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i Pushing forward, we quickly climbed the hill;

We went on without heeding their arrows,
Sometimes dismounting, sometimes on horseback.
First of all came on the boldest warriors:
The enemy showered down arrows from above,
But marking our resolution gave way and fled.
We gained the top of the hill, and drove the Hazaras before us,
We skipped over the heights and hollows like deer;
We cut off the heads of the slain like deer;
We plundered them, we divided their property and sheep;
We slew the Turkoman Hazaras,
And made captives of their men and women;
Those who were far off too we followed and made prisoners:
We took their wives and their children.

The purport of these verses is, that when the Hazaras stopped the van, on its route, our men were all rather perplexed, and halted. In this situation I came up singly. Having called out to the men who were fleeing, " Stand ! Stand !" I attempted to encourage them. Not one of them would listen to me, or advance upon the enemy, but they stood scattered about in different places. Although I had not put on my helmet, my horse's mail, or my armour, and had only my bow and quiver, I called out that servants were kept that they might be serviceable, and, in time of need, prove their loyalty to their master; not for the purpose of looking on while their master marched up against the foe : after which I spurred on my horse. When my men saw me making for the enemy, they followed. On reaching the hill which the Hazaras occupied, our troops instantly climbed it, and, without minding the arrows which poured down on them, made their way up, partly on horseback, partly on foot. As soon as the enemy saw that our men were in real earnest, they did not venture to stand their ground, but took to flight. Our people pursued them np the hills, hunting them like deer or game. Such property or effects as our troops could lay hold of, they brought in with them, and made the families and children of the enemy prisoners. We also gathered in some of their sheep, which we gave in charge to Yarek Taghai, while we proceeded forward. We traversed the heights and eminences of the hill-country, driving off the horses and sheep of the Hazaras, and brought them to Lenger-Taimur-Beg, where we encamped. Fourteen or fifteen of the most noted insurgents and robber chiefs of the Hazaras had fallen into our hands. It was my intention to have put them to death with torture at our halting-ground, as an example and terror to all rebels and robbers; but Kasim Beg happening to meet them, was filled with unseasonable commiseration, and let them go;

To do good to the bad is the same thing
As to do evil to the good:
Salt ground does not produce spikenard;—
Do not throw away good seed on it.1

The same pity was extended to the other prisoners, who were all set at liberty.

1 From the Gulistan of Sadi

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While we were plundering the Turkoman Hazaras, information reached us that Mnhammed Hussain Mirza Doghlet, and Sultan Senjer Birlas, having drawn over to their interests the body of Moghuls who had staid behind in Kabul, had declared Khan Mirza king,1 were now besieging Kabul, and had spread a report that Badia-ez-zeman Mirza and Mozeffer Mirza had seized the king, and carried him away to the fort of Ekhtiar-ed-din at Heri, which is now known by the name of Aleh-kurghan.2 The chief persons in the fort of Kabul were Mulla Babai Beshagheri, Khalifeh, Mohib Ali Korchi, Ahmed Yusef, and Ahmed Kasim. These officers had all conducted themselves well, had put the fort into a strong state of defence, and done everything to guard it. At Lenger-Taimur-Beg I wrote an intimation of my having arrived in this quarter, and sent it to the nobles who were in Kabul, by Muhammed Andejani, one of Kasim Beg's servants. I arranged with them that I was to descend by the Straits of Ghurbend, and to march on and take the enemy by surprise. The signal of my coming was to be, that I was to kindle a blazing fire after passing Minar hill; and I enjoined them, on their side, to make a large fire in the Citadel, on the top of the Old Kiosk, which is now the Treasury, in order that we might be sure that they were aware of our approach; and while we assailed the enemy from without, they were to sally out from within, and to leave nothing undone to rout the besiegers. Such were the instructions which I dispatched Muhammed Andejani to communicate.

Next morning, we left Lenger, and halted opposite to Ushter-sheher. Mounting again before day, we descended the Pass of Ghurbend towards night, and halted near Sir-e-pul.3 Having refreshed our horses, and bathed them, we left Sir-e-pul at noonday prayers. Till we reached Tutkawel there was no snow. After passing that place, the farther we went the snow was the deeper. Between the village of Noh4 and Minar the cold was so excessive, that, in the whole course of my life, I have seldom experienced the like. I sent Ahmedi Yesawel, along with Kara Ahmed Yurchi, to the Begs in Kabul, to let them know that we had come according to our engagement, and to require them to be on the alert, and bold. After surmounting the hill of Minar, we descended to the skirts of the hill, and, being rendered quite powerless from the frost, kindled fires and warmed ourselves. This Was not the place where we were to kindle our fires, but, being unable to stand the cold, we were obliged to kindle them to warm ourselves. The morning was near when we set out from the skirts of the hill of Minar. Between Kabul and Minar the snow reached up to the horses' thighs. Every place Was covered with snow, so that such of our people as deviated from the road were exposed to mischief. This whole distance we passed, sinking and rising again in the snow. In this way we reached Kabul undiscovered, by the appointed time. Before we arrived at Bibi Mah-rui, we saw a fire blazing in the Citadel. We then knew that

1 Khan Mirza was Sultan Weis Mirza, the youngest son of Baber's uncle, Sultan Mahmud Mirza of Hissar, by a half sister of Baber's mother, and consequently his cousin. Muhammed Hussain Mirza Doghlet had married another sister of Baber's mother, and had been governor of Uratippa, whence he had been expelled by Sheibani Khan.

