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it for nearly a kos, shot many arrows at it, and finally brought it down. This rhinoceros did not make a good set at any person, or any horse. They afterwards killed another rhinoceros. I had often amused myself with conjecturing how an elephant and rhinoceros would behave if brought to face each other; on this occasion the elephantkeepers brought out the elephants, so that one elephant fell right in with the rhinoceros. As soon as the elephant-drivers put their beasts in motion, the rhinoceros would not come up, but immediately ran off in another direction.

This day, when we staid at Bekram, I sent for several Begs and noblemen who were about my person, as well as for the paymasters and Diwans, and having nominated six or seven of them as superintendants, appointed them to attend at the JVilab passage, to conduct the embarkation, to take down the name of every man in the army one by one, and to inspect them. That same night I had a defluxion and fever. The denuxion ended in a cough; every time that I coughed I spit blood; I was considerably alarmed; but^ praise be to God! it went off in two or three days.

We made two marches from Bekram; and after the third, on Thursday the 26th, Dec. 12, we encamped on the banks of the river Sind.

On Saturday, the 1st day of the first Rebi, we passed the Sind; and having also Dec. 16. crossed the river of Kech-kot,1 halted on its banks. The Begs, paymasters, and Di- s"j" wans, who had been placed to superintend the embarkation, brought me the return of the troops who were on the service. Great and small, good and bad, servants and no servants, they amounted to twelve thousand persons.

This year there was a deficiency of rain in the lower grounds, whereas there h&d been Proceed* tiy a sufficient quantity in the highlands. To secure a proper supply of corn, we advanced JjJ^ TM£ oi along the skirts of the hills towards Sialkot.2 On coming opposite to the country of the Gakers, in the bed of a brook, we found in several places a quantity of standing water. These waters were entirely frozen over. Although there was not much of it, the ice was in general a span in thickness. In Hindustan such ice is uncommon. We met with it here; but, during all the years3 that I have been in Hindustan, I have in no other instance met with any trace of ice or snow.

Advancing five marches from the Sind, the sixth brought us close by the hill of Jud, Dec . 22. below the hill of Balinat-jogi, on the banks of a river, at the station of Bakhtlan, where we encamped.

Next morning we halted in the same encampment, for the purpose of allowing the Dee. %\ troops to procure grain. That day I drank spirits.4 Mulla Muhammed Parghari told us a great many stories. I have seldom seen him so talkative. Mulla Shems was generally riotous in his cups, and, when once affected, he continued noisy and troublesome from morning till night.

The slaves and servants, and men of all descriptions, that had gone to bring in grain, instead of employing themselves in searching for grain, went confusedly and unrestrained over hill, wood, and dingle, making a number of prisoners; in consequence of which Gichgineh Tunkitar and some others of our men were cut off.

1 The Hard, or Hurroo.

2 Sialkot lies on the east of the Chenab river, below the mountains.

* This passage must have been written not long before Baber's death. 'Arak.

Dec . 24. Marching thence, we halted, after passing the river Behat, below Jilem,1 by the

>ho Beiiat. ford. Wali Kazil, who held the Pergannas of Bimragiri and Akerbadehpur, and who had been ordered to assist in the defence of Sialkot, arrived and waited on me at this place. I was displeased, and chided him for not remaining in Sialkot.2 He excused himself by informing me, that he had left it in order to repair to his Perganna, and that Khosrou Gokultash, on leaving Sialkot, had given him no intimation of his intention. I listened to his excuse, but asked him, "As you did not remain in Sialkot to defend it, why did you not repair to Lahore, and join the rest of the Begs?" He had no good answer to make; but as we were near about entering upon action, I overlooked his offence. From this encampment I sent forward Syed Tufan and Syed Sachin, giving each of them a spare horse, with directions to push on with all speed to Lahore, and to enjoin our troops in that city not to fight, but,to form a junction with me at Sialkot or Perserur. The general report was, that Ghazi Khan had collected an army of thirty or forty thousand men ; that Doulet Khan, old as he was, had buckled on two swords; and that they would certainly try the fate of a battle. I recollected the proverb which says, Ten friends are better than nine. That no advantage might be lost, I judged it most advisable, before fighting, to form a junction with the detachment of my army that was in Lahore. I therefore sent on messengers with instructions to

Reaches tne Amirs, and at the second march reached the banks of the river Chenab,3 where I

the Chenab.' .....

