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who was a powerful prince, was approaching with a great army, the Begs of Andejan might deliver up both the country and me into his hands; he was therefore for conducting me towards Urkend1 and the country on the skirt of the hills in that quarter, that if they should deliver up the country, I might not fall into his power, but might join my maternal uncles Ilcheh Khan or Sultan Mahmud Khan.

Khwajeh Moulana Kazi, the son of Sultan Ahmed Kazi, was of the race of Sheikh Burhanan-ed-din Kilij, and by the mother's side descended of Sultan ilik Mazi. He was sprung of a religious family that had come to be regarded as the protectors of that country. This family in some sort held the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam* by hereditary descent, and will hereafter be often mentioned. The Kazi, and the Begs who were in the Castle, on hearing of our proceedings, sent Khwajeh Muhammed Derzi, who was an old and trusty household servant3 of Omar-Sheikh Mirza, and the Beg-utkeh or governor of one of his daughters, to dispel our apprehensions. He overtook us and made me turn, after we had nearly reached the Id-gab, and conducted- me into the ciinto the tadel, where I alighted. Khwajeh Moulana Kazi and the Begs having met in my preCitadcl. Sence, held a consultation; and, after having mutually communicated their ideas, and resolved on their plan, applied themselves to put the fortress, with its towers and ramparts, in a state of defence. Hassan Yakub, Kasim Kochin, and some other Begs, who had been sent on an excursion to Marghinan and that quarter, arrived a day or two after, and entered into my service; and all of them, with one heart and soul, set themselves zealously to maintain the place. Sultan Ah- Sultan Ahmed Mirza, after having made himself master of Uratippa, Khojend, and approaches* Marghinan, advanced to Kaba,4 within four farsangs5 of Andejan, and encamped. At Andejin. this time one Dervish Gaw, a man of note in Andejan, was capitally punished on account of some seditious expressions, an example which reduced all the rest of the inhabitants to their duty.

I now sent Khwajeh Kazi, Uzun Hussan, and Khwajeh Hussain, as ambassadors, to Sultan Ahmed Mirza, with a message to this effect:—" It is plain that you must place some one of your servants in charge of this country; I am at once your servant and your son; if you intrust me with this employment, your purpose will be attained in the most satisfactory and easy way." As Sultan Ahmed Mirza was a mild, weak man, of few words, who was implicitly guided in all his opinions and actions by his Begs; and as they were not favourably disposed to this proposition, a harsh answer was returned, and he marched forward.—But the Almighty God,6 who, of his perfect power,

1 Urkend or Uzkent lies towards the Ala-tagh hills north of Ush.

* The Sheikh-ul- Islam is the chief Judge in all civil and religious causes which are decided by the divine law (Sheriat). There is generally one in each great city. The Seder, when there is one, is the superior officer.

3 I am at a loss for the correct meaning of Baberian, which often occurs. It appears to signify one who had been about the person of a prince from infancy. It is sometimes written Baerian.

* Kaba was a small town on the river Kaba, west of Andejan.

5 Mr Elphinstone's Turki copy has four Yegh&ji. The Persian four Kos.

6 Baber, like all other Turks, uses the word Tengri for Deity. It is of Pagan origin, and seems originally to have been Moghul. It is now current all ever Tartary and in China. It has found its way too into Persian, and is used for the Almighty.

has, in his own good time and season, accomplished my designs in the best and most proper manner, without the aid of mortal strength, on this occasion also brought certain events to pass, which reduced the enemy to great difficulties, frustrated the object of their expedition, and made them return without success, heartily repenting of their attempt.

