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He often engaged sword in hand in fight, nay, frequently distinguished his prowess hand to hand several times in the course of the same fight. No person of the race of Taimur Beg ever equalled Sultan Hussain Mirza in the use of the scymitar. He had a turn for poetry, and composed a Diwan. He wrote in the Turki. His poetical name was Hussaini. Many of his verses are far from being bad, but the whole of the Mirza's Diwan is in the same measure. Although a prince of dignity, both as to years and extent of territory, he was as fond as a child of keeping butting rams, and of amusing himself with flying pigeons and cock-fighting. Il'» "arj" One of his exploits was on the banks of the river of Kurkan,1 when he plunged into

the stream, passed it, and completely routed a party of Uzbeks. Another was, when Sultan Abusaid Mirza nominated Muhammed Ali Bakhshi to the command of three thousand horse, with instructions to proceed without halt, and attack him by surprise, Sultan Hussain Mirza advanced to meet them with only sixty men, fell upon them straightway, and fairly discomfited them. This was a gallant and most distinguished achievement of Sultan Hussain Mirza. On another occasion he had a battle with Sultan Mahmud Mirza at Asterabad, and defeated him. He had also another fight at Asterabad, when he beat Hussain Turkoman Saadlimek. Another of his battles was after mounting the throne, when he engaged and routed Yadgar Muhammed Mirza in Khabaran. Another of his exploits was when, passing the bridge of the Murghab,1 he proceeded by forced marches, and surprised and took prisoner Yadgar Muhammed Mirza, who was lying in a state of intoxication in the Bagh-Taglian (or Raven Garden),3 after a debauch, and by this success gained the undisturbed possession of Khorasan. Another of them was at Chekman, in the vicinity of Andekhud and Shaberghan,4 where he encountered and defeated Sultan Mahmud Mirza. Another of them was, when Ababeker Mirza came from Irak, accompanied by the Turkomans of the Black-sheep,5 defeated Ulugh Beg Mirza in Takaneh and Khimar, and took Kabul, which he abandoned in consequence of the confusions in Irak, passed by way of Kheiber, traversed the territory of Khushab6 and Multan, and entered Sivi," from whence he proceeded and occupied Kerman; but being unable to retain it, he again entered the country of Khorasan, when Sultan Hussain Mirza came upon him by surprise, and took him prisoner. On another occasion, at the bridge of Chiragh, he defeated Badia-ez-zeman Mirza, one of his own sons. At another time he raised an army, with which he besieged Kundez, but was forced to abandon the siege; on another occasion he besieged Hissar, but not succeeding, he raised the siege. Another of his enterprizes was when he marched against Zulnun Beg's country; the Darogha of Bist surrendered the place,8 but he could effect nothing farther, and was obliged even to abandon Bist and retreat. Sultan Hussain Mirza, though a great and warlike prince,

1 Kurkan, Gurgan, or Jorjan, lies on the south-east of the Caspian.

* Pule-murghub—perhaps the name of a village. 3 At Herat.

4 About 60 miles west from Balkh. * Karakueluk.

« East of the Sind. 7 Siwistan.

8 This transaction, and the one which follows it, have been already mentioned in the Memoirs. Bost, or Bist, is the Kila Beast of Mr Elphinstone's map, on the left bank of the Helmend, below its junction with the Arghand-ab. This expedition of Sultan Hussain Mirza was against Zemin Dawer, which is higher up on the opposite bank of the Helmend, and river of Siahbend.

accomplished nothing worthy of his dignity in these two or three enterprizes, and returned baffled. At another time, he engaged and defeated in the Auleng-Nishin his son Badia-ez-zeman Mirza, who had advanced, accompanied by Shah Shuja Beg, the. son of Zulnun Beg. On this occasion a singular coincidence occurred. Sultan Hussain Mirza, having divided his army, had sent the main body towards Asterabad. On the very day of the battle, the army that had been dispatched against Asterabad returned and joined him: and the very same day, Sultan Masaud Mirza, from whom Hissar had been wrested by Baiesangher Mirza, made his appearance from another quarter, and also joined Sultan Hussain Mirza.

