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Uzbeks, with a hundred or a hundred and fifty men. A great body of the enemy coming up, took him in an instant, and swept on. They cut off his head as soon as he was taken.

The mother, sister, Haram, and treasures of the Mirzas, were in the castle of Ehk- H*«1 tiar-ed-din, which commonly goes by the name of Aleh Kurghan.1 The Mirzas reached the city late in the evening: they slept till midnight to refresh their horses. At dawn they abandoned the place, without even having thought of putting the fort in a state of defence. During this interval of leisure, they took no means for carrying off their mother, sister, wives, or children, but ran away, leaving them prisoners in the hands of the Uzbeks.2 Payendeh Sultan Begum, Khadijeh Begum, with the wives and women of Sultan Hussain Mirza, of Badia-ez-zeman Mirza, and Mozeffer Mirza, their children, infants, and whatever treasure and effects the Mirzas possessed, were all in Aleh Kurghan. They had not put the fort in a sufficient posture of defence, and the troops that had been appointed to garrison it were not arrived. Ashik Muhammed Arghun, the younger brother of Mazid Beg, having fled on foot from the army, arrived at Heri and entered the castle. Al i Khan the son of Amir Umer Beg, Sheikh Abdalla Bekawal, Mirza Beg Ky-Khosravi, and Miraki Kor Diwan, also threw themselves into the castle. On Sheibak Khan's arrival, after two or three days, the Sheikh-ul-Islam and the chief men of the city, having made a capitulation, took the keys of the walled town, went out to meet him and surrendered the place. Ashik Muhammed, however, held out the castle for sixteen or seventeen days longer; but a mine being run from without, near the horse-market, and fired, a tower was demolished. On this the people in the castle, thinking that all was over with them, gave up all thoughts of holding out, and surrendered.

After the taking of Heri, Sheibak Khan behaved extremely ill to the children and Shribik's wives of the kings; nor to them alone, he conducted himself towards everybody in a duct. rude, unseemly, and unworthy manner, forfeiting his good name and glory for a little wretched earthly pelf. The first of Sheibak Khan's misdeeds in Heri was, that for the sake of some worldly dirt, he ordered Khadijeh Begum to be given up to Shah Manstir Bakhshi, the catamite, to be plundered and treated as one of his meanest female slaves. Again, he gave the reverend and respected Saint, Sheikh Puran, to the Moghul Abdul Wahab to be plundered; each of his sons he gave to a different person for the same purpose. He gave the poets and authors to Mulla Binai to be squeezed. Among the jeux d'esprit on this subject, one tetrastich is often repeated in Khorasan :—

Except only Abdalla Kirkhar,3 to-day,

There is not a poet can show the colour of money;

1 This strong castle lies, as has been mentioned, close to Herat on the north.

- It may only be necessary to add, that Badia-ez-zeman Mirza took refuge with Shah Ismael Sufevi, who gave him Tabriz. When the Turkish Emperor Selim took that place in A. H. 920 (A. D. 1514), he was taken prisoner and carried to Constantinople, where he died A. H. 923 (A. D. 1517). Muhammed Zeman Mirza, who is often mentioned in the course of Baber's transactions in Hindustan, was his son. ,

3 Kirkhar (asini nervus) seems to have been the nick-name of some poet who was plundered.

Death of Abul Has. san and Kepek.

Binai is inflamed with hopes of getting hold of the poet's cash,
But he will only get hold of a Kirkhar.1

There was a Khan's daughter called Khanim, one of Mozeffer Mirza's Haram. Sheibak Khan married her immediately on taking Heri, without being restrained by her being in an impure state.2 In spite of his supreme ignorance, he had the vanity to deliver lectures in explanation of the Koran to Ka/.i Ekhtiar and Muhammed Mir Yiisef, who were among the most celebrated Mullas in Khorasan and Heri. He also took a pen and corrected the writing and drawings of Mulla Sultan Ali, and Behzad the painter. When at any time he happened to have composed one of his dull couplets, "he read it from the pulpit, hung it up in the Charsu (or Public Market), and levied a benevolence from the town's-people on the joyful occasion. He did know something of reading the Koran, but he was guilty of a number of stupid, absurd, presumptuous, infidel words and deeds, such as I have mentioned.

