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buttle of the Arghfins,

On my left, Khwajeh Muhammed, Ali Dost, Nasir Miram, Nasir Baba Shirzad, Jan Kuli, Wall Khizanchi (the Treasurer), Kuttek Kadam Kerawel, Maksud, Suchi,1 and Baba Sheikh; besides these, all my own immediate servants and adherents were in the centre; there was no Beg or man of high rank in it; for none of those whom I have mentioned had yet attained the rank of Beg. With the party which was ordered to be in advance, were Shir Beg, Janim Korbegi, Kepek Kuli, Baba Abul-Hassan Korchi; of the Urus Moghuls Ali Syed Derwish, Ali Syed Khush-Geldi, Chilmeh Dost Geldi, Jilmeh Yaghenchi, Damaji Mehdi; of the Turkomans Mansur and Rustam, with his brothers, and Shah Nazer Sewenduk.

Order of The enemy were divided into two bodies. One of them was commanded by Shah

Shujaa Arghun, who is known by the name of Shah Beg, and shall hereafter be called Shah Beg; the other by his younger brother Mokim. From the appearance of the Arghuns, they looked about six or seven thousand in number. There is no dispute that there were four or five thousand men in armour with them. He himself was opposed to my right wing and centre, while Mokim was opposed to the left wing. Mokim's division was much smaller than his elder brother's. He made a violent attack on my left wing, where Kasim Beg was stationed with his division. During the fight, two or three messages came to me from Kasim Beg, to ask succour; but as the enemy opposed to me were also in great force, I was unable to detach any men to his assist

The battle, ance. We advanced without loss of time towards the enemy. When within bowshot, they suddenly charged, put my advance into confusion, and forced them to fall back on the main-body, which, having ceased shooting, marched on to meet them; they on their part also gave over shooting, halted, and stood still a while. A person who was over against me, after calling out to his men, dismounted and deliberately aimed an arrow at me. I galloped up instantly to meet him; when I came near him, however, he did not venture to stand, but mounted his horse and returned back. This man wlw had so dismounted- was Shah Beg himself. During the battle, Piri Beg Turkoman, with four or five of his brothers, taking their turbans in their hands,2 left the enemy and came over to us. This Piri Beg was one of those Turkomans who, when Shah Ismael vanquished the Bayender Sultans, and conquered the kingdoms of Irak, had accompanied Abdal Baki Mirza, Murad Beg Bayender, and the Turkoman Begs, in their flight. My right wing continued to advance towards the enemy. Its farther extremity made its way forward with difficulty, sinking in the soft ground close by the place where I have since made a garden. My left wing proceeded a good deal lower down than Baba Hussan Abdal, by the larger river and its streams and channels. Mokim, with his dependents and adherents, was opposed to my left wing, which was very inconsiderable in number, compared with the force under his command. Almighty God, however, directed everything to a happy issue. Three or four of the large streams which flow to Kandahar and its villages were between the enemy and my left. My people had seized the fords and obstructed the passage of the enemy, and .in spite of the fewness of their numbers, made a gallant fight, and stood firm against every attack. On the part of the Arghuns, Khilwachi Terkhan engaged in a skir

1 Probably Butler. 2 This was equivalent to an offer of submission.

mish with Kember Ali and Tengeri Berdi in the water. Kember Al i was wounded;
Kasim Beg was struck with an arrow in the forehead; Ghuri Birlas was wounded
above the eyebrows by an arrow, which came out by the upper part of his cheek. At Baber vie-
that very crisis I put the enemy to flight, and passed the streams towards the project-
ing face of the hill of Murghan. While we were passing the streams, a person mount-
ed on a white charger appeared on the skirt of the hill, going backwards and forwards,
apparently in dismay and irresolute, as if uncertain which way to take; at last he set
off in a particular direction. It looked very like Shah Beg, and was probably himself.
No sooner was the enemy routed than all our troops set out to pursue them and make
prisoners. There might perhaps be eleven persons left with me. One of these was
Abdalla Kitabdar (the Librarian). Mokim was still standing his ground and fighting.
Without regarding the smallness of my numbers, and relying on the providence of
God, I beat the kettle-drum and marched towards the enemy.