Dec . 26. encamped. I rode on towards Behlulpur, which is an imperial domain, and surveyed

86 it on every side. Its castle stands on the banks of the Chenab, upon an elevated

ravine. It pleased me extremely, and I formed a plan of transferring the population of Sialkot to this place. God willing, as soon as I find leisure, I will complete my project. I returned from Behlulpur to the camp in a boat, and had a party; some drank arak,4 some-buzeh, and some took maajun. I landed from the boat about bediJec . 28. time prayers, and we drank a little in my pavilion. I halted one day on the banks of

the river to rest our horses. •

Reaches On Friday, the 14th of the first Rebi, we arrived at Sialkot. Every time that I have

Pec. an. entered Hindustan, the Jets" and Gujers have regularly poured down in prodigious numbers, from their hills and wilds, in order to carry off oxen and buffaloes. These were the wretches that really inflicted the chief hardships, and were guilty of the se, verest oppression on the country. These districts, in former times, had been in a state of revolt, and yielded very little revenue that could be come at. On the present occasion, when I bad reduced the whole of the neighbouring districts to subjection, they began to repeat their practices. As my poor people were on their way from Sialkot to the camp, hungry and naked, indigent and in distress, they were fallen upon by the

1 Jilem lies on the east bank of the Behat or Jilem river, about 30 miles west from Bember.

* Sialkot may be about 50 miles S. £. from Jilem. s The Acesines.

* The name Arak is applied to any spirituous distilled liquor. The buzeh is a liquor like ale, brewed from millet or other grain; it is said to be bitter and ill tasted, and is very heady.

5 The Jets or Jats are the Mahommedan peasantry of the Penjab, the banks of the Indus, Siwistan. &c. a.nl must not be confounded with the Jats, a powerful Hindu tribe to the west of the Jumna, about Agra, &c. and which occupies a subordinate station in the country of the Rajputs.

road with loud shouts and plundered.1 I sought out the persons guilty of this outrage, discovered them, and ordered two or three of the number to be cut in pieces.

At this same station a merchant arrived, who brought us the news of the defeat of Receives Alim Khan by Sultan Ibrahim. The particidars are as follows. Alim Khan,2 after d^'t0ofthc taking leave of me, had marched forward in spite of the scorching heat of the weather, AlimKhnn. and had reached Lahore, having, without any consideration for those who accompanied him, gone two stages every march. At the very moment that Alim Khan took leave, Accounts the whole Sultans and Khans of the Uzbeks had advanced and blockaded Balkh; so ?[hAli.TM that, immediately on his departure for Hindustan, I was obliged to set out for that transaccity. Alim Khan, on reaching Lahore, insisted with such of my Begs as were in Hin- ti0ns' dustan, that the Emperor had ordered them to march to his assistance, and that they must accordingly accompany him; that it had been concerted that Ghazi Khan should Alim Khan likewise join him, and that they were all in conjunction to march upon Delhi and i£^e*wj,h Agra. The Begs answered, that, situated as things were, they could not accompany Oh»zi Ghazi Khan with any kind of confidence; but that, if he sent to court his younger brother Haji Khan, with his sop, or placed them in Lahore as hostages, their instructions would then leave them at liberty to march along with him; that otherwise they could not; that it was only the other day that Alim Khan had fought and been defeated by Ghazi Khan, so that no mutual confidence was to be looked for between them; and that, altogether, it.was by no means advisable for Alim Khan to let Ghazi Khan accompany him in the expedition. Whatever expostulations of this nature they employed, in order to dissuade Alim Khan from prosecuting his plan, were all ineffectual. He sent his son Shir Khan to confer with Doulet Khan and Ghazi Khan, and the parties themselves afterwards met. Dilawer Khan, who had been in confinement very recently, and who had escaped from custody and come to Lahore only two or three months before, was likewise associated with them. Mahmud Khan Khan-Jehan, to whom the custody of Lahore had been intrusted, was also pressed into their measures. In a word, it was in the end definitively arranged among them, that Doulet Khan and Ghazi Khan should take under their orders all the Begs who had been left in Hindustan, and should, at the same time, themselves assume the government of all the adjacent territories ;3 while Dilawer Khan and Haji Khan were to accompany Alim Khan, and occupy the whole of the country about Delhi and Agra and in that neighbourhood. Marches Ismacl Jilwani and a number of other Amirs, waited on Alim Khan, and acknowledged Jsm* him. He now proceeded towards Delhi without delay, by forced marches. On reaching Inderi, Suleman Sheikhzadeh came and likewise joined him. The numbers of the confederate army now amounted to thirty or forty thousand men. They laid siege to and besieges Delhi, but were unable either to take the place by storm or to reduce it by famine.