One of these was the following; the Kaba is a black river and extremely slimy, in- Causes of somuch, that it can be only passed by a bridge: as the host was very numerous, there was a great crowding on the bridge, and many horses and camels fell over into the black water and perished. Now as three or four years before this, the same troops had suffered a severe defeat at the passage of the river Chirr, the present disaster recalled the former to their remembrance, and the soldiers of the army were seized with a panic. Another circumstance was, that, at this time, a disease attacked the horses with such violence that they were taken ill, and began to die in great numbers. A third circumstance was, that they found my soldiers and subjects so unanimous and resolute, that they perceived clearly that their determination was to fight to the last drop of their blood, and the last gasp of their life, without yielding, and that they would never submit to the government of the invaders. Disconcerted by these circumstances, after they had come within one farsang of Andejan, they on their part sent Dervish Muhammed Terkhan, who was met near the Idgah by Hassan Yakub, from the castle, when they conferred together and patched up a sort of a peace, in consequence of which the invading army retired.

In the meanwhile Sultan Mahmud Khan had entered the country on the north of Sultan the river of Khojend in a hostile manner, and laid siege to Akhsi. Jebangir Mirza Khan inwas in the place, and Ali Dervish Beg, Mirza Kuli Gokultash, Muhammed Baker vad"the Beg, and Sheikh Abdulla the Chamberlain,1 were along with him. Weis Laghari and Provinces. Mir Ghias Taghai were also there, but, in consequence of some misunderstanding between them and the other Begs, they withdrew to Kasan, which was Weis Laghari's government. As Weis Laghari was Beg-Utke (or governor) to Nasir Mirza, that prince resided at Kasan. As soon as the Khan arrived in the neighbourhood of Akhsi, these Begs waited on him, and surrendered Kasan: Mir Ghias continued with the Khan; but Weis Laghari carried off Nasir Mirza and delivered him to Sultan Ahmed Mirza, by whom he was given in.charge to Muhammed Mazid Terkhan. The Khan having approached Akhsi, made several assaults on it, but without success; the Begs and youth of Akhsi fought with distinguished valour. At this crisis Sultan Mahmud But i* {>"Khan fell sick, and being besides disgusted with the war, returned to his own country, treat.

Ababeker Doghlet Kashghari, who acted as an independent prince, and had for Ababeker several years been Hakim of Kashghar and Khoten, was seized, like the rest, with the ^.^l,1 an desire of conquest, and had advanced to Uzkend, where he constructed a fortress, and Ferghana employed himself in plundering and laying waste the country. Khwajeh Kazi and a number of Begs were dispatched to expel him. When the army approached, the

7 Ishek-Agha, lord or keeper of the entrance or door, an officer resembling the chamberlain, or perhaps rather a master of ceremonies, and of some consequence in Asiatic courts.


But is re- Kashgharian, who perceived that he was unable to contend with it, applied to Khwajeh Kazi as mediator, and contrived to extricate himself from his situation with great • address and cunning.

During these important events, the Begs and younger nobility, who had been about Omar-Sheikh Mirza, united resolutely, and displayed a noble spirit, being eager to devote their lives to the cause. They afterwards conducted the Mirza's mother, Shah Sultan Begum, Jehangir Mirza, and the family in the haram, from Akhsi to Andejan, where they performed the ceremonies of mourning for him, and distributed food and victuals to the poor and to religious mendicants. Baber's When delivered from these dangers, it became necessary to attend to the admini

otfice re. stration and improvement of the country, and to placing everything in proper order, warded. The government of Andejan, and the prime authority in the Court, were bestowed on Hassan Yakub; Ush was given to Kasim Kochin; Akhsi-and Marghinan were intrusted to Uzun Hassan and Ali Dost Taghai; and each of the Begs and younger nobility of Omar-Sheikh Mirza's court had a district, an estate, or portion of land assigned to him, or received Some mark of distinction suited to his rank and consequence. Death of Meanwhile Sultan Ahmed Mirza, after having made two or three marches on his

med Mirza. return home, fell very ill, and being seized with a burning fever, departed from this Middle of transitory world, in the territory of Uratippa, just as he had reached the Aksu,1 (or July H94. White river,) in the middle of the month Shawal 899, in the 44th year of his age.

