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of his first using the razor, in humble emulation of him, I have commemorated the same circumstance regarding myself. I was then eighteen years of age. Now that I am forty-six, I, Muhammed Humaiun, am transcribing a copy of these Memoirs from the copy in his late Majesty's own hand-writing).1

In this station, on Monday the 28th of the first Jemadi, the sun entered Aries; we March 13. now began also to receive repeated information from Ibrahim's camp, that he was advancing slowly by a kos or two at a time, and halting two or three days at each station. I, on my side, likewise moved on to meet him, and after the second march from Shahabad, encamped on the banks of the Jumna,2 opposite to Sirsaweh. Haider Kuli, Babercna servant of Khwajeb Kilan, was sent out to procure intelligence. I crossed the strsa^-tif" Jumna by a ford, and went to see Sirsaweh. That same day I took a maajun. At Sirsaweh, there is a fountain, from which a small stream flows. It is rather a pretty place. Terdi Beg Khaksar praised it highly. I said,—" Yours be it;" and in consequence of these praises, I bestowed it on Terdi Beg Khaksar. Having raised an awning in a boat, we sometimes sailed about on the broad stream of the river, and sometimes entered the creeks in the boat.

From this station we held down the river for two marches, keeping close along its banks, when Haider Kuli, who had been sent out to collect intelligence, returned, bringing information that Daud Khan and Haitim Khan had been sent across the river into the Doab with six or seven thousand horse, and had encamped three or four, kos3 in advance of Ibrahim's position on the road towards us. On Sunday the 18th of the April 1. second Jemadi, I dispatched against this column Chin Taimur Sultan, Mehdi Khwa- ^^."h" jeh, Sultan Mirza, Adil Sultan, with the whole left wing, commanded by Sultan J (raid, enemy. Shah Mir Hussain, Kutlek Kedem; as well as part of the centre under Yunis Ali, Abdallah, Ahmedi, and Kitteh Beg, with instructions to advance rapidly and fall upon them by surprise. About noon-day prayers, they crossed the river near our camp; and between afternoon and evening prayers set out from the opposite bank. Next morning, about the time of early prayers,4 they arrived close upon the enemy, who April t. put themselves in some kind of order, and marched out to meet them: but our troops no sooner came up, than the enemy fled, and were followed in close pursuit, and slaughtered all the way to the limits of Ibrahim's camp. The detachment took Haitim Khan, Daud Khan's eldest brother, and one of the generals, with seventy or eighty prisoners, and six or eight elephants, all of which they brought in when they waited on me. Several of the prisoners were put to death, to strike terror into the enemy.

Marching thence, I arranged the whole army in order of battle, with right and left The Vim. wing and centre, and after reviewing it, performed the vim. The custom of the vim is, that, the whole army being mounted, the commander takes a bow or whip in his hand, and guesses at the number of the army, according to a fashion in use, and in conformity with which they affirm that the army may be so many. The number that I guessed was greater than the army turned out to be.

1 This note of Humaiun's must have been made about A.D. 1553, during his residence in Kabul, before his last return to Hindustan. * This river the Persians call the Jiin. It is always so written in the Memoirs. 8 Five or six miles. 4 The Fan prayers are repeated when there is light enough to distinguish one object from another. Fortifies hii At this station I directed that, according to the custom of Rum,1 the gun-carriages should be-connected together with twisted bull-hides as with chains. Between every two gun-carriages were six or seven turas2 or breast-works. The matchlock-men stood behind these guns and turas, and discharged their matchlocks. I halted five or six days in this camp, for the purpose of getting this apparatus arranged. After every part of it was in order and ready, I called together all the Amirs, and men of any experience and knowledge, and held a general council. It was settled, that as Panipat was a considerable city, it would cover one of our flanks by its buildings and houses, while we might fortify our front by turas, or covered defences, and cannon, and that the matchlock-men and infantry should be placed in the rear of the guns and turas. April 12. With this resolution we moved, and in two marches, on Thursday, the 30th of the last Reaches Jemadi, reached Panipat.3 On our right, were the town and suburbs. In my front ampa. j placed tne guns and turas which had been prepared. On the left, and in different other points, we drew ditches and made defences of the boughs of trees. At the distance of every bowshot, a space was left large enough for a hundred or a hundred and fifty men to issue forth. Many of the troops were in great terror and alarm. Trepidation and fear are always unbecoming. Whatsoever Almighty God has decreed from all eternity, cannot be reversed; though, at the same time, I cannot greatly blame them; they had some reason; for they had come two or three months' journey from their own country; we had to engage in arms a strange nation, whose language we did not understand, and who did not understand ours;