2 Eagle Castle. It was an extremely strong castle on the north of Herat, and much used as a stateprison. It is pretended that Shahrokh Mirza employed no less than seven hundred thousand men in rebuilding it.

3 Bridgend, a common name in these countries. 4 The Persian has Yekhshi.

they were prepared. When we came to Syed Kasim's Bridge, I sent Shirim Taghai, with the right wing, towards Mulla Baba's Bridge. With the centre and left wing, I advanced hy way of Baba Luli; at that time, where the Bagh-e-Kalifeh now is, there was a small garden and house, which Ulugh Beg Mirza had made to serve as a Lenger.1 Although its trees and wood were gone, yet its inclosure was still left. Khan Mirza He attacks had his quarters there. Hussain Mirza was in the Bagh-e-Behisht,2 which had been made by Ulugh Beg Mirza. We had got to the burying-ground near Mulla Baba's garden, when they brought back to me, wounded and unhorsed, a party that had pushed on in advance. This party, which had preceded us and had entered Khan Mirza's house, was four in number, Syed Kasim Ishik-agha, Kember Ali Beg, Shir Kuli Kerawel Moghul, and Sultan Ahmed Moghul, who was one of Shir Kuli Moghul's followers; these four persons, as soon as they came up, without halting, entered the palace where Mirza Khan lived. All was instantly in uproar and alarm. Khan Mirza mounted on horseback, galloped off, and escaped. Muhammed Hussain Kor- Khan Mirza begi's younger brother, also in the service of Khan Mirza, attacked Shir Kuli Moghul, escaPes one of the four, sword in hand, and threw him down; but Shir Kuli contrived to escape while his opponent was endeavouring to cut off his head. These four persons, still smarting from their sabre and arrow wounds, were brought to me as I have mentioned. The alley was narrow, and our horsemen crowded into it, so that a confusion and bustle ensued. Some of the enemy also collected, and though much crowded, made a stand. Our people could not get forward, and could not get back. I desired some men who were near me to dismount and push on. Dost Nasir, Khwajeh Muhammed Ali Kitabdar, Baba Shir-zad, Shah Mahmud, and a few others, having accordingly dismounted, advanced and assailed the enemy with their arrows. The enemy were shaken and took to flight. We waited a long time for the coming of our people from the fort, but they did not arrive in time for action. After the enemy were defeated, they began to drop in by ones and twos. Before we reached the Charbagh, in which Khan Mirza's quarters had been, Ahmed Yusef and Syed Yusef joined me from the fort, and we entered the garden that he had left. On finding that Khan Mirza had escaped, we instantly left it. Ahmed Yusef was behind me, when, at the gate of the Charbagh, as I was coming out, Dost Sirpuli Piadeh, a man to whom I had shown particular marks of favour in Kabul, on account of his valour, and whom I had left in Baber in the office of Kotwal,3 advanced with a naked sword in his hand, and made at me. I had on my stuffed waistcoat/ but had not put on my plate-mail. I had also omitted to put on my helmet. Although I called out to him, " Ho, Dost! Ho, Dost!" and sjxike to him; and though Ahmed Yusef also called out; whether it was that the cold and snow had affected him, or whether he was hurried away by a confusion of ideas arising from the bustle of fight, he did not know me, and, without stopping, let fall a

1 A Lenger is a house, in which Kalenders, or the religious devotees of the Muhammedans, live in, a sort of collegiate state. A Caravansera is generally connected with it, and is often the only part remaining of the establishment.

'-' Garden of Heaven. 3 The Kotwal is a Superintendant of Police.

* The jibeh is a sort of waistcoat quilted with cotton. The gherbiche or plate-mail, are four plates of iron or other metal, made to cover the back, front, and sides.

blow on my bare arm. The grace of God was conspicuous; it did not hurt a single hair;

However the sword of man may strike,

It injures not a single vein, without the will of God.