His kingdom was that of Khorasan, which on the east has Balkh, on the west Bos- His domitam and Damghan, on the north Khwarizm, and on the south Khandahar and Sistan. n,on*' After the fine city of Heri fell into his hands, his whole time was devoted, night and day, to revelry and enjoyment; and there was not one of his servants or dependents, who, in like manner, did not give himself up to pleasure and riot. The cares of ambition and the necessary toils of military discipline were consequently neglected. Hence, down to the time of his death, his dominions and servants went on diminishing, without getting any corresponding increase.

He had fourteen sons and eleven daughters who lived. The eldest of his sons was His (*ilBadia-ez-zeman Mirza, whose mother was the daughter of Senjer Mirza of Merv. Badia-ez

Another was Shah Gherib Mirza. Although his form was not prepossessing, he "man had a fine genius; and though his constitution was feeble, he had a powerful style. Gh ^ He assumed the poetical name of Ghurbi, and composed a diwan. He wrote verses Mirza. both in Persic and Turki. The following is his:—

I had a passing glance of a fairy face, and became inflamed to madness with her love;
What is her name, where her abode, 1 know not.

Sultan Hussain Mirza gave Shah Gherib the government of Heri for some time. He
departed in his father's lifetime, leaving no son nor daughter.

Another was Muzaffer Hussain Mirza, who was the favourite son of Sultan Hussain Muzaffer Mirza, although there was nothing in his manners or conduct to justify such marked mn^ favour. In consequence of the decided partiality which he showed to this son, several of the others were induced to revolt. Khadijeh Begum, who had been a concubine of Sultan Abusaid Mirza's, was the mother of the two last-mentioned Mirzas. She had likewise a daughter by the Mirza, named Ak Begum.1

Another of his sons was Abul Hassan Mirza. Another was Kepek Mirza,2 as he was Abul Hasgenerally called, but his name was Muhammed Mokhsin Mirza. The mother of these K^pek two was Latifeh Sultan Aghacheh. Mirzas.

Another was Abu Terab Mirza, who in early life was highly extolled for his rapid Abu Terab acquirements. When his father's illness increased and became extreme, having heard M,rzasomething to alarm him, he went to Irak, accompanied by his younger brother, Muhammed Hussain Mirza. He there renounced the profession of arms, and betook himself to that of a dervish. I never heard of him afterwards. He had one son, Sohrab

1 The Fair Princess.—Leyden. * Kepek Mirza, from being round-shouldered.—Leyden.

z

Mirza, who was in my service when I defeated Khamzeh Sultan, Mehedi Sultan, and the other Sultans, and took Hissar. This young man was blind of one eye. He was singularly ill-favoured, and his manners corresponded with his looks. Having been guilty of something extremely reprehensible, he found it impossible to remain in my employment, and repaired to Asterabad, where Najem Sani inflicted on him condign punishment for his misdeeds. Muhammed Another son was Muhammed Hussain Mirza. He and Shah Ismacl1 were once Mir/.*.1 imprisoned in the same place in Irak, at which time he became one of Shah Ismael's disciples, and from that period was a rank heretic.2 Although his father, his elder brother, and his younger brothers, were all orthodox Sunnis, he continued a blind and confirmed Rafzi (heretic) till his death in Asterabad. His character stood high as a brave and courageous warrior; but I never heard any of his exploits that deserve to be recorded. He had a genius for poetry; the following is his:—

{Persian.)—In the pursuit of what game dost thou range thus dust-defiled?

From the ardours of whose warm heart art thou thus bathed in perspiration?

Feridun Another was Feridun Hussain Mirza. He was a powerful archer, and an excellent

Huss«n marksman. They say that his gdrdehieh (or double-stringed bow) required forty mans3" weight to make the ears meet. He was himself a man of bravery, but not fortunate iu battle. He was beat wherever he engaged. At Rebat-e-Dodez, Feridun Hussain Mirza, and his younger brother Ebn Hussain Mirza, engaged Taimur Sultan and Ubeid Sultan, and were defeated. On that occasion, Feridun Hussain Mirza distinguished himself by his strenuous exertions. At Damghan, Feridun Hussain Mirza and Muhammed Zeman Mirza4 fell into the hands of Sheibak Khan. He killed neither of them, but set them at liberty. Afterwards, when Shah Muhammed Diwarieh fortified Kilat' for a siege, he repaired thither ; and when the Uzbeks took Kilat, was made prisoner, and put to death. These three last-mentioned princes were all by Mingeli-bi Aghacheh, an Uzbek concubine of the Mirza's. Haider Another was Haider, whose mother was Paiendeh Sultan Begum, the daughter of