(Persian).—VVe are all in difficulty, all in distraction,

Surrounded by a people; by a strange people.

Misconduct The army of the enemy opposed to us was estimated at one hundred thousand men;

of theene- tne dephants of the emperor and his officers were said to amount to nearly a thousand. He possessed the accumulated treasures of his father and grandfather, in current coin, ready for use. It is an usage in Hindustan, in situations similar to that in which the enemy now were, to expend sums of enemy in bringing together troops who engage to serve for hire. These men are called Bedhindi. Had he chosen to adopt this plan, he might have engaged one or two hundred thousand more troops. But God Almighty directed everything for the best. He had not the heart to satisfy even his own army; and would not part with any of his treasure. Indeed, how was it possible that he should satisfy his troops, when he was himself miserly to the last degree, and beyond measure avaricious in accumulating pelf? He was a young man of no experience. He was negligent in all his movements; he marched without order; retired or halted without plan, and engaged in battle without foresight. While the troops were

1 That is, of the Ottomans.

* The meaning assigned to Tiira, here, and in several other places, is merely conjectural, founded on l'etis de la Croix's explanation, and on the meaning given by Meninski to Ti'ir, viz. reticulatus. The Turas may here have been formed of the branches of trees, interwoven like basketwork, so as to form defences; or they may have been covered defences from arrows and missiles, such as we have seen used in several sieges.

3 Panipat, which lies about fifty miles NW. from Delhi, is famous for several very important battles fought near it. In the last, in 1761, the Mahrattas were totally defeated by the Abdallahs, or Afghans, under Ahmed Shah. ,


fortifying their position in Panipat and its vicinity, with guns, branches of trees, and
ditches, Derwish Muhammed Sarban said to me, "You have fortified our ground in
such a way that it is not possible he should ever think of coming here." I answered,
"You judge of him by the Khans and Sultans of the Uzbeks. It is true that, the year
in which we left Samarkand and came to Hissar, a body of the Uzbek Khans and Sul-
tans having collected and united together, set out from Derbend1 in order to fall upon
us. I brought the families and property of all the Moghuls and soldiers into the town
and suburbs, and closing up all the streets, put them in a defensible state. As these
Khans and Sultans were perfectly versed in the proper times and seasons for attack-
ing and retiring, they perceived that we were resolved to defend Hissar to the last
drop of our blood, and had fortified it under that idea; and seeing no hopes of suc-
ceeding in their enterprise, fell back by Bundak Cheghanian. But you must not judge
of our present enemies by those who were then opposed to us. They have not ability
to discriminate when it is proper to advance and when to retreat." God brought every-
thing to pass favourably. It happened as I foretold. During the seven or eight days APriI ia
that we remained in Panipat, a very small party of my men, advancing close up to
their encampment and to their vastly superior force, discharged arrows upon them.
They did not, however, move, or make any demonstration of sallying out. At length,
induced by the persuasions of some Hindustani Amirs, in my interest, I sent Mehdi Baberlia
Khwajeh, Muhammed Sultan Mirza, Abdal Sultan, Khosrou Shah, Mir Hussain,
Sultan Jfmid Birlas, Abdal-aziz, the master of horse (Mir Akhur), Muhammed Ali
Jeng-Jeng, Kutlak Kedem, Wali Khazin, Mohib Ali Khalifeh, Muhammed Bakhshi,
Jan Beg, and Karakuzi, with four or five thousand men, on a night attack. They did
not assemble properly in the first instance, and as they marched out in confusion, did
not get on well. The day dawned, yet they continued lingering near the enemy's camp
till it was broad daylight, when the enemy, on their side, beat their kettle-drums, got
ready their elephants, and marched out upon them. Although our people did not
effect anything, yet, in spite of the multitude of troops that hung upon them in their
retreat, they returned safe and sound, without the loss of a man. Muhammed Ali Jeng-
Jeng was wounded with an arrow, and though the wound was not mortal, yet it dis-
abled him from taking his place in the day of battle. On learning what bad occurred,
I immediately detached Humaiun with his division a kos or a kos and a half2 in ad-
vance, to cover their retreat, while I myself, remaining with the army, drew it out,
and got it in readiness for action. The party which had marched to surprise the enemy
fell in with Humaiun, and returned with him. As none of the enemy came near us, I
drew off the army, aud led it back to the camp. In the course of the night we had a false
alarm; for nearly one Geri3 the call to arms and the uproar continued. Such of the
troops as had never before witnessed an alarm of the kind, were in great confusion and
dismay. In a short time, however, the alarm subsided.