Ten or fifteen days after the taking of Heri, he advanced from Kohdestan to the bridge of Salar, and sent his whole army, under the command of Taimur Sultan and Abid Sultan, against Abul Hussan Mirza and Kepek Mirza, who were lying in Meshhid,3 quite off their guard. At one time they thought of defending Kilat ;4 at another time, on hearing of the approach of this army, they had thoughts of giving it the slip, and of pushing on by forced marches by another road, and so falling on Sheibani Khan by surprise. This was a wonderfully good idea; they could not, however, come to any resolution, and were still lying in their old quarters, when Taimur Sultan and Abid Sultan came in sight with their army, after a series of rapid marches. The Mirzas, on their side, put their army in array, and marched out. Abul Hassan Mirza was speedily routed. Kepek Mirza, with a few men, fell on the enemy who had engaged his brother. They routed him also. Both of them were made prisoners. When the two brothers met they embraced, kissed each other, and took a last farewell. Abul Hassan Mirza showed some dejection, but no difference could be marked in Kepek Mirza. The heads of the two Mirzas were sent to Sheibak Khan while he was at the Bridge of Salar.

At this time Shah Beg, and his younger brother Muhammed Mokim,5 being alarmed at the progress of Sheibak Khan, sent me several ambassadors in succession, with submissive letters, to convey professions of their attachment and fidelity. Moklm himself, in a letter to me, explicitly called upon me to come to his succour. At a season like this, when the Uzbeks had entirely occupied the country, it did not appear to me becoming to remain idly looking on; and, after so many ambassadors and letters had been sent to invite me, I did not think it necessary to stand on the ceremony of waiting till these noblemen came personally to pay me their compliments. Having consulted with all my Amirs and best-informed counsellors, it was arranged that we should march to their assistance with our army; and that, after forming a junction with the Arghun Amirs, we might consult together, and either march against Khorasan, or follow some other course that might appear more expedient. With these intentions, we set out for Kandahar. At Ghazni I met Habiba Sultan Begum, whom, as lias been mentioned, I called my Yenka, and who had brought her daughter Maasuineh Sultan Begum, as had been settled between us at Heri. Khosrou Gokultash, Sultan Kuli Chinak, and Gedai Belal, had fled from Heri to Ebn Hussain Mirza, and had afterwards left him also, and gone to Abul Hassan Mirza. Finding it equally impossible to remain with him, they came for the purpose of joining me, and accompanied the ladies.

Babet marches to Kandahar.

1 There is a Persian phrase, when a man is engaged in an unprofitable undertaking, Ktr-e-kkar khahtd gtrift, Asini nervum deprehendet.

2 The Adet, or unlawful times of a woman, according to the Muhammeilan law, are chiefly three,—while she is mourning the death of her husband, when menstruous, and for a certain period after her divorce.

3 A celebrated city of Khorasan, west from Herat.

4 The birth-place of Nadir Shah, north of Meshhid. It stands on very strong ground.

5 These two noblemen were the sons of Zulnun Beg, and, after their father's death, were in possession of Kandahar, Zemin Dawer, and part of the hill-country to the south. The former, who was a brave warrior, afterwards founded an independent sovereignty (that of the Arghuns) in Sind.

When we reached Kilat,1 the merchants of Hindustan, who had come to Kilat to P?8?68 traffic, had not time to escape, as our soldiers came upon them quite unexpectedly. The general opinion was, that, at a period of confusion like the present, it was fair to plunder all such as came from a foreign country. I would not acquiesce in this. I asked, " What offence have these merchants committed? If, for the love of God, we suffer these trifling things to escape, God will one day give us great and important benefits in return; as happened to us not very long ago, when we were on our expedition against the Ghjljis; the Mehmends, with their flocks, their whole effects, wives, and families, were within a single farsang of the army. Many urged us to fall upon them. From the same considerations that influence me now, I combated that proposal, and the very next morning Almighty God, from the property of the refractory Afghans, the Ghiljis, bestowed on the army so much spoil as had never perhaps been taken in any other inroad." We encamped after passing Kilat, and merely levied something from each merchant by way of Peshkesh.

