the Mirza, had been instigating him to seditious and treasonable practices. I did not on this occasion find Jehangir Mirza what he bad formerly been. In the course of a few days he set out from his quarters, put on his mail, and went off hastily for Ghazni. Having taken Kila Baki, and killed several of the men in it, he completely plundered the place. He then pushed on, accompanied by all his retainers of every description, and directed his route through the midst of the Hazaras towards Bamian.1 Almighty God knows that neither from me, nor any person dependent on me, did he receive any provocation by word or deed to occasion such violent measures. I afterwards learned that he assigned the following cause for his flight. At the time when Jehangir Mirza came from Ghaznin, and Kasim Beg and the rest of the Begs went out Cause* to meet him, the Mirza had thrown off a falcon at a Budineh, or quail. When the falcon had overtaken it, and was in the act of seizing it in his pounces, the quail dashed itself on the ground. There was a cry, "Has he taken it or not?" Kasim Beg observed, " When he has reduced his enemy to such a plight, he will not let him off. No doubt, he will take him." This expression struck him, was misinterpreted, and was subsequently one of the causes of the Mirza's elopement. They also noted and treasured up one or two expressions still more idle and unmeaning than even this. In a word, having acted at Ghazni in the manner that has been mentioned, they passed through the midst of the Hazaras, and repaired to the Aimaks.2 At that time*, the Aimaks had left Nasir Mirza, but were in a state of hostilities with the Uzbeks, and lived in Yai, Asterab, and the summer habitations in that quarter.

1 Bamian, or But-Bamian, lies north-west from Ghazni, among the hills.

8 The Aimaks inhabit the hill-country west of the Hazaras, towards Herat. This, however, appears to have been only one wandering tribe of them.

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At this very juncture Sultan Hussain Mirza having come to a determined resolution to check the progress of Muhammed Sheibani Khan, summoned all his sons to attend him. He also sent Syed Afzel, the son of Syed Sultan Ali Khab-bin (the dreamer), to summon me. It appeared to me expedient, to march towards Khorasan on many accounts. One of these was, that when a mighty prince like Sultan Hussain Mirza, who filled the throne of Taimur Beg, had collected his sons and Amirs from every quarter, with the intention of attacking so formidable an enemy as Sheibani Khan, if others went on their feet, it became me to accompany them were it on my head; if others went against him with sticks, it was my business to go were it only with stones. Another consideration was, that Jehangir Mirza having shown his hostility, it became necessary either to remove his animosity, or to repel his aggressions.

This year Sheibani Khan besieged^Hussain. Sufi in Khwarizm, which he took after a siege of ten months. In the course of this siege a number of desperate actions were fought, and the men of Khwarizm displayed many deeds of consummate bravery, and distinguished themselves by their gallant exertions; they discharged their arrows with so much force that often they pierced through both shield and mail, and frequently right through the double cuirass. For ten months was the siege protracted; when, there being no hope of succour from any quarter, some mean and dastardly wretches among the inhabitants, having lost heart, entered into an understanding with the Uzbeks, and introduced them into the fortress. Hussain Sufi, on hearing the alarm, repaired to the spot, charged those who had scaled the walls, and while in the act of driving them out, was struck with an arrow, and died. This put an end to the contest, and the place was taken. The blessing of God rest on Hussain Sufi, who never hesitated for a moment, in the midst of danger and distress, gallantly to expose his life at the call of duty.

Sheibani Khan having committed Khwarizm to the care of Kuchek-bi,1 himself repaired to Samarkand.

In the latter part of this year, in the month of Zilhajeh,2 Sultan Hussain Mirza, when he had collected an army for the purpose of acting against Sheibani Khan, and had advanced as far as Baba Ilahi, was called to the mercy of God.

