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»ho waits he still contrived frivolous pretexts for delay, but was at length brought out. I "PonBaber. or(lered the two swords to be taken from his neck. When he came to offer me his obeisance, he affected delays in bowing; I directed them to.push his leg and make him bow. I then made him sit down before me, and desired a man who understood the Hindustani language to explain to him what I said, sentence by sentence, in order to reassure him; and to tell him, " I called you Father: I showed you more respect and reverence than you could have desired or expected. I delivered you and your sons from the insults of the Baluches. I delivered your tribe, your family, and women, from the bondage of Ibrahim. The countries held by Tatar Khan, to the amount of three krors,1 I bestowed on you. What evil have I ever done you, that you should come in this style against me, with these two swords by your side: and, attended by an army, stir up tumult and confusion in my territories?" The man, being stupified, stammered out a few words, not at all to the purpose; and, indeed, what could he say in answer to such confounding truths? It was settled, that he and his family should retain their authority in their own tribes, and possession of their villages, but that all the rest of their property should be sequestrated. They were directed to encamp close by Khwajeh Mir Miran. Ian 6. ^n Saturday, the 22d of the first Rebi, to ensure their good treatment while they were bringing out their dependents and families, I myself went and took my station on a rising ground opposite to the gate of Milwat. Ali Khan came up and presented me with a few Ashrefis as a Peshkesh. Towards afternoon prayers they began to remove their dependents and women. Abdal-aziz and Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng, Kutlek Kedem, Muhammedi, and Ahmedi, with several other of the Begs about my person, were directed to enter the fort, and to take possession of and secure their treasures, and all their property. Although Ghazi Kban was said to have left the place and fled, yet some reported that they had seen him within the fort. On this account I placed several of my trusty officers and servants at the gate, with orders to examine every person and place of which they had the least suspicion, that Ghazi Khan might not escape by any artifice, as now my grand object was to make him prisoner. They had also orders to seize any jewels or precious stones that might be attempted to be secretly conveyed out of the town. The troops made a great riot at the gate of the fort, which obliged me to discharge a few arrows to check their turbulence; a chance shot struck Humaiun's reader, who expired on the spot. After remaining on the hillock for two nights, on Monday I entered and surveyed the fort. I examined Ghazi Khan's library, and found in it a number of valuable books. Some of them I gave to Humaiun, and some I sent to Kamran. There was also a number of theological books, but I did not, on the whole, find so many books of value as, from their appearance^I had expected. I staid in the fort all night, and next morning returned to the camp. We had been mistaken in imagining that Ghazi Khan was in the fort. That traitorous coward had

1 About £75,000 sterling. The Emperors of Hindustan, from a love of pomp and show, have always used large numbers in reckoning their revenues, and in bestowing presents. Their revenue accounts were kept in dams, of which forty go to a rupee. Hence their laks and crors sink into a very small compass, when reduced to English money; and the revenue of very extensive tracts of country will frequently be found inferior to the rents of an English gentleman's estate.

January 8.

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fled, and escaped to the bills With a small number of followers, leaving his father, his
elder and younger brothers, his mother, his elder and younger sisters, in Milwat;

{Fertian.)—Observe that faithless man, for never
Shall he see the face of good fortune;
He takes care of his own comforts,
Yet leaves his wife and children in misery.'

On Wednesday, I marched thence towards the hill to which Ghazi Khan had fled. January 10. After advancing one kos from the station at the gorge of Milwat, we halted in a valley. It was here that Dilawer Khan came and tendered his allegiance. Doulet Khan and Ali Khan, with Ismael Khan, and some other leading men, were delivered as prisoners to Kitteh, to be carried to the fort of Milwati, in Behreh, there to be detained in custody. The rest were delivered to various persons, for the purpose of levying contributions on them; and their ransoms were fixed, after Dilawer Khan's opinion had been taken. Several were liberated on securities; several were committed to prison and close custody. Kitteh set out with the prisoners. He had reached Sul- Death of tanpur when Doulet Khan died. I gave the fort of Milwat to Muhammed Ali Jeng- P?ulei Jeng, who left his elder brother Arghun in the place, on bis part, with a body of troops. About two hundred or two hundred and fifty Hazaras and Afghans were also left, to assist in the defence of the fort.