Sultan Ibrahim, as soon as he heard that they had collected an army, and invaded his dominions, led his troops to oppose them. Having notice of his march as he approached, they raised the siege and advanced to meet him. The confederates concurred in opinion, that if the battle was fought in the day time, the Afghans, from regard to their

1 The people alluded to were probably the Turki garrison of Sialkot.

* Alim Khan is Alaeddin Khan. 3 That is, in the Penjub, or near Lahore.

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reputation with their countrymen, would not flee; bat that if the attack was made bv night, the night is dark, and no one seeing another, each chief would shift for himself. Resolving, therefore, to attempt a night surprise, they mounted to proceed against the enemy, who were six kos* off. Twice did they mount their horses at noon, and continue mounted till the second or third watch of the night, without going either back or forward, not being able to come to a resolution, or agree among themselves. The third >~-7r^s time they set out for their surprise, when only one watch of the night remained. Their >.:-w- r?o. plan was for the party merely to aet fire to the tents and pavilions, and to attempt nothing farther. They accordingly advanced and set fire to the tents during the last watch of the night, at the same time shouting the war-cry. Jilal Khan Jighet, and several other Amirs, came over, and acknowledged Alim Khan. Sultan Ibrahim, attended hy a body of men, composed of his own tribe and family, did not move from the royal pavilion, but continued steady in the same place till morning. By this time. the troops who accompanied Alim Khan were dispersed, being busy plundering and pillaging. Saltan Ibrahim's troops perceived that the enemy were not in great force, and immediately moved forward from the station which they had kept, though very tew La number, and having only a single elephant; but no sooner had the elephant come up, than Alim Khan's men took to flight, without attempting to keep their ground. :.-. 3 -it- In the coarse of his flight Alim Khan crossed over to the Doab side of the river, and again reerossed it towards Panipat, on reaching which place he contrived by a stratagem to get three or four laks* from Mia Suleman,3 and went on his way. Ismael Jilwani. Babin, and Jilal Khan, the eldest son of Alim Khan, separating from him, betook themselves to the Doab. A small part of the army which Alim Khan had collected, such as Seifeddtn Deria Khan, Mahmud Khan Khan-Jehan, Sheikh Jemal FexmuU, and some others, deserted before the battle and joined Ibrahim. Alim Khan and Dilawer Khan, with Haji Khan, after passing Sehrind, beard of my approach, and that I had taken Milwat: whereupon Dilawer Khan, who had always been attached to my interests, and bad been detained three or four months in prison on my account, Separated from the others, came on by way of Sultan pur and KochL and waited upon me in the neighbourhood of Milwat, three or four days after the taking of that town. Ahm Khan and Haji Khan having passed the river SadeO at length reached Kinkuteh, the name of a strong castle in the hills between Dun and the plain, and threw themselves into it. One of my detachments, consisting of Afghans and Hasans. happening to come up, Uoekaded them, and had nearly succeeded in taking the castle. strong as it was, being only prevented by the approach of night. These noblemen then made an attempt to leave it, but some of their horses having fallen in the gateway, they could not get out. Some elephants that were along with them were pushed forward, and trampled upon, and killed a number of the horses. Although unable to escape on horseback, they left the place during a dark night on foot, and after incredible sufferings, joined Gbazi Khan, who, in the coarse of his night, finding that he could not get refuge in Milwat, had directed his coarse towards the hills, where they met. Ghasi Khan did not give Alim Khan a very friendly reception, which induced him to wait