(TurM.)—God is the giver of little and of much;
In his court none other has power.

{Arabic.)—Often, at the command of God, the smaller army has routed the greater.

On hearing the sound of my kettle-drum, and seeing my approach, their resolution failed, and they took to flight. God prospered us. Having put the enemy to flight, I advanced in the direction of Kandahar, and took up my quarters at the Char-bagh of Fiirekhzad, of which not a vestige now remains. Shah Beg and Mokim not being able to regain the fort of Kandahar in their flight, the former went off for Shal and Mastang,1 and the latter for Zemin-Dawer, without leaving anybody in the castle able to hold it out. The brothers of Ahmed Ali Terkhan, Kuli Beg Arghun, and a number of others, with whose attachment and regard to me I was well acquainted, were in the fort. A verbal communication taking place, they asked the life of their brothers, Kandahar and out of favourable consideration towards them, I granted their request. They »urrend«»opened the Mashur-gate of the fort. From a dread of the excesses which might be committed by our troops, the others were not opened. Shirim Beg and Yarek Beg were appointed to guard the gate that was thrown open. I myself entered with a few of my personal attendants, and ordered one or two marauders whom I met to be put to death by the Atkii and Tikeh.- I first went to Mokim's treasury; it was in the walled town. Abdal Rizak Mirza had reached it before me and alighted. I gave Abdal Rizak Mirza a present from the valuables in the treasury, placed Dost Nasir Beg and Kul Bayezid Bekawul in charge of it, and appointed Muhammed Bakhshi as paymaster.3 Proceeding thence, I went to the citadel, where I placed Khwajeh Muhammed Ali and Shah Mahmud in charge of Shah Beg's treasury. I appointed Ta

1 ShSl and Mas tang lie upwards of two degrees south of Kandahar, on the borders of Beluchistan. Zemin-Dawer lies west of the Helmend, below the Huzara hills.

2 In this punishment the head of the criminal is fixed between two pieces of wood, and a very heavy, log or plank of several hundred weight, raised by placing a weight on one end of it. This weight being removed, the heavy end falls down and dashes out the criminal's brains.

3 Bakhshi.

Kandahar given to

Nasir fllirza.

ghai Shah to be paymaster. I sent Miram Nasir and Maksud Suchi to the house of Mir Jan, who was Zulnun Beg's Dlwan (or chief minister of revenue); Nasir Mirza had the squeezing of him. Sheikh Abusaid Terkhan was given to Mirza Khan to be laid under contribution. ******1 Was given to Abdal Rizak Mirza to try what he could extort from him. Such a quantity of silver was never seen before in these countries; indeed no one was known ever to have seen so much money. That night we staid in the citadel. Sambal, a slave of Shah Beg's, was taken and brought in. Although at that time he was only in the private confidence of Shah Beg, and did not hold any conspicuous rank, I gave him in custody to one of my people, who not guarding him properly, Sambol effected his escape. Next morning I went to the Garden of Ferukhzad, where the army lay. I gave the kingdom of Kandahar to Nasir Mirza. After the treasure was secured, when they had loaded it on the beasts of burden, and were carrying it from the treasury that was within the citadel, Nasir Mirza took away a string of (seven) mules laden with silver; I did not ask them back again, but made him a present of them.