After passing Kilat, I was joined by Khan Mirza, whom I had suffered to retire into Is met by Khorasan after his revolt in Kabul, and by Abdal Rizak Mirza,2 who had staid behind M in Khorasan when I left it. They had just escaped from Kandahar. The mother of the Pir Muhammed Mirza, who was the grandson of Behar Mirza, and the son of Jehangir Mirza, accompanied these Mirzas, and waited on me.

I now sent letters to Shah Beg and Mokim, informing them that I had advanced Shah Be^ thus far in compliance with their wishes; that, as a foreign enemy like the Uzbeks refuse ^ had occupied Khorasan, it was necessary, in conjunction with them, to concert such surrender measures as might seem most advisable and expedient for the general safety. Immediately upon this, they not only desisted from writing and sending to invite me, but even returned rude and uncivil answers. One instance of their rudeness was, that in the letter which they wrote me, they impressed the seal on the back of the letter, in the place in which one Amir writes to another, nay, where an Amir of some rank sets

1 This is Kilat-e-Gliilji on the Ternek, about a degree east from Kandahar.

» Khan Mirza, it will be recollected, was the youngest son of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, one of Baber's uncles, and King of Hissar, afterwards of Samarkand; and Abdal Rizak Mirza was the son of another of them, Ulugh Beg Mirza, late king of Kabul.

Baber ar

his seal in writing- to an inferior Amir.1 Had they not been guilty of such insolence, and returned such insulting answers, things never would have come to such an issue, as it has been said,—

(Persian.)—An altercation has sometimes gone so far as to overthrow an ancient family (dynasty).

The result of their passionate and insolent conduct was, that their family, and the accumulated wealth and honours of thirty or forty years, were given to the wind.

In Sheher-Sefa,2 one day, there was a false alarm in the camp: all the soldiers armed and mounted. I was busy bathing and purifying myself. The Amirs were in great alarm. When ready I mounted; but, as the alarm was a false one, everything was soon quieted. rives before Proceeding thence by successive marches, we encamped at Guzer.3 There too, in Kan iar" spite of all my attempts to come to an explanation, they paid no attention to my overtures, but persisted in their obstinacy and contumacy. My adherents, who knew every part of the country, advised me to advance by the rivulets which flow towards Kandahar, on the side of Baba Hassan Abdal, and Khalishak,4 and to occupy a strong position on their course. I adopted the plan, and next morning having armed our troops, and arrayed them in right and left wings and centre, we marched in battle order for Khalishak. Shah Beg and Mokim had erected a large awning on the projecting face of the hill of Kandahar, somewhat below the place where I have built a palace, and lay there with their army. Mokim's men pushed forward and advanced near us. Tufan Arghun, who had deserted and joined us near Sheher-Sefa, advanced alone towards the Arghun line. One Ashik-alla, with seven or eight men, separating from the enemy, rode hard towards him. Tufan advanced singly, faced them, exchanged some sword-blows, dismounted Ashik-alla, cut off his head, and brought it to us as we were passing by Sang Lekhsheh.5 We hailed this exploit as a favourable omen. As the ground was broken by villages and trees, we did not reckon it a good place to select for the battle. We, therefore, passed over the skirts of the hills, and having chosen our ground by the stream of an auleng (or meadow), near Kandahar, had halted, aud were encamping, when Shir Kuli, who had the advance, rode hastily up, informing me that the enemy were in full march towards us, drawn up in battle array. After passing Kilat, our people had suffered much from hunger and want. On coming to Khalishak, most of them had gone out in various directions, some up the country and others down, to collect bullocks, sheep, and other necessaries, and were now much

1 The Persians pay great attention, in their correspondence, not only to the style, but to the kind of paper on which a letter is written, the place of signature, the place of the seal, and the situation of the address. Chardin gives some curious information on this subject.

* Sheher-Sefa lies about forty miles east of Kandahar.