By the time of early morning prayers, when the light was such that you could The enemy distinguish one object from another, notice was brought from the advanced patroles Baber, that the enemy were advancing, drawn up in order of battle. We too immediately AP"121

1 The celebrated pass of Kolugha, or Kohlugheh, in the bills between Hissar and Sheher Sebz. 'A mile and a half, or two miles. 3 Twenty-four minutes.

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hraced on our helmets and our armour, and mounted. The right division was led by Humaiun, accompanied by Khwajeh Kilan, Sultan Muhammed Duldai, Hindu Beg, Wali Khazin, and Pir Kuli Sistani; the left division was commanded by Muhammed Sultan Mirza, Mehdi Khwajeh, Aadel Sultan, Shah Mir Hussain, Sultan Junid Birlas, Kutlek Kedem, Jan Beg, Muhammed Bakhshi, Shah Hussain Bargi, and Moghul Ghanchi. The right of the centre was commanded by Chin Taimur Sultan, Muhammed! Gokultash, Shah Mansur Birlas, Yunis Ali, Derwish Muhammed Sarban, and Abdalla Kitabdar; the left of the centre by Khalifeh, Khwajeh Mir Miran, Ahmedi Perwanchi, Terdi Beg, Kuch Beg, Mohib Ali Khalifeh, and Mirza Beg Terkhan. The advance was led by Kbosrou Gokultash, and Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng. Abdal-aziz, master of horse, had the command of the reserve.1 On the flank of the right division I stationed Wali Kazil, Malek Kasim, Baba Kushkeh, with their Moghuls, to act as a Tulughmeh (or flanking party). On the extremity of the left division were stationed Kara-Kuzi, Ahul Muhammed Nezeh-baz, Sheikh Ali, Sheikh Jemal Barin, Mehdi, Tongri Kuli Moghul, to form the Tulughmeh (or flankers), with instructions, that as soon as the enemy approached sufficiently near, they should take a circuit and come round upon their rear.

When the enemy first came in sight, they seemed to bend their force most against the right division. I therefore detached Abdal-aziz, who was stationed with the reserve, to reinforce the right. Sultan Ibrahim's army, from the time it first appeared in sight, never made a halt, but advanced right upon us, at a quick pace. When they came closer, and, on getting a view of my troops, found them drawn up in the order and with the defences that have been mentioned, they were brought up and stood for a while, as if considering, " Shall we halt or not? shall we advance or not?" They could not halt, and they were unable to advance with the same speed as before. I sent orders to the troops stationed as flankers on the extremes of the right and left divisions, to wheel round the enemy's flank with all possible speed, and instantly to attack them in the rear; the right and left divisions were also ordered to charge the enemy. The flankers accordingly wheeled on the rear of the enemy, and began to make discharges of arrows on them. Mehdi Khwajeh came up before the rest of the left wing. A body of men with one elephant advanced to meet him. My troops gave them some sharp discharges of arrows, and the enemy's division was at last driven back. I dispatched from the main body Ahmedi Perwanchi, Terdi Beg, Kuch Beg, and Mohib Ali Khalifeh, to the assistance of the left division. The battle was likewise obstinate on the right. I ordered Muhammedi Gokultash, Shah Mansur Birlas, Yunis Ali, and Abdalla, to advance in front of the centre and engage. Ustad Ali Kuli also discharged his guns2 many times in front of the line to good purpose. Mustafa, the cannoneer, on the left of the centre, managed his artillery with great effect. The right and left divisions, the centre and flankers having surrounded the enemy and taken them in rear, were now engaged in hot conflict, and busy pouring in discharges of arrows on them.


