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durst not venture to frequent any other of his ladies. At last, however, he put her to death, and delivered himself from his reproach.

Another of his wives was Khan-Zadch Begum, who was sprung of the Khans of Khan-ZaTermez. When I went to Samarkand, at the age of five years, to visit Sultan Ahmed Mirza, he had newly married her, and she still kept her face covered with a veil, according to the custom of the Turks.1 He directed me, and I took off her veil.

Another of them was the daughter of the daughter of Ahmed Haji Beg, named L*tifBe. Latif Begum, who, after the Mirza's death, was married to Khamzeh Sultan, by whom she had three sons. When I defeated the Sultans under the command of Khamzeh Sultan and Taimur Sultan, and took Hissar, these princes, as well as the children of the other Sultans, fell into my hands, and I set all of them at liberty.

There was another, named Habibeh Sultan Begum, the brother's daughter of Sul- J*a.bibel', tan Arghun. gum.

Of his Emirs, one was Jani Beg Duladai. the younger brother of Sultan Malek of His Emirs. Kashghar. Sultan Abusaid Mirza conferred on him the government of Samarkand, J*ni -B?8 with the prime direction of Sultan Ahmed Mirza's court. He was a man of singular habits and manners, and many strange stories are related of him. Among these it is said, that, when he held the government of Samarkand, an ambassador came from the Uzbeks, who was famous among them for his strength. The Uzbeks call a very stout champion Bukeh. Jani Beg asked him, " Why do they call you Bukeh? If you are a Bukeh, come let us have a set-to." The ambassador, do what he would, was unable to get off. The Hakim grappled with the Uzbek, who was thrown. Jani Beg was a man of perfect courage.

Another of his nobles was Ahmed Haji Beg, who was the son of Sultan Malek of Ahmed Kashghar. Sultan Abusaid Mirza gave him the government of Heri, which he retained for some time. After the death of his paternal uncle, Jani Beg, he was appointed to succeed him in his rank and dignity, and sent to Samarkand. He was of an ingenious and manly character, and in his poetical compositions assumed the name of Wafai. He was the author of a Diwan,2 and was no mean poet. The following is bis :—

Let me alone to-day, my good judge, for I am tipsy;

Call me to account some other time, when you catch me sober.

Mir Ali Shir Nawai accompanied him when he came from Heri to Samarkand; but when Sultan Hussein Mirza became King, he went to Heri, where he was received

1 It is customary among the Turki tribes for the bride to continue veiled, even in her own family, for some time after her marriage. When a few days have elapsed, some child from among her relations is desired to pluck the veil off and run away. This is believed to procure the child so employed success in marriage.

2 The composition of a Diwan is considered as the great trial of skill among the poets of Persia. It is a series of poems, in which the rhyme is taken successively from each letter of the alphabet, beginning with a poem, the rhymes of which terminate with the first letter of the alphabet, and finishing with one rhyming with the last. In these Diwans there arc generally many poems rhyming in the same letter.

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with most extraordinary favour. Ahmed Haji Beg kept excellent horses of the breed termed Tipchak.1 He was an admirable horseman, and most of his Tipchaks were of his own breeding. Though a brave man, his generalship was not equal to his courage. He was careless, and left the conduct of his affairs and enterprises to his servants and dependants. When Baiesanghar Mirza attacked Sultan Ali Mirza in Bokhara and was defeated, Ahmed Haji Beg was taken prisoner and shamefully put to death, on the charge of the blood of Dervish Muhammed Terkhan.2

Another of his officers was Dervish Muhammed Terkhan, the son of Urda Bugha Terkhan,3 and full maternal uncle of Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Sultan Mahmiid Mirza. He stood higher in rank and estimation with the Mirza than any other of the Begs. He was a good Moslem, of religious habits, and simple manners, and was constantly reading the Koran. He was very fond of chess, and played much and well. He was extremely skilful in falconry, and excelled in flying his hawks. In the troubles between Sultan Ali Mirza and Baiesanghar Mirza he died, in bad repute, in the height of his greatness.

Another was Abdal Ali Terkhan, a near relation of Dervish Muhammed Terkhan; he married Dervish Muhammed Terkhan's younger sister, who was the mother of Baki Terkhan. Though Dervish Muhammed Terkhan was his superior, not only according to the customs and rules of the tribe, but in rank and estimation; yet this haughty Pharaoh pretended to look down upon him. For some years he possessed the government of Bokhara, when his servants amounted to three thousand. He maintained them well and handsomely. His information and intelligence, his forms of judicial investigation, his court, his suite, his entertainments4 and levees, were all quite princely. He was a strict disciplinarian, tyrannical, lascivious, and haughty. Sheibani Khan, though he did not take service with him, lived with him for some time. Many of the smaller and more inconsiderable Sultans were in his service. This Abdal Ali Terkhan was the prime cause of the rise and progress of Sheibani Khan's fortune, as well as of the downfall and destruction of the family of the ancient Khans.