I had repeated a prayer, by virtue of which it was that Almighty God averted my danger, and removed from me the risk to which I was exposed. It was as follows:— Hi» prayer, ^rabic)—" O my God! Thou art my Creator; except Thee there is no God. On Thee do I repose my trust; Thou art the Lord of the mighty throne. What God wills comes to pass; and what He does not will, comes not come to pass; and there is n«i power nor strength but through the High and Exalted God; and, of a truth, in all things God is Almighty; and verily He comprehends all things by his knowledge, and has taken account of everything. O my Creator! as I sincerely trust in Thee, do Thou seize by the forelock all evil proceeding from within myself, and all evil coming from without, and all evil proceeding from every man who can be the occasion of evil, and all such evil as can proceed from any living thing, and remove them far from me; since, of a truth, thou art the Lord of the exalted throne!" He attempts Proceeding thence, I went to the Bagh-e-Behisht, where Muhammed Hussain Mir/a Muhammed resided; but he had fled, and had escaped and hid himself. In a breach in the wall of Mir/**"1 tne Eag'ic',eM (or Little Garden), in which Muhammed Hussain Mirza had resided, seven or eight archers kept their post. I galloped and spurred my horse at them; they durst not stand, but ran off. I came up with one of them, and cut him down. He went spinning off in such a way, that I imagined his head had been severed from his body, and passed on. The person whom I had hit was Tulik Gokultash, the foster brother of Khan Mirza; I struck him on the arm. Just as I had reached the door of Muhammed Hussain Mirza's house, there was a Moghul sitting on the terrace, who had been in my service, and I recognised him. He fitted an arrow to his bow, and aimed at me. A cry rose on all sides, " That is the King!" he turned from his aim, discharged the arrow, and ran off. As the time for shooting was gone by, and as the Mirza and his officers had fled away or were prisoners, what purpose was to be answered by his shooting? While I was at this palace, Sultan Senjer Birlas, whom I had distinguished by favours, and to whom I had given the Tuman of Nangenhar, but who had nevertheless engaged in this rebellion, was taken, and dragged before me with a rope about his neck. Being in great agitation, he called out, "What fault have I done?" "Is there a greater crime than for a man of note like you to associate and conspire with insurgents and rebels?" As Shah Begum,1 the mother of my maternal uncle the Khan, was his sister's daughter, I ordered them not to drag him in this shameful way along the ground, but spared his life, and did him no more harm.

Leaving this place, I directed Ahmed Kasim Kuhber, who was one of the chiefs that had been in the fort, to pursue Khan Mirza with a body of troops. Close by the

1 Shah Begum was one of the wives of Yunis Khan, the maternal grandfather of Baber, and was the mother of Sultan Nigar-Khanum, who was Khan Mirza's mother. It is to be observed, that Khanuru and Kkanim are used indiscriminately in all the copies.

Bagh-e-Behisht,1 Shah Begum and the Khanim2 dwelt, in palaces which they had themselves erected. On leaving the palace,. I went to visit Shah Begum and the Baber Khanim. The town's-people and the rabble of the place had taken to their clubs, and Be<?um». were making a riot. They were eager to lay hold of men in corners, to plunder prolierty, and profit by the confusion. I therefore stationed parties in different places, to chastise and disperse them, and to drive them away. Shah Begum and Khanim were sitting together in the same house. I alighted where I had always done, and went up and saluted them with the same respect and form as I had been accustomed to use. v Shah Begum and the Khanim were out of all measure alarmed, confounded, dismayed, and ashamed. They could neither stammer out an excuse, nor make the inquiries which politeness required. It was not my wish that they should feel uneasy; yet the faction which had been guilty of such excesses was composed of persons who, beyond all doubt, were not disposed to neglect the suggestions of the Begum and the Khanim. Khan Mirza was the grandson of Shah Begum, and night and day with the Begums. If he did not pursue their advice, it was in their power to have prevented his leaving them, and they could have kept him near them under their own eye. On several occasions, too, when, from adverse circumstances and ill fortune, I was separated from my country, my throne, my servants, and dependants, I had fled to them for refuge and shelter, and my mother had also gone to them, but we experienced no sort of kindness or support. Khan Mirza, my younger brother,-1 and his mother, Sultan Nigar-Khanum, at that time possessed valuable and populous countries, while I and my mother had not even a single village, nor a few fowls. My mother was a daughter of Yunis Khan, and I was his grandson. But whether I was or not, every one of that connexion who happened to come in my way was sure to benefit by it, and was treated as a relation or cousin. When Shah Begum came to live with me, I bestowed on her Pemghan, which is one of the most desirable places in Kabul. Indeed, I never failed in my duty or service towards any of them. Sultan Said Khan, the Khan of Kashghar,4 came to me with five or six naked followers on foot; I received them like my own brothers, and gave him the Tuman of Mandraur, one of the districts of Lemghan. When Shah Ismacl overthrew and slew Sheibak Khan in Merv, and I passed over into Kundez, the men of Andejan began to turn their eyes towards me. Several of them displaced their Daroghas, while others held their towns on my account, and sent to give me notice of their proceedings. I dispatched Sultan Said Khan, with my Baberi servants and an additional reinforcement, to hold the government of my own native country of Andejan, and raised him to the rank of Khan; and, down to this moment, I have always continued to treat every man of that family, who places himself under my protection,

1 Garden of Paradise.

* The Khanim, or princess, here mentioned, must be either Meher-nigar-Khanum, the eldest sister of Baber's mother, and one of the widows of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, or more probably her youngest sister of the full blood, Khub-nigar-Khanum, the wife of Muhammed Hussain Mirza. Khan Mirza was the youngest son of their sister of the half blood, Sultan Nigar-Khanim, the widow of Sultan Mahmud Mirza.

3 Cousins are often familiarly called brothers in eastern countries. The meaning is, Khan Mirza, whom I regarded as my younger brother, &c.

4 He also was a near relation of Yunis Khan. He married a daughter of one of Baber's aunts.

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