Khwajeh Kilan had loaded some camels with the wines of Ghazni, and brought them to the camp. His quarters were on a high ground that overlooked the fort and camp. We had a party there, in which some drank wine, and others spirits. It was a rare party. ,

Marching thence, and passing the small hills of Ab-kend by Milwat, we reached Baber Dun. In the language of Hindustan, they call a Julga (or dale), Dun. The finest JVun! running water2 in Hindustan is that in this Dun. There are many villages around the Dun, which was a Perganna of the Jeswal, who were the maternal uncles of Dilawer Khan. This Dun is a very pleasant dale, and there are meadows3 all along the Description stream. In several places they sow rice. Through the middle of it runs a stream of Dunlarge enough to turn three or four mills. The width of the dale is one or two kos ;* in some places it is even three kos.5 Its hills are very small, like hillocks, and all its villages stand on the skirts of these hillocks. Where there are no villages, there are numbers of peacocks and monkeys. There are also many fowls resembling barn-door fowls: they resemble them in shape, but are generally of a single colour.

As we could nowhere get any certain intelligence of Ghazi Khan, I sent Tardikeb with Bcrim Deo Malinhat, with orders to pursue him wherever he might go; to engage him, and bring him back a prisoner. In the country composed of small hills, that has been mentioned as lying around the Dun, there are some wonderfully strong castles. To the north-east is a castle called Kotila. It is surrounded by a rock seventy or Of Kotila.

i From the Gulistan of Sadi.

* Ab-rewan—running water, is said to be used in Persian for a canal or aqueduct. It may, however, mean a stream of water; and the expression, the only ab-rewan, probably may mean, one of the few abrewan*, or the finest of them. The expression again recurs.

3 Auleng. * Two or three miles. * Four or five miles.


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eighty gezl in perpendicular height At its chief gate, for the space of about seven or eight gez,2 there is a place that admits of a draw-bridge being thrown across. It may be ten or twelve gez3 wide. The bridge is composed of two long planks, by which their horses and flocks pass out and in. This was one of the forts of the hill-country, which Ghazi Khan had put into a state of defence, and garrisoned. The detachment that had been pushed on attacked the place vigorously, and had nearly taken it, when night came on. The garrison then abandoned the castle and fled away. Near the Dun is another strong castle called the Fort of Kinkuteh, the country around which is all hilly, but it is not so strong as the former. Alim Khan, in his flight, had thrown himself into this fort, as has been already mentioned. Biioit- After sending a detachment in pursuit of Ghazi Khan, I placed my foot in the stir^^" rup of resolution, and my hand on the reins of confidence-in-God, and marched against DeUri. Sultan Ibrahim, the son of Sultan Iskander, the son of Sultan Behlul Lodi Afghan, in whose possession the throne of Delhi and the dominions of Hindustan at that time were; whose army in the field was said to amount to a hundred thousand men, and who, including those of his Amirs, had nearly a thousand elephants. After one march I bestowed Debalpur* on Baki Shaghawel, and sent him to reinforce Balkh. I sent a great part of the gold and effects found in the Fort of Milwat, to strengthen my interest in Balkh, and to Kabul as presents to my relations and friends, and to my children and dependents.