He was born in the year 842 at Heri, in the time of Shah-rokh Mirza. Sultan Hussain was the son of Mansur, the son of Baikra, the son of Omer-Sheikh, the son of Amir Taimur. Mansur Mirza and Baikra Mirza never mounted the throne. His mother was Firozeh Begum, a grand-daughter of Taimur Beg. Sultan Hussain Mirza was also the grandson of Miranshah. He was of exalted birth, and of royal race by both parents. There were born of that marriage, two brothers and two sisters of the full blood, Baikra Mirza, Sultan Hussain Mirza, Aka Begum, and another sister, whom Ahmed Khan married. Baikra Mirza, though elder than Sultan Hussain Mirza, served under him, but did not attend in the Diwan. Except when in the Diwan, they were accustomed to sit on the same cushion. The younger brother bestowed on him the government of Balkh, which he held many years. He had three sons, Sultan Muhammed Mirza, Sultan Weis Mirza, and Sultan Iskander Mirza. Aka Begum was the Mirza's elder sister; she married Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the grandson of Miranshah. She had one son named Kuchek Mirza, who at first entered into the service of his maternal uncle; hut afterwards, renouncing the military life, devoted himself to letters. He is said to have become very learned, and had a genius for poetry. The following is one of his Rubais (quatrains):—

His birth and extraction. 1438.».

1 It will be remarked, that several of Sheibani's officers are called Bi, as Kamber-bi, Kuchek-bi, &c. This title of Bi is still given among the Uzbeks to the heads of families or clans. J The 1st of Zilhajeh corresponds to the 2ath April, 1506.

>

{Persian.) For a while I plumed myself on my. virtuous life;

I vaunted myself on my adherence to the rules of piety:
When Love came, what became of Virtue and Devotion?
Thanks be to God that I have proved myself.

There is a coincidence between these lines and a quatrain of the Mulla (Jami's).
Latterly he went on the pilgrimage of Mekka. Bedkeh Begum was the Mirza's young-
er sister. She was given in marriage to Ahmed Khan,1 the Khan of Haji Terklian.
She had two sons by him, who came to Heri, and were long in the Mirza's service.

He had strait narrow eyes, his body was robust and firm ;- from the waist down- His figure, wards he was of a slenderer make. Although he was advanced in years and had a white beard, he dressed in gay-coloured red and green woollen clothes. He usually wore a cap of black lamb's skin, or a kilpak.3 Now and then, on festival days, he put on a small turban tied in three folds,4 broad and showy, and having placed a plume nodding over it, went in this style to prayers.

On first mounting the throne, he took it into his head that he would cause the iiis mannames of the twelve Imams5 to be recited in the Khutheh. Many used their endea- n"8and

» character.

vours to prevent him*. Finally, however, he directed and arranged everything according to the orthodox Sunni faith.. From a disorder in his joints, he was unable to perform6 his prayers, nor could he observe the stated fasts. He was a lively, pleasant man. His temper was rather hasty, and his language took after his temper. In many instances he displayed a profound reverence for the faith; on one occasion, one of his sons having slain a man, he delivered him up to the avengers of blood to be carried before the judgment-seat of the Kazi. For about six or seven years after he first ascended the throne, he was very guarded in abstaining from such things as were forbidden by the law; afterwards he became addicted to drinking wine. During nearly forty years that he was King of Khurasan, not a day passed in which he did not drink after midday prayers; but he never drank wine in the morning. His sons, the whole of the soldiery, and the town's-people, followed his example in this respect, and seemed to vie with each other in debauchery and lasciviousness. He was a brave and valiant man.

1 Ahmed Khan, the son of Haji Terkhan, chief of the Kozaks.—Leyden. The reading in the text i« that of the other manuscripts. Haji-terkhan is the proper name of Astrakhan.

* Literally, he was lion-bodied. 3 The Kilpak is the Turkoman cap. 4 Seh-pich.

5 This was a proof that he was then a Shia. The Khutbeh is the prayer for the prince.

8 The word perform may be excused in speaking of Musulman prayers, as a great part of them consists in ceremonial bendings and prostrations. Hence the disease in his joints made it difficult for Sultan llussain Mirza to observe the injunctions of the law.

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