His birth jje was Dorn in 855, the year in which Sultan Abusaid Mirza came to the throne,

and extrac

tion. and was the eldest of all his sons. His mother was the daughter of Urdah Bugha

• • •*«"• Xerkhan, was elder sister of Dervish Muhammed Terkhan, and the most respected of 'the Mirza's wives, fe' 1u'e and He was t*", of a ru(mV complexion, and corpulent. He had a beard on the forepart of the chin, but none on the lower part of the cheek. He was a man of extremely pleasant manners. He wore his turban, according to the fashion of the time, in what was termed Chdrmdk (the four-plaited), with the tie or hem brought forward over the eyebrows. His man- jje was strictlv attached to the Hanifah2 sect, and was a true and orthodox be

ners and <» *

religious liever. He unfailingly observed the five stated daily prayers, and did not neglect them opmions. even wnen engaged in drinking parties. He was attached to Khwajeh Abid-ulla, who Was his religious instructor and guide. He was polite and ceremonious at all times, but particularly in his intercourse with the Khwajeh; insomuch that they say, that, while in company with him, however long they sat, he never changed the position of his knees, by shifting the one over the other, except in one instance, when, contrary to his usual practice, he rested the one knee on the other. After the Mirza rose, the Khwajeh desired them to examine what there was particular in the place in which the Mirza had been seated, wheirthey found a bone lying there.3

1 The Habib-cs-seir makes him die at Armena, a village on the Aksu, which is a considerable river, rising in the Asfeia hills, and which falls into the Sirr a little to the west of Khojend.

2 The Hanifah is one of the four orthodox Musulman sects.

3 It will be recollected that the Asiatics sit cross-legged on a carpet. The bone of a dead animal being impure, is thought to defile a Musulman, who is obliged, after touching it, to purify himself.

He had never read any,1 and, though brought up in the city, was illiterate and un- J^1"refined. He was a plain honest Turk, but not favoured by genius. He was, however, a just man; and as he always consulted the reverend Khwajeh in affairs of importance, he generally acted in conformity to the law. He was true to his promises, and faithful to his compacts or treaties, from which he never swerved. He was brave; and though he never happened to be engaged hand to hand in close combat, yet they say that in several actions he showed proofs of courage. He excelled in archery. He was a good marksman. With his arrows and forked arrows2 he generally hit the mark; and in riding from one side of the exercise ground to the other, he used to hit the brazen basin several times.3 Latterly, when he became very corpulent, he took to bringing down pheasants and quails with the goshawks, and seldom failed. He was fond ofhawking, and was particularly skilled in flying the hawk, an amusement which he frequently practised. If you except Ulugh Beg Mirza, there was no other king who equalled him in field-sports. He was singularly observant of decorum, insomuch that it is said, that even in private, before his own people and nearest relations, he never uncovered his feet.4 Whenever he took to drinking wine, he would drink without inr termission for twenty or thirty days at a stretch, and then he would not taste wine for the next twenty or thirty days. In his social parties he would sometimes sit day and night, and drink profusely; on the days when he did not drink, he ate pungent substances. He was naturally of a penurious disposition, was a simple man, of few words, and entirely guided by his Begs.

He fought four battles: the first with Sheikh Jemal Arghiin, the younger brother His wars. of Niamet Arghun, in the territory of Zamin,5 at Akar-tuzi, in which he was victorious; the second with Omar-Sheikh Mirza, at Khawas,6 in which likewise he was victorious; the third affair was with Sultan Mahmud Khan, in the vicinity of Tashkend, on the river Chirr, in which there was in truth no battle, for as soon as a few scattered plundering Moghuls came up with the army, and seized some baggage, a whole mighty host, without fighting, without resistance, and no man having engaged

1 The expressions in' the text would lead us to suppose that he could not read.

* Giz.

3 This refers to an exercise in archery practised by the Turks. A brazen basin (kapak) is placed on the top of a very lofty pole, to serve as a mark. This is shot at, sometimes from a fixed station, and sometimes while the archer gallops across the ground and past the mark at full speed. Abulghazi Behader, in his account of the festival of Kiun Khan, describes a similar exercise. "He caused to be erected near these tents two trees', forty fathoms high, and a golden hen to be fixed on the top of the tree, which was planted near the tents on the right hand; and on the top of the tree which was planted near the Cents on the left side, a hen of silver; ordering that all who bore the name of Bussick should exercise themselves in shooting at the golden hen, running full speed, and that those of the name of Utz-ock should shoot in the same manner at the silver hen ; and he ordered considerable prizes for those who hit the hen."—Genealogical History of the Tatars, vol. I. p. 22. Lond. 1730, 8vo.