Mirza. Sultan Abusaid Mirza. In his father's lifetime he for some time enjoyed the government of Meshhid and Balkh. At the siege of Hissar, Sultan Hussain Mirza betrothed this son to the daughter of Sultan Mahmud Mirza by Khanzadeh Begum, concluded a peace, and raised the siege of Hissar. By her he had one daughter, called Shad Begum, who lived to grow up. She latterly came to Kabul, and was given to Aadel Sultan. Haider Mirza also departed this life before his father.

Another was Muhammed Maasum Mirza, to whom Kandahar was given by his M ..i.-isiim father, Sultan Hussain Mirza. On that occasion a daughter of Ulugh Beg Mirza was ."*"• betrothed to this son. After she was brought to Heri he made a grand festival, and

1 Shah Ismacl was the founder of the Sefvi dynasty in Persia. He was a rigid Shia, and a man of great learning and piety.

* That is, he became a Shia.

3 If the Tabriz man, this would be about 290 pounds.

* A son of Badia-ez-zeman Mirza.

s This is the Kilat in Khurasan, famous as the birth-place of Nadir Shah.

erected a magnificent pavilion 1 for the occasion. Though he bestowed Kandahar on this prince, yet everything that was done, he it black or be it white, was done by Shah Beg Arghun; the Mirza had neither power nor influence in the matter; for which reason he would not continue at Kandahar, but returned to Khorasan, where he died in his father's lifetime.

Another was Farekh Hussain Mirza, who did not reach any great age, and did not Farekh survive his younger brother Ibrahim Hussain Mirza. Mirza."

Another was Ibrahim Hussain Mirza, whose talents were thought respectable. He Ibrahim was eternally drinking the wine of Heri to excess, and died of hard drinking in his Mirz"TM father's lifetime.

Another was Ebn Hussain Mirza, who, with Muhammed Kasim Mirza, will be Ebn Hus. mentioned in the sequel. The mother of these five Mirzas was Papa Aghacheh, who andMuTM was a concubine. hammed

His eldest daughter was Sultanim Begum, who had no brother or sister of the full m,7a.. blood. Her mother, Juli Begum, was the daughter of one of the Begs of the Azaks. Sultanim Sultanim Begum was very eloquent and ingenious, but her remarks in conversation Rum' were frequently rude and ill-timed. Her elder brother gave her in marriage to Sultan Weis Mirza, the son of Miangi Baikra Mirza, by whom she had one son and one daughter. This daughter was given to Isan Kuli Sultan, the younger brother of Dilbars Sultan, one of the Shaban Sultans. Sultan Muhammed Mirza, on whom I have conferred the government of Kanuj, is the son of this marriage. Sultanim Begum set out along with her grandson for Hindustan, but expired at Nilab on the journey. Her attendants returned back with her remains, while her grandson continued his route and joined me.

Again, by Paiendeh Sultan Begum, Sultan Hussain Mirza had four daughters. The eldest of them was Ak Begum, who was married to Muhammed Kasim Arlat, the Ak liegum. grandson of Begah Begum, Baber Mirza's2 younger sister. By him she had one daughter, named Karakuz Begum, (the black-eyed princess,) who was married to Nasir Mirza. The second of the daughters was Kechek Begum. Sultan Masaud Mirza Kechek was extremely attached to her, but whatever efforts he made, Paiendeh Sultan Begum, eKumhaving an aversion to him, would not consent to the match. She was afterwards married to Mulla Khwajeh, who was of the family of Syed Ata. The third sister, Begah HeBegah Begum, and the fourth, Agha Begum, were given to Baber Mirza,3 and Sultan sum' and Murad Mirza, the sons of his younger sister Rabiat Sultan Begum. gum.