1 Perhaps nine mfles. * £750 or £1000; but perhaps they were bus of rupees.

'Probably a rich shroff or banker. • The Satlej.

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on me, below Dun, in the neighbourhood of Pelhur, where he came and tendered me his allegiance. While I was at Sialkot, some of the troops whom I had left in Lahore arrived to inform me, that they would all be up by the morning.

Next morning I marched, and halted at Perserur, where Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng, Dec . 30. Khwajeh Hussain, and some others,1 accordingly came and waited on me. As the reaches enemy's camp was on the banks of the Ravi,2 towards Lahore, I sent out Bujkeh with Persernr. his party to reconnoitre and bring in intelligence. About the end of the third watch of the night they came back with information, that the enemy, immediately on getting notice of their approach, had fled away in consternation, every man shifting for himself.

On the following morning, leaving Shah Mir Hussain, and some other officers, to Dec. 31. guard the camp and baggage, I separated from them, and pushed on with all possible speed. We reached Kilanur about the middle of afternoon prayers, and halted. Muhammed Sultan Mirza, Adil Sultan, and the other Amirs, came here and waited on me.

Marching before day-break from Kilanur,3 we discovered on the road certain traces January i. that Ghazi Khan and the fugitives were not far off. Muhammedi and Ahmedi, with several of the Begs about my person, whom I had recently at Kabul promoted to the rank of Beg, were detached to pursue the fugitives, without halting, Their orders were, that, if they could overtake the flying enemy, it was well; but, if not, that they should carefully guard every approach and issue of the fort of Milwat, that the garrison might not be able to effect their escape. Ghazi Khan was the object that I principally aimed at in these instructions. Having sent forward this detachment under the Begs, we crossed the river Biah opposite to Kanwahin, and there halted. Crosses the From thence, after three marches, we encamped in the mouth of the valley in which Janua* ^, lies the fort of Milwat. The Begs, who had arrived before us, and the Amirs of Hin- *» and *• dustan, were directed to encamp and lay close siege to the fort. Ismael Khan, who jjuwat • was Doulet Khan's grandson, (being the son of Ali Khan, Doulet Khan's eldest son,) having arrived in our quarters, was sent into the fort to offer terms of capitulation, and with a message in which we mingled promises and threats. On Friday I made January 5. the camp advance, and take ground half a kos nearer. I myself went out, reconnoitred the fort, and after having assigned to the right and left wing, and to the centre, their respective stations, returned back to the camp.

Doulet Khan now sent a person to inform me, that Ghazi Khan had escaped and fled »n«* i» to the hills; but that if I would excuse his own offences, he would come as a slave and by Doulet deliver up the place. I therefore sent Khwajeh Mir Miran to confirm him in his reso- Khan; lution, and to bring him out. His son Ali Khan accompanied that officer. In order to expose the rudeness and stupidity of the old man, I directed him to take care that Doulet Khan should come out with the same two swords hung round his neck, which he had hung by his side to meet me in combat. When matters had come this length,

1 These noblemen had been left with a body of troops to defend the Penjab.

* The Ravi, or Hydraotes, which is the middle river of the five that compose the Penjab, is the river on which Lahore stands. 3 Kilanur lies about half way between the Ravi and Biah.

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