A march or two below Dun, Shah Emad Shirazi came with letters from Araish Khan and Miilla Muhammed Mezebeb,5 containing assurances of their attachment to my interest, and urging me to continue resolutely the expedition I had commenced. I wrote them in return, to assure them of my protection and favour; and having dispatched the letters by a messenger on foot, continued my route. The detachment which had proceeded into Milwat, advanced against Herur, Kehlur, and the forts in that part of the country, among which, from the natural strength of the ground, no enemy had penetrated for a long time before, took the whole of them, and returned and joined me, after having plundered the inhabitants of the district. It was at this time that Alim Khan, being reduced to great distress, came naked, and on foot, to meet me. I directed several Begs and some noblemen of my court to go out to receive him, and also sent him some horses. He waited upon me in this neighbourhood, and made his submission.6

A detachment was sent out among the hills and valleys in this vicinity, but returned after being out a night or two, without having met with anything of value. Shah Mir Hussain, and Jan Beg, with some other of my people, asked permission to go on a foray, which I granted, and they want off.

While I was in Dun, two or three letters had come from Ismael Jilwani and Biban.7

1 That is, 140 or 160 feet. * Fourteen or sixteen feet. 3 Twenty or twenty-four feet.

4 Debalpur lies between the Ravi and Biah, about forty miles south-west from Lahore.

5 These were lords of Ibrahim's court.

* From this time forward there seems to have been an end to Alim or Alaeddin Khan's pretensions to tie throne of Delhi. 7 These were also noblemen of great rank and power among the Afghans in Hindustan.

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I sent them gracious answers from this place, to retain them in their favourable sentiments.

After marching from Dun we came to Rupur.1 While we staid at Rupur, it rained incessantly, and was so extremely cold, that many of the starving and hungry Hindustanis died. After marching from Rupur, we had halted at Keril, opposite to Sehrind,* Amv^*. when a Hindustani presented himself, assuming the style of an ambassador from Sul- rind. tan Ibrahim. Though he had no letters or credentials, yet as he requested that one of my people might accompany him back as my ambassador, I accordingly did send back a Sewadi Tinketar3 along with him. These poor men had no sooner arrived in Ibrahim's camp than he ordered them both to be thrown into prison. The very day that we defeated Ibrahim, the Sewadi was set at liberty, and waited on me.

After two marches more, we halted on the banks of the stream of Baniir and Sanur. This is a running water,4 of which there are few in Hindustan, except large rivers. They call it the stream of Kagar.3 Chiter stands on its banks. We rode up this stream to view the country. Three or four kos6 above Chiter, it comes flowing down from a number of little springs. Higher up than the stream by which we had ridden, there issues from an open valley a rivulet fit to turn four or five mills. It is an extremely beautiful and delightful place, with a charming climate. On the banks of this rivulet, where it issues from the spreading valley, I directed a Charbagh (or large garden) to be laid out. The rivulet, after reaching the plain, goes on for a kos or two, and falls into the first-mentioned river. The place where the stream of Kagar issues, and is formed from the junction of the small springs that have been mentioned, may be three or four kos higher up than the place where this rivulet falls into it. During the rainy season, the water of the rivulet, swelling extremely, flows down united with the stream of the Kagar, to Samaneh7 and Sinam. At this station, we had information that Hears of Sultan Ibrahim, who lay on this side of Delhi, was advancing, and that the Shekdar f^1^ of Hissar-Firozeh,8 Hamid Khan Khaseh-Khail, had also advanced ten or fifteen kos approach, towards us with the army of Hissar-Firozeh, and of the neighbouring districts. I sent on Kitteh Beg towards Ibrahim's camp to procure intelligence, and despatched Momin Atkeh towards the army of Hissar-Firozeh to get notice of its motions.

1 Rupur lies about a march south of the Satlej.

* Sehrind or Sirhind, is situated in latitude 30* 26', and longitude 76* 30'. It has been a place of great importance, and is still a striking scene though quite deserted. It is a very compact town, six miles round, built with brick, and paved with the same material. The houses are now unroofed, but the walls all standing. The city contains a fort now in ruins, a fine stone mosque, and many other handsome tombs and places of worship. The east of the city is covered by a lake, over which are two handsome bridges. On the other sides it is encircled by extensive and beautiful groves of mangoes; and altogether presents a very grand and pleasing spectacle. There is a ruined garden and palace near the town, which in splendour yields to no garden in India, except the Shalimar at Lahore.