By Mangeli-bi Aghacheh he had two daughters; the elder was given to Syed Abdalla Mirza, who was descended of the Syeds of Andekhud, and the grandson, by a daughter, of Baikra Mirza. She had one son named Syed Berkeh. When I took Samarkand, he came and entered my service. He afterwards went to Urgenj,4 and • aspired to the sovereignty. The Kezelbashes5 slew him in Asterabad. The name of

1 Char-tak.

2 Probably Baber Mirza, the grandson of Shahrokh Mirza, who was for several years King of Khorasan, and whose transactions in Khorasan, Persia, and Maweralnaher, make a great figure in the history of the times. This able prince died in 1457.

3 This is evidently a different Baber Mirza from the one last-mentioned.

4 In Khwiirizm.

''.. The Kezelbashes, or red bonnets, are the Persians, so called from a red cap worn by their soldiers.

Fatimah

Sultan.

Sultan
Nizid
Begum.

Begum

Sultan.

Aisha
Sultan.

His wives and concubines. Begah Sultan Begum.

Juli Begum.

Sheherbanu Begum.

Paiendeh Sultan Begum. Khadijeh Begum.

the other daughter was Fatimah Sultan. She was married to Yadgar Muhammed Mirza, who was of the line of Taimur Beg.

By Papa Aghacheh he had three daughters. The eldest was Sultan Nizad Begum. Sultan Hussain Mirza gave her in marriage to Sekander Mirza, the younger son of his elder brother. The second daughter was Begum Sultan, who was bestowed on Sultan Masaud Mirza, after the loss of his eyesight. By him she had one son and one daughter. The daughter was taken charge of, and brought up by Apak Begum, one of Sultan Hussain Mirza's ladies. She came to Kabul from Heri, and Apak married her to Syed Mirza. After the Uzbeks had put to death Masaud Sultan, Begum Sultan set out with her son, for Mekka. I have received information that she and her son are now in Mekka. The third daughter was married to one of the Syeds of Andekhud, well known under the name of Syed Mirza.

He had one other daughter, called Aisha Sultan, by a concubine. Her mother was Zobeidah Aghacheh, the grand-daughter of Hussain Sheikh Taimur, of the race of the Shaban Sultans. This daughter was given in marriage to Kasim Sultan. By him she had one son, Kasim Hussain, who came to Hindostan, entered into my service, and was in the holy war against Rana Sanka. I gave him the government of Bedaun. After Kasim Sultan, she married Buran Sultan, one of his relations, by whom she had another son named Abdullah Sultan, who is at present in my service, and although young, acquits himself very respectably.

The first wife whom he married was Begah Sultan Begum, the daughter of Senjer Mirza of Merv. By her he had Badia-ez-zeman Mirza. She was extremely crosstempered, and fretted Sultan Hussain Mirza beyond endurance, till the Mirza, driven to extremities by her insufferable humour, divorced her. What could he do? The Mirza was in the right;

{Persian.)—A bad wife in a good man's house,

Even in this world, makes a hell on earth.1

May the Almighty remove such a visitation from every good Moslem; and God grant that such a thing as an ill-tempered, cross-grained wife, be not left in the world!

Another of his wives was Juli Begum, the daughter of one of the chiefs of the Azaks, by whom he had Sultauim Begum.

Another was Sheher-banu Begum, the daughter of Sultan Abusaid Mirza, whom he married after he ascended the throne. At the battle of Chekman, when all the Mirza's ladies descended from their litters and mounted on horseback, this princess, relying on her younger brother,2 did not leave her litter nor take to horse. This *vas reported to the Mirza, who thereupon divorced her, and married her youngest sister, Paiendeh Sultan Begum. After the Uzbeks took Khorasan, Paiendeh Sultan Begum went to Irak, where she died in distress.

Another was Khadijeh Begum, who had been a concubine of Sultan Abusaid Mirza, and born him one daughter, who was named Ak Begum (or the Fair Lady). After the defeat of Sultan Abusaid Mirza in Irak, this lady came to Heri, where

1 From the Gulistan of Sadi.

2 The battle of Chekman was fought between Sultan Hussain Mirza, and Sultan Mahmud Mirza, who was the son of Sultan Abusaid Mirza, and the brother of Sheher-banu Begum. •

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