Syed Yusef Oghlakchi was another. His grandfather was from the hordejof .Mo». ghuls. Ulugh Beg Mirza had promoted and patronized his father. He was a man of profound reflection and counsel, was brave, and excelled in the exercise of throwing the jerid.5 He was one of those who were with me when I first went to Kabul. I

1 Round-bodied and swift.—Leyden. They are taught particular paces.

2 The Muhammedan law admitting of the doctrine of retaliation, a murderer is frequently given up to the avengers of blood, the nearest relations of the person murdered, by whom he is sometimes ransomed, sometimes put to death with circumstances of great cruelty.

3 The Terkhan was originally a rank among the Moghuls and Turks, though in the time of Baber it had come to belong to a particular family or clan. The ancient Terkhan was exempt from all duties; he did not divide his booty even with the prince's collectors; he could go into the royal presence without asking leave, and was to be pardoned nine times, be the fault what it would. Abul-faraj, ap. Petis de la Croix's Life of Genghis, p. 49. See also Vie de Timur, vol. II. p. 107. He had perfect liberty of speech, and might say what he pleased in the royal presence.

1 The shiian was an entertainment to dependants, in which food was often distributed, instead of giving a regular dinner; much as the sportula was given by the Roman patroni to their clientes.

'' Both Mr Elphinstone's Turki copy and the Persian read, "He played well on the Kabuz," a kind of musical instrument.

showed him great attention, and indeed he was deserving of it. The first time that I led my army against Hindustan, I left Syed Yusef Beg behind in Kabul, and he departed into the mercy of God that same year.

There was another named Dervish Beg, of the race of Aiko Taimur Beg, who was Dervish a favourite of* Taimur Beg's. He was extremely attached to the reverend Khwajeh g" Abid-ulla, was skilled in the science of music, and a good performer. He had a genius tor poetry. .When Sultan Ahmed Mirza was routed on the banks of the Chirr, he perished in the river.

Another was Muhammed Mazid Terkhan, who was brother of the full blood to Der- Muhamvish Muhammed Terkhan, but younger. He was for some years Hakim or Governor Trakhln2" of Turkestan. Sheibani Khan took Turkestan from him. He had an excellent j udgment and understanding, but was impudent and voluptuous. The second and third time that I took Samarkand he came to me, and I gave him a favourable reception. He fell in the battle of KuJ-Malek.

Baki Terkhan was another, the son of Abdal Ali Terkhan, and maternal cousin of Baki Tcr Sultan Ahmed Mirza. After his father's death he had the government of Bokhara. kha"' In the time of Sultan Ali Mirza, he rose to great consequence, and his retainers amounted to five or six thousand. He was far from being in a proper state of subjection or obedience to Sultan Ali Mirza. He engaged Sheibani Khan and was defeated at the fort of Dabiisi, when Shiebani Khan, pursuing his advantage, took Bokhara. He was very fond of hawking, and is said to have had seven hundred falcons at one time. His manners and habits were such as cannot well be described; he was educated and grew up in the midst of magnificence and state. As his father had conferred benefits on Sheibani Khan, he went over and joined him; but that ungenerous and ungrateful man showed not the least return of favour or kindness for the good which he had received; and Baki Terkhani departed this life in great wretchedness and misery, in the country of Akhsi.

Another was Sultan Hussain Arghun. As he for some time held the government sultanHusof Karakul, he was thence known by the name of Sultan Hussain Karakuli. He was "?? Ar" a man of reflection and sound judgment, and was much with me. Kai.,

Another was Kul Muhammed Baghdad Kochin, a man of courage. hammed

Abdal Kerim Ashrat was another; he was an Yuighur,1 and chamberlain8 to Sultan Kochin. Ahmed Mirza. He was a man of generosity and courage. Abdal Ke

After the death of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the Begs, having held a consultation, dis- . k M [ patched a messenger over the hills3 to Sultan Mah mud Mirza to invite him to join hammed them. Meanwhile Malek Muhammed Mirza, who was the son of Manucheher Mirza, tempt on Sultan Abusaid Mirza's elder brother, having separated from the camp, set out, at- Samarkand. tended by some low desperadoes and adventurers, and repaired to Samarkand for the purpose of asserting his pretensions to the sovereignty; but he could accomplish nothing,

1 The Oighiir, Jughur, or Yfiighur, was a very celebrated Tartar tribe. They had a peculiar alphabet, and were generally chosen as secretaries to the Tartar Princes.

2 Ishik-Agha, Master of Ceremonies.

3 Sultan Mahmud Mirza was then at Ilissar. The messenger, therefore, was obliged to cross the Karatagh mountains.

Unsuccess- and was only the cause of his own destruction, and of. the death of several innocent fu1 .


