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the enemy to flight, and extricated and rescued him. We staid one night in the Kafirs' rice-fields, where we took a great quantity of grain, and then returned back to the camp.

At this same time, Mokim's daughter, Mah-chuchak, who is now the wife of Shah Hassan, was married to Kasim Gokultash, in the territory of the Tuman of Mendraur.

As we did not find it expedient to proceed in our expedition against Hindustan, I sent back Mulla Baba Beshagheri with a few troops towards Kabul. Marching from Mendraur, I proceeded by Ater and Shiweh, and continued for some days in that neighbourhood; from Ater I went on by Kuner and Nurgil,1 and examined the country. From Kuner I came in a Jaleh (or raft), to the camp. Before this time, I had not sailed in a Jaleh, but I found that sort of conveyance very pleasant; and from this time forward I frequently made use of it.

At this time Mulla Mirak Ferketi arrived from Nasir Mirza. He brought the de- Sheibak tailed news of Sheibak Khan's having taken the walled town of Kandahar, and of his tirafroni retiring without having taken the citadel: he also brought information, that after Kandabir, Sheibak Khan's retreat, Nasir Mirza had abandoned Kandahar on several accounts, and which, ■» .

• • • -rri i 1 abandoned

retired to Ghazni. A few days after my departure, Sheibak Khan had unexpectedly by Nisir appeared before Kandahar, and, as our people were not in sufficient strength to main- Mi^!!a• tain the walled town, they abandoned it. The enemy ran mines in various directions about the citadel, and made several assaults. Nasir Mirza was wounded by an arrow in the neck, and the citadel was on the point of being taken. In this extremity, Mahammed Amin, Khwajeh Dost Khawend, and Muhammed Ali Piadeh, the cup-bearer, giving up all for lost, let themselves down over the walls, and escaped from the fort. At the very moment when the place must inevitably have fallen, Sheibak Khan made some proposals for an accommodation, and hastily raised the siege. The reason of his retreat was, that, when he came against Kandahar, he had sent his Haram to Nirehtu.2 Some persons having revolted in Nirehtu, had taken the fort. This induced him hurriedly to patch up a sort of peace and retire.

A faw days afterwards, though it was the middle of winter, I arrived in Kabul by B*0" reway of Badij. Above Badij I directed the date of the passage to be engraved on a Kabul. stone.1 Hafez Mirak wrote the inscription. Ustad Shah Muhammed performed the stone-cutter's part. From haste it is not well cut.

I bestowed Ghazni on Nasir Mirza; to Abdal Rizak Mirza I gave the Tuman of Nangenhar, Mendraur, the valley of Nur, Kuner, and Nurgil.

Till this time the family of Taimur Beg, even although on the throne, had never Assumes assumed any other title than that of Mirza. At this period, I ordered that they should padshiii. style me Padshah.4

1 These places, it will be recollected, lie on the Cheghanserai river. 8 A strong fort to the east of Herat.

3 Abul-Fazl, in the short account of Baber's reign prefixed to the Akbernameh, says, that this inscription was still to be seen in his time.

4 The title of Padshah corresponds with that of emperor. It is often used, however, merely to signify king. It is to be observed, that Baber applies it to himself t>efore this time, and indeed in the very opening of his Memoirs, " I became Badshah of Ferghana." He probably did not use that style in his Chancery.

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In the end of this year, on Tuesday the fourth day of the month of Zilkadeh,1 when the sun was in Aquarius, Humaiun was born. Moulana Meshedi, the poet, discovered the date of his birth in the words Sultan H&m&iun Khan. One of the minor poets of Kabul, found it in Shdh-e-Firoz-Kadr.* A few days after I gave him the name of Humaiun. After Humaiun's birth, I went for five or six days to the Char-bagh, and celebrated the festival of his nativity. Those who were Begs, and those who were not, great and small, brought their offerings. Bags of silver money were heaped up. I never before saw so much white money in one place. It was a very splendid feast.


Desertion of several


Revolt of

the Hissi. ris and Moghuls.