3 The office of the Tinketar is not well ascertained. He seems to have been a confidential servant, perhaps connected with the Ten, or,private treasury.

4 Ab-e-rewan. s This is the Kagar that is passed between Sirhend and Thanesar.

6 Six or seven miles.

7 Samnneh lies about north lat , 29° 55', east long 76° 6'. It is situated west from Thanesar.

* Hissar-Firozeh lies rather more than a degree and a half west of Delhi, a little to the north. The Shekdar is a military collector of the revenue, and has often the chief authority in a district.

A. D. 1526.
Feb. 25.


Humaiun towards Hissar-Firflzeh.

Feb. 20.

Humaiiin defeats Hamid Khan.

March 2.

March fl.

Hissar-Firozeh taken.

Halts at


Humaiun's note on the Memoiri

On Sunday, the 13th of the first Jemadi, I marched from Ambala,1 and had halted on the margin of a Tank, when Momin Atkeh and Kitteh Beg both returned on the same day. The command of the whole right wing I gave to Humaiiin, who was accompanied by Khwajeh Kilan, Sultan Muhammed Duldai, Wali Khazin, with some of the Begs who had staid in Hindustan, such as Khosrou, Hindu Beg, Abdal-Aziz, and Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng. I also strengthened this force by adding to it several of the inferior Begs, and of my immediate dependants from the centre, such as Mansur Birlas, Kitteh Beg, Mohib Ali, with a large body of troops, and directed him to march against Hamid Khan. It was at this station, too, that Biban came and made his submission. These Afghans are provokingly rude and stupid. Although Dilawer Khan, who was his superior, both in the number of his retainers and in rank, did not sit in the presence, and although the sons of Alim Khan stood, though they were princes,2 this man asked to be allowed to sit, and expected me to listen to his unreasonable demand.

Next morning, being Monday the 14th, Humaiun set out with his light force to attack Hamid Khan by surprise. Humaiun despatched on before him a hundred or a hundred and fifty select men, by way of advanced guard. On coming near the enemy, this advanced body went close up to them, hung upon their flanks, and had one or two rencounters, till the troops of Humaiun appeared in sight following them. Nosooner were they perceived than the enemy took to flight. Our troops brought down one hundred or two hundred of their men, cut off the heads of the one half, and brought the other half alive into the camp, along with seven or eight elephants. Beg Mirak Moghul brought the news of this victory of Humaiun to the camp at this station on Friday, the 18th of the month. On the spot, I directed a complete dress of honour, a horse from my own stable, with a reward in money, to be given to him.

On Monday the 21st, Humaiun reached the camp that was still at the same station, with a hundred prisoners, and seven or eight elephants, and waited on me. I ordered Ustad Ali Kuli and the Matchlockmen to shoot all the prisoners as an example. This was Humaiun's first expedition, and the first service he had seen. It was a very good omen. Some light troops having followed the fugitives, took Hissar-Firozeh the moment they reached it, and returned after plundering it. Hissar-Firozeh, which, with its dependencies and subordinate districts, yielded a kror,3 I bestowed on Humaiun, with a kror in money as a present.

Marching from that station, we reached Shahabad. I sent fit persons towards Sultan Ibrahim's camp to procure intelligence, and halted several days in this station. From this place also I dispatched Rahmet Piadeh to Kabul, with letters announcing my victory.

(At this same station, and this same day, the razor, or scissors, were first applied to Humaiun's beard. As my honoured father mentions in these commentaries the time

1 Ambala is a small town, with a handsome tank. The houses are mostly two stories high, more regular than is usual in India; the streets are well paved with brick, and very clean. On the whole, it is probably the neatest town in India.

* It will be recollected, that Alim Khan, or Alaeddin, was a brother of Sultan Ibrahim, the reigning emperor.

3 About L.25,000 sterling.

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