* Feringiha.—The size of these artillery at the time in question is very uncertain. The word is now used in the Dekkan for a swivel. In common usage, zerb-zin, at the present day, is a small species of swivel. Both words, in the time of Baber, appear to have been used for field cannon.

They made one or two very poor charges on our right and left divisions. My troops making use of their bows, plied them with arrows, and drove them in upon their centre. The troops on the right and left of their centre, being huddled together in one place, such confusion ensued, that the enemy, while totally unable to advance, found also no road by which they could flee. The sun had mounted spear-high when the onset of battle began, and the combat lasted till mid-day, when the enemy were completely broken But are and routed, and my friends victorious and exulting. By the grace and mercy of Al- completely mighty God, this arduous undertaking was rendered easy for me, and this mighty army, in the space of half a day, laid in the dust. Five or six thousand men were discovered lying slain, in one spot, near Ibrahim. We reckoned that the number lying slain, in different parts of this field of battle, amounted to fifteen or sixteen thousand men. On reaching Agra, we found, from the accounts of .the natives of Hindustan, that forty or fifty thousand men had fallen in this field. After routing the enemy, we continued the pursuit, slaughtering, and making them prisoners. Those who were ahead, began to bring in the Amirs and Afghans as prisoners. They brought in a very great number of elephants with their drivers, and offered them to me as peshkesh. Having pursued the enemy to some distance, and supposing that Ibrahim had escaped from the battle, I appointed Kismai Mirza, Baba Chihreh, and Bujkeh, with a party of my immediate adherents, to follow him in close pursuit down as far as Agra. Having passed through the middle of Ibrahim's camp, and visited his pavilions and accommodations, we encamped on the banks of the Siah-ab.1

It was now afternoon prayers when Tahir Taberi, the younger brother of Khalifeh, ibrihim

having: found Ibrahim lving dead amidst a number of slain, cut off his head, and found ,

° Jo ''among the

brought it in. slain.

That very day I directed Humaiun Mirza, Khwajeh Kilan, Muhammedi, Shah Baber sends Mansur Birlas, Yunis Ali, Abdalla, and Wali Khazin, to set out without baggage or md^h* encumbrances, and proceed with all possible expedition to occupy Agra, and take pos- cupy Agra session of the treasuries. I at the same time ordered Mehdi Khwajeh, Muhammed Sultan Mirza, Aadel Sultan, Sultan Junid Birlas, and Kutluk Kedem, to leave their baggage behind, to push on by forced marches, to enter the Fort of Delhi, and seize the treasuries.

Next morning we marched, and having proceeded about a kos,2 halted on the banks A ^ 22 of the Jumna in order to refresh our horses.

After other two marches, on Tuesday I visited the mausoleum of Nizam Aulia,3 April 23, and at the end of the third march encamped near Delhi, on the banks of the Jumna, yiiitt the

9 mausoleum

1 Black River. * A mile and a half. Auto!*"

3 The mausoleum of Nizam ed-din Aulia is within four or five miles of Delhi, on the south. It is» surrounded by numerous remarkable buildings, chiefly tombs, among which are those of the Great Moghul Muhammed Shah, and of the famous poet Amir Khosrou. The tomb of Khwajeh Kutbeddin is about eleven miles south of Delhi. Near it is a famous minaret, built in honour of that saint by one of the Kings of Delhi, and probably noticed here under the name of Alaeddin. It is a very handsome column of red stone, 260 feet high. It is formed into three divisions, separated from each other by projecting galleries. Each division is fluted, and ornamented with Arabic inscriptions, in a different manner from the rest. The whole was crowned by a cupola, now thrown down by an earthquake.

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