In the spring I surprised and plundered a body of Mehmend Afghans, in the neighbourhood of Maaber. A few days after we had returned from the expedition, and resumed our quarters, Kuch Beg, Fakir Al i Karimdad, and Baba Chehreh, formed a plan for deserting from me. On discovering their intentions, I dispatched a party, who seized them below Isterghach,4 and brought them back. During the life-time of Jehangir Mirza,5 too, they had frequently indulged in most improper conduct. I ordered that they should all be delivered over to punishment in the market-place. They had been carried to the Gate, and the ropes were putting round their necks, for the purpose of hanging them, when Kasim Beg sent Khalifeh to me, earnestly to entreat forgiveness for their offences. To gratify the Beg, I gave up the capital part of their punishment, and ordered them to be cast into prison.

The Hissaris and Kundezis, and the Moghuls of superior rank, who had been in Khosrou Shah's service, among whom were Chilmeh Ali, Syed Shekmeh, Shir Kuli, Dcu Salim, and others, who had been promoted and patronised by him; certain of the Jaghatai, such as Sultan Al i Chehreh, Khodai Bakhsh, with their dependents; some of the Sewenduk Turkomans, Shah Nazer, with his adherents, amounting in all to two or three thousand good soldiers, at this very time, having consulted and conspired together, had come to a resolution to revolt. Those whom I have mentioned lay near Khwajeh Riwaj, stretching from the valley of Sung-Kurghan to the valley of Chalak.8 Abdal Rizak Mirza having come from Nangenhar, took up his quarters in Deh-Afghan. Mohib Al i Korchi had once or twice communicated to Khalifeh and Mulla Baba some

1 March 6, 1508.

2 The king victorious in might.

3 The year of the Hejira 914 commenced on the 2d of May 1508.

* North of Kabul .

5 This is the first notice taken of Jehangir's death. He seems to have died soon after the expedition into Khorasan, Khafi Khan says of a dysentery, va azare-mui; or, according to Ferishta, of hard drinking.

• These places lie close by Kabul. Khwajeh Hawa.sk is in Butkhah, two or three miles south of Kabul.

intimations of this conspiracy and assembling; and I myself had received some hints of its existence. I had reckoned the surmises not entitled to credit, and paid them no kind of attention. I was sitting one night at the Char-bagh, in the presence-chamber, after bed-time prayers, when Miisa Khwajeh and another person came hurriedly close up to me, and whispered me that the Moghuls had, beyond a doubt, formed treacherous designs. I could not be prevailed upon to believe that they had drawn Abdal Rizak Mirza into their projects; and still less could I credit that their treasonable intentions were to be executed that very night. I therefore did not give that attention to the information that I ought, and a moment after I set out for the Ilaram. At that time the females of my family were in the Bagh-e-Khilwat, and in the Bagh-e-Turva-tokhfeh. When I came near the Haram, all my followers, of every rank and description, and even my night-guards,1 went away. After their departure, I went on to the city, attended only by my own people and the royal slaves. I had reached the Ditch at the Iron Gate, when Khwajeh Muhammed Ali, who had just come that way from the market-place, met me, and

[The events of this year conclude abruptly in the same manner in all the copies.]

1 The Yatith are the persons who watch by night at the prince's door.

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Revolt of the Moghuls.

General defection of Baber's troops.

The Memoirs of Baber are once more interrupted at a very important crisis, and we are again left to glean, from various quarters, an imperfect account of the transactions that ensued. It is probable that Khwajeh Muhammed Ali, who had just passed through the market-place, informed Baber that he had seen a gathering of Moghuls, and that measures were taking to seize his person. This at least is certain, that Baber escaped the impending danger, and regained his camp. The Moghuls who had been in Khosrou Shah's service, were the most active agents in this conspiracy. They do not appear ever to have co-operated heartily with Baber, who always speaks of them and their race with strong marks of dislike and resentment.2 They had combined with the other men of influence mentioned in the Memoirs, and had agreed not only to raise Abdal Rizak Mirza to the throne of Kabul and Ghazni, which had been held by his father, Ulugh Beg Mirza, Baber's uncle, but also to put him in possession of Badakhsban, Kundez, and Khutlan, and all the territories which had formerly been held by Khosrou Shah. Such were the effects produced in Baber's army by this sudden defection of so many men of eminence, of different nations and tribes, that next morning he could not muster in his whole camp more than five hundred horse. Great numbers of his followers and soldiers had hastily retired to Kabul, under pretence of taking care of their families.3