* When the Asiatics sit down, they draw in their legs under their bodies. It is regarded as a mark of disrespect, or of great familiarity, to show their feet. Their long and loose dress renders it easy to conceal them.

5 Zamin, or Ramin, lies in Uratippa. Akar-tuzi signifies the plain of the flowing stream. '' Khawas lies between Uratippa and Tashkend.

His dominions.

His children. 1. Rabia Sultan Begum.

2. Salikeh Sultan Begum.

3. Aisha Sultan Begum.

4. Sultanam Begum.

5. Maasumeh Sultan Begum.

His wives.

gar Kha

Katak Be-

another, or even seen an enemy, was completely panic-struck and broken up, and numbers of them drowned in their disorderly flight across the Chirr. His fourth battle was with Haider Gokaltash, in the confines of Yar-Ilak,1 in which he was victorious.

He possessed the countries of Samarkand and Bokhara, which his father had given him; and, after the death of Sheikh Jemal, who was slain by Abdul Kadus, he got possession of Tashkend, Shahrokhia, and Seiram.2 He afterwards gave Tashkend and Seiram to his younger brother, Omar-Sheikh Mirza; and also, for some time, occupied Khojend and Uratippa.

He had two sons, who died young, and five daughters, four of whom were by Katak Begum. The eldest of them all was Rabia Sultan Begum, whom they called Karagoz (or the Black-eyed) Begum. He gave her in his lifetime to Sultan Mahmud Khan, by whom she had a son, named Baba Khan, a very promising boy. When the Uzbeks slew the Khan in Khojend, they put to death him and many others like him of tender years. After the death of Sultan Mahmud Khan, Jani Beg Sultan married her. The second daughter was Salikeh Sultan Begum, who was called Ak Begum, (or the Fair Lady.) After Sultan Ahmed Mirza's death, Sultan Mahmud Mirza celebrated her marriage with that prince's eldest son, Sultan Masaud Mirza, with great festivity. She afterwards fell into the hands of the Kashgharian at the same time with Shah Begum and Meher-Nigar Khanum. The third daughter was Aisha Sultan Begum. When I visited Samarkand, at the age of five years, she was betrothed to me. She afterwards came to Khojend during the troubles, when I married her; and, about the time when I took Samarkand the second time, I had one daughter by her, who lived only a few days. She left my family before the overthrow of Tashkend, induced by the machinations of her elder sister. The fourth daughter was Sultanam Begum, who was married first to Sultan Ali Mirza, afterwards to Taimur Sultan, and lastly to Mehedi Sultan. The youngest of all his daughters was Maasumeh Sultan Begum, whose mother, Habibah Sultan Begum, was of the tribe of Arghun, and the daughter of one of Sultan Arghun's brothers. I saw her when I went to Khorasan, and, being pleased with her, asked her in marriage, and carried her to Kabul, where I married her. I had by her one daughter, at the time of whose birth she was taken ill in childbed, and was united to the mercy of God. The daughter whom she bore received her mother's name.

Of his wives and ladies, the principal was Meher-Nigar Khanum, the eldest daughter of Yunis Khan, who was betrothed to him by his father, Sultan Abusaid Mirza. She was my mother's eldest sister of the full blood.

Another of his wives was of the family of Terkhans, and named Terkhan Begum.

Another was Katak Begum, who was the foster-sister of this same Terkhan Begum. Sultan Ahmed Mirza married her for love. He was prodigiously attached to her, and she governed him with absolute sway. She drank wine. During her life, the Sultan

1 This name is variously written in the different manuscripts at various times—sometimes Bar-ilak, sometimes Yaz-ilak, and sometimes Yar-ilak. 3 Tashkend, as has been already remarked, lies between Shahrokhia and Seiram.

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