Marching thence, we halted in the Auleng (or meadow) of Kosh-Khaneh.2 I sent forward the army, while I myself took a circuit, and arrived rather late at the camp. It was no longer the same camp, and I did not know it again. There were Tipchak horses, strings of long-haired male and female camels, and mules laden with silk-cloth and fine linen; long-haired female camels bearing portmanteaus, tents, and awnings of velvet and purpet; in every house, chests, containing hundreds of mans3 of the property and effects of the two brothers, were carefully arranged and packed as in a treasury. In every storehouse were trunks upon trunks, and bales upon bales of cloth, and other effects, heaped on each other ; cloak-bags on cloak-bags, and pots upon pots, filled with silver money. In every man's dwelling and tent there was a superfluity of spoil. There were likewise many sheep; but they were little valued. To Kasim Beg I gave up the garrison that was in Kilat, who were servants of Mokim, and commanded by Kuch Arghun and Taj-ed-din. Mahmud, together with all their property and effects. Kasim Beg, who was a man of judgment and foresight, strongly urged me not to prolong my stay in the territory of Kandahar, and it was his urgency that made me commence my march back. Kandahar, as has been said, I bestowed on Nasir Mirza; aud, on his taking leave of me, I set out for Kabul. While we staid in the Kandahar territory, we had not time to divide the treasure. On reaching Kara Bagh, we found leisure to make the division. It being difficult to count the money, we used scales to weigh and divide it. The Begs, officers, servants, and household, carried off on their animals whole kherwars4 and bags of silver money, with which they loaded them as with forage; and we reached Kabul with much wealth and plunder, and great reputation.

Extent of the spoil.

1 The name does not appear in any of the MSS. Perhaps Baber, when writing, had forgotten it. a There is a Ghuch Khaneh a mile and a half south of Kandahar, inclining west. It is probably a corruption of the name here mentioned.

3 The Tabriz man is nearly seven English pounds.

* The Kherwar is nearly seven hundred pounds weight, being a hundred Tabriz mans.

On my arrival at this period, I married Maasumeh Sultan Begum, the daughter of Baber marSultan Ahmed Mirza, whom I had invited from Khorasan. sumch.

Six or seven days afterwards, I learned by Nasir Mirza's servants, that Sheibak Khan shcibak had arrived, and was blockading Kandahar. It has already been mentioned, that Mo- ' ae" Kea"n kim had fled towards Zemin-Dawer. He went thence, and waited on Sheibak Khan. dahSr. Shah Beg had also sent persons one after another, to invite him to their assistance; and Sheibak Khan had in consequence advanced from Heri by the hill-country, in hopes of taking me by surprise in Kandahar, and had posted on the whole way by forced marches for that purpose. It was a foresight of the possibility of this very occurrence, that had induced Kasim Beg, who was a man of judgment, to urge with so much earnestness my departure from Kandahar;

(Persian.) What the young man sees in a mirror,

The sage can discern in a baked brick. *

On his arrival he besieged Nasir Mirza in Kandahar.

When this intelligence reached me, I sent for my Begs, and held a council. It was Baber is observed, that foreign bands and old enemies, as were the Uzbeks and Sheibak Khan, had occupied the countries so long under the dominion of the family of Taimur Beg; that of the Turks and Jaghatai, who were still left on various sides, and in different quarters, some from attachment, and others from dread, had joined the Uzbeks; that I was left alone in Kabul; that the enemy was very powerful, and I very weak; that I had neither the means of making peace, nor ability to maintain the war with them; that, in these difficult circumstances, it was necessary for us to think of some place in which we might be secure, and, as matters stood, the more remote from so powerful Hesitates an enemy the better; that it was advisable to make an attempt either on the side of * £uch? Badakhshan, or of Hindustan, one of which two places must be pitched upon as the object of our expedition. Kasim Beg and Shirim Beg, with their adherents, were for our proceeding against Badakhshan. At that time, the chief persons who still held up their heads in Badakhshan in any force, were Mobarek Shah and Zobeir. Jehangir Turkoman and Muhammed Korchi, who had driven Nasir Mirza out of that country, had never been reduced to submission by the Uzbeks, and were likewise in some force. I and a number of my chief Amirs and firmest adherents, on the other hand, having preferred the plan of attacking Hindustan, I set out in that direction, and advanced by way of Lemghan. After the conquest of Kandahar, I had bestowed Kilat, and the country of Ternek,1 on Abdal Rizak Mirza, who had accordingly been left in Kilat. When the Uzbeks came and besieged Kandahar, Abdal Rizak Mirza, not finding himself in a situation to maintain Kilat, abandoned it, and rejoined me. He arrived just when I was setting out from Kabul, and I left him in that place.