Sultan Sultan Mahmud Mirza, as soon as he received intelligence of these events, lost no

Jtfahmud time in repairing to Samarkand, and mounted the throne without any kind of difficulreign in Sa- ty. He soon, however, by some of his proceedings, disgusted both high and low, solmarkand. jjery 3^ subjects, who began to fall off from him. The first of these offensive acts regarded the Malek Muhammed Mirza, who has been mentioned, who was his uncle's son, and his own son-in-law: he sent to the Gok-serai1 four Mirzas, two of whom he suffered to live, but murdered Malek Muhammed Mirza, and another Mirza. Though Malek Muhammed Mirza was certainly not free from blame, the other prince had been guilty of no kind of fault or crime whatever. Another circumstance which added to Causes of his unpopularity was, that though his plan of government and general arrangements pularity. were laudable, and though he was naturally just, and qualified to direct the concerns of the revenue, being well versed in the science of arithmetic, yet his temper had something in it tyrannical and profligate. Immediately on his arrival at Samarkand, he liegan arranging, on a new system, the whole of the regulations of government, including the expenditure and taxes. The dependents of Khwajeh Abid-ulla, who, by their influence, had formerly protected many poor defenceless persons from oppression, and delivered them from difficulties, now on the contrary suffered great hardship themselves, and were exposed to much severity and oppression; nay, this severity and harsh treatment were extended even to the family of the Khwajeh himself. What added to these evils was, that, as the Prince himself was tyrannical and debauched, his Begs and servants all faithfully imitated his example. The men of Hissar, and particularly the body of troops that followed Khosrou Shah, were constantly engaged in debauchery and drinking; and to such a length did matters go, that when one of Khosrou Shah's retainers had seized and carried off another man's wife by force, on the husband's coming with a complaint to Khosrou Shah, he received for answer—" You have had her for a great many years; it is certainly but fair that he should now have her for a few days." Another circumstance which disgusted the inhabitants was, that none of the townsmen or shop-keepers, and not even the Turks and soldiers, could leave their houses, from a dread lest their children should be carried off for catamites. The people of Samarkand, who, for twenty-five years, during the reign of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, had lived in ease and tranquillity, and had seen affairs in general managed according to justice and law, in consequence of the influence enjoyed by the reverend Khwajeh, were stung to the soul at the prevalence of such unbridled licentiousness and tyranny; and great and small, rich and poor, lifted up their hands to heaven in supplications for redress, and burst out into curses and imprecations on the Mirza's head.

{Persian) Beware of.the smoke of internal wounds;

For a wound, though hidden, will at last break out.
> Afflict not, if you can, even one heart,
For a single groan is sufficient to confound a world.

1 The Gok-serai, or Green mansion, was the prison of the Princes of the house of Taimur, which when they entered, they were never expected to return. The import of the phrase to send to Gok'terai, is afterwards explained.

From the judgment that attends on such crime, tyranny, and wickedness, he did not reign in Samarkand above five or six months.


This year Abdal Kaddus Beg came to me as ambassador from Sultan Mahmud Affairs of Mirza, on the occasion of the marriage of his eldest son Sultan Masaud Mirza to Ak- '' Begum, the second daughter of his elder brother Sultan Ahmed Mirza, and brought me a marriage present, consisting of almonds and pistachios of gold and silver. This ambassador, on his arrival, while he openly claimed kindred to Hassan Yakub, yet secretly pursued the object for which he had come, that of diverting him from his Treasonduty, and of gaining him over to his master's interest, by tempting offers and flattering able views promises. Hassan Yakub returned him a conciliatory answer, and in reality was gained Yakub; over. When the ceremonial of the congratulations on the marriage was over, the ambassador took leave. In the course of five or six months the manners of Hassan Yakub were visibly changed; he began to conduct himself with great impropriety to those who were about me; and it was evident, that his ultimate object was to depose me, and to make Jehangir Mirza king in my place. His deportment towards the whole of the Begs and soldiers was so highly reprehensible, that nobody could remain ignorant of the design which he had formed. In consequence of this, Khwajeh Kazi, Kasim Kochin, Al i Dost Taghai, Uzun Hassan, and several others who were attached to my interests, having met at my grandmother Isan-doulet Begum's, came to the resolution of dismissing Hassan Yakub, and in that way of putting an end to his treasonable views.

There were few of her sex who equalled my grandmother Isan-doulet Begum1 in sense and sagacity.2 She was uncommonly far-sighted and judicious; many affairs and enterprises of importance were conducted by her advice. Hassan Yakub was at this time in the citadel, and my mother and grandmother in the stone fort. I proceeded straight to the citadel, in execution of the plan which had been concerted. Hassan Yakub, who had mounted and gone a-hunting, on receiving intelligence of what was going forward, posted off for Samarkand. The Begs and others in his in- who is terest were taken prisoners. These were Muhammed Bakir Beg, Sultan Mahmud ?'„ I0 Douladai, the father of Sultan Muhammed Douladai, and some others. The greater part of them I allowed to proceed to Samarkand. Kasim Kochin was appointed Master of the Household,3 and received the government of Andejan.

Hassan Yakub, after having proceeded as far as Kandbadam on his way to Samarkand, a few days after, in pursuance of his treacherous intentions, resolved to make an

1 This year commenced 2d October, A. D. 1494.

2 She was the widow of Yunis Khan, the chief of the Moghuls.

3 That is to say, Prime Minister.


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