3 The ford. This village probably stands at the passage over some river.

* Baba Hassan Abdal is probably the same as Baba Wali, five or six miles north of Kandahar; at least, the Saint who gives his name to Hassan Abdal, east of Atok, is called indiscriminately Hassan Abdal, and Baba Wali Kandahari. Khalishak is on a little hill about three miles west of Baba Wali, beyond the Arghandab.

6 There are two Lekhshehs, Little Lekhsheh, a mile west of modern Kandahar, and GreatCekhsheh, about a mile south-west of the old city of Kandahar, and five or six from the modern one.

scattered. Without wasting time in attempting to gather in the stragglers, we mounted for action. My whole force might amount to about two thousand; but when we halted on our ground, from the numbers that had gone off in different directions on foraging parties, as has been mentioned, and who had not had time to rejoin us, before the battle, when the enemy appeared I had only about a thousand men with me. Though my men were few in number, yet I had been at great pains to train and exer- Hi« order cise them in the best manner. Perhaps on no other occasion had I my troops in such ba" eperfect discipline. All my household dependents1 who could be serviceable, were divided into bodies of tens and fifties, and I had appointed proper officers for each body, and had assigned to each its proper station on the right or left, so that they were all trained and perfectly informed of what they were to do; and had orders to be on the alert, and active, during the fight. The right and left wings,2 the right and left divisions, the right and left flanks, were to charge on horseback, and were drawn up and instructed to act of themselves, without the necessity of directions from the Tewachis ;3 and in general the whole troops knew their proper stations, and were trained to attack those to whom they were opposed. Although the terms Beranghar, Ung-Kul, Ungyan, and Ung, have all the same meaning, yet for the sake of distinctness, I gave the different words different senses. As the right and left are called Beranghar and Jewanghar4 (Meimeneh and Myesereh), and are not included in the centre, which they call Ghul, the right and left do not belong to the Ghul; in this instance, therefore, I called these separate bodies by the distinctive names of Beranghar and Jewanghar. Again, as the Ghul or centre is a distinct body, I called its right and left by way of distinction, Ung-kul and Sul-kul. The right and left of that part of the Centre where my immediate dependents were placed, I called Ungian and Sulian. The right and left of my own household troops, who were close at hand, I called Ung and Siil. In the Beranghar or right wing, were Mirza Khan, Shirim Taghai, Yarek Taghai, with his brother, Jelmeh Moghul, Ayub Beg, Muhammed Beg, Ibrahim Beg, Ali Syed Moghul, with the Moghuls, Sultan Ali Chehreh, Khodai Bakhsh, and his brothers. In the Jewanghar or left wing, were Abdal Rizak Mirza, Kasim Beg, Tengri Berdi, Kembci»Ali Ahmed Elchi, Bugheh Ghuri Birlas, Syed Hussain Akber, Mir Shah Kochin Irawel,5 Nasir Mirza, Syed Kasim the Ishik-agha (or Chamberlain), Mohib Ali Korchi, Papa Ughli, Alia Weiran Turkoman, Shir Kuli Kerawel Moghul, with his brothers, and Ali Muhammed: In the Ghul or centre on my right hand, Kasim Gokultash, Khosrou Gokultash, Sultan Muhammed Duldai, Shah Ma h mud Perwanchi (the Secretary), Kill Baiezid Bekawel (the Taster), Kemal Sherbetji (the Cup-bearer).

1 The Tabineh Khaseh, are the troops that belong immediately to the prince, and who are not the retainers or dependents of any of the Begs or Chiefs.

2 Beranghar and Jewanghar ;—the other terms are explained below.

3 The Tewachis were a sort of adjutants, who attended to the order of the troops, and carried orders from the general.

} The meaning of these words, by some oversight, is reversed in Richardson's Dictionary (London, 1806), probably in consequence of the loose and rather awkward explanation given by Meninski, under Jewanghar va Beranghar, noinina puto, says he, ticta aut Scythica.

5 The Irawel and Kerawel, as has been already remarked, were the men of the advanced guard or picquet.

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