As there was no king, and none of royal blood in Badakhshan, Khan Mirza, at the Khan Mir/a

instigation of Shah Begum,2 or in consequence of an understanding with her, showed a Radakh.

(bin.

1 The country of Ternek lies on the river of that name, which runs from Makar towards Kandahar.

2 Shah Begum was the daughter of Shah Sultan Muhammed, king of Badakhshan, and the widow of Yunis Khan, Baber's maternal grandfather. She was the mother of Sultan Nigar Khanum, whose son Khan Mirza was, by Sultan Mahmud Mirza of Hissar. Shah Begum was therefore the young prince's grandmother, and he probably relied for success on the interest of her family in Badakhshan.

desire to try his fortunes in that quarter. I accordingly gave him leave. Shah Begum accompanied Khan Mirza; my mother's sister, Mehr Nigar-Khanum,1 also took a fancy to go into Badakhshau. It would have been better, and more becoming, for her to have remained with me. I was her nearest relation. But however much I dissuaded her, she continued obstinate, and also set out for Badakhshau. Baber In the month of the first Jemadi, we marched from Kabul against Hindustan. We

Against" proceeded on our route by way of Little-Kabul; on reaching Surkh Rebat we passed Hindustan. Kuruk-Sai, by the hill pass. The Afghans who inhabit between Kabul and Lemghan Sept. 1507. are robbers and plunderers, even in peaceable times. They fervently pray to God for such times of confusion as now prevailed, but rarely do they get them. When they understood that I had abandoned Kabul and was marching for Hindustan, their former i» opposed insolence was increased tenfold. Even the best among them were then bent on mistribes, chief; and things came to such lengths, that, on the morning when we marched from Jagdalik, the Afghans, through whose country we were to march, such as the Khizerkhail, the Shimu-khail, the Khirilji, and the Khugiani, formed the plan of obstructing our march through the Kotal or hill-pass of Jagdalik, and drew up on the hill which lies to the north, beating their drums, brandishing their swords, and raising terrific shouts. As soon as we had mounted, I ordered the troops to ascend the hill and attack the enemy, each in the direction nearest to him. Our troops accordingly advanced, and making their way through different valleys, and by every approach that they could discover, got near them, upon which the Afghans, after standing an instant, took to flight without even shooting an arrow. After driving off the Afghans, we reached the top of the ascent. One Afghan who was fleeing down the hill below me, on one side, I wounded in the arm with an arrow. He and a few others were taken and brought in. Some of them were impaled by way of example.

We halted in the Tuman of Nangenhar, before the fort of Adinapur. Till our arrival here, we had not availed ourselves of our foresight, nor fixed upon any places for our stations. We had neither arranged a plan for our march, nor appointed ground for halting. We now separated the army into four divisions, who were to move about, some up the country, and others down, till we received farther intelligence. It was Plundering the end of Autumn. In the plains, in most places, they had housed the rice. Some inlu'ishenK. p61"so11s w^o were thoroughly acquainted with every part of the country informed us, that up the river of the Tuman of Alisheng, the Kafers sow great quantities of rice, and that probably the troops might there be able to lay in their winter's corn. Leaving the dale of Nangenhar, therefore, and pushing speedily forward, we passed Saigal, and advanced up to the valley of Birain. The troops seized a great quantity of rice. The rice fields were at the bottom of the hills. The inhabitants in general fled and escaped, but a few Kafirs were killed. They had posted some men in a breastwork on a commanding eminence in the valley of Birain. When the Kafirs fled, this party descended rapidly from the hill, and began to annoy us with arrows. Having wounded Puran, the son-in-law of Kasim Beg, they were on the point of coming up with him, and of making him prisoner, when the rest of his party made a push, put

1 She was the eldest sister of Baber's mother, and widow of Sultan Ahmed Mirza of Samarkand.

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