1 From A.D. 1508 to the beginning of January A.D. 1519.

3 Under these circumstances, it may seem one of the strangest caprices of fortune, that the empire which he founded in India should have been called, both in the country and by foreigners, the empire of the Moghuls, thus taking its name from a race that he detested. This arose not so much from his being a descendant of Chengis Khan, as from his being a foreigner from the north; and from the age of Chenpis Khan downwards, all Tartars and Persians, in the loose colloquial language of India, seem to have been denominated Moghuls.

3 See the Tarikhe Khan Khan, being a history of the house of Taimur in Hindustan, vol. II. MS.; and Dow's translation of Ferishta, vol. II. p. 188.

Baber, enraged at these events, instead of retiring into the hill-country, or shutting He keeps himself up in a fortress, appears to have kept the field with his few faithful followers. wjth a He made several furious assaults on the army of the rebels, whom he intimidated by sma11 forcethe bravery which he displayed. Baber computes the original number of the rebels at -two or three thousand men; but Ferishta relates that their number rose to twelve thousand. In this reduced state of his fortunes, he appears, for a while, to have assumed the courage of despair, and to have given to the adventurous gallantry of the soldier and the champion, the place which he generally allowed the cool valour of the prince and the general to hold. He exposed himself in every rencounter, and attacked the insurgents wherever they could be found. On one occasion, he is said to have Kills five advanced before the line, and challenged Abdal Rizak to single combat. The chal- sjugie lenge, we are told, was declined by the prince; but five champions of the rebels having combatadvanced in succession, and accepted it in his room, they all fell, one after another, under the sword of Baber. Their names, which have been transmitted to us by Ferishta and Khafi Khan, indicate that they were of different races. They were Ali Beg Shebgur, Muhammed Ali Sheibani,1 Nazer Behader Uzbek, Yakub Beg Baberjeng, and Abdalla Sefsheken. His military skill, his personal strength, and his invincible spirit, scattered dismay among the bands of the enemy, who equally admired and dreaded him; and perhaps, while he seemed to be acting as an inconsiderate young soldier, he really performed the part of a sagacious general and of a hero. His enemies began gradually to drop off; one defeat succeeded to another; Abdal Rizak found death at the close of his short reign; and Baber saw himself once more the Recovers undisputed sovereign of Kabul and Ghazni. moDs0.TM1"

When Khosrou Shah's territories fell into the hands of Sheibani Khan, the inha- KhmMirz« bitants of Badakhshau, a brave and hardy race, who inhabited a country everywhere dakhshan.a mountainous, and in many places almost inaccessible, disliking the Uzbek government, had flown to arms in every quarter, and a number of petty chieftains in different districts had set up for independent princes. Of all these the most powerful was Zobir, a man of no family, but who, by his conduct and valour, succeeded in reducing under subjection to him the greater number of the other insurgents. Khan Mirza, Baber's cousin,2 had crossed from Kabul, A.H. 913, in order to try his fortune in that quarter, A.D. l5o!t. as Baber has himself mentioned. His grandmother, Shah Begum, was the daughter of Shah Sultan Muhammed, the King of Badakhshau ; so that the Mirza had probably some hereditary connexions in the country. His outset was not prosperous. His grandmother and Meher Nigar-Khanum, his aunt, who followed in the rear of his army, were carried off by Mirza Ababeker Kashghari; and Khan Mirza himself was defeated and obliged to surrender to Zobir, who detained him in custody. Finally, however, Yusef Ali, who had formerly been in the Mirza's service, formed a conspiracy against Zobir, whom he assassinated ; when Khan Mirza was raised to the undisturbed possession of the throne of Badakshan, which he held till his death.

1 Perhaps rather Sistdni, as in Ferishta.

* Khan Mirza was, as has been mentioned, the son of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, the king of Hissar, Khutlan, and Badakhshun, and of Sultan Nigar-Khanum, a sister of Baber's mother. He was consequently Baber's cousin both by the father and mother's side. His proper name was Sultan Weis Mirza.

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