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hills contain innumerable tribes and states, pergannahs and countries, and extend all the way to Bengal and the shores of the Great Ocean. About these hills are other Their inhatribes of men. With all the investigation and inquiry that I could make among the natives of Hindustan, I could get no sort of description or authentic information regarding them. All that I could learn was, that the men of these hills were called Kas. It struck me, that, as the Hindustanis frequently confound shin and sin, and as Kashmir is the chief, and indeed, as far as I have heard, the only city in these hills, it may have taken its name from that circumstance.1 The chief trade of the inhabitants of these hills is in musk-bags, the tails of the mountain-cow,2 saffron, lead, and copper. The natives of Hind call these hills Sewalik-Parbat. In the language of Hind, Sawaldk means a lak and a quarter (or one hundred and twenty-five thousand), and Parbat means a hill, that is, the hundred and twenty-five thousand hills. On these hills the snow never melts, and from some parts of Hindustan, such as Lahore, Sehrend, and Sambal, it is seen white on them all the year round. This range of hills takes the name of Hindu-kush, near Kabul, and runs from Kabul eastward, but inclining a little to the south. All to the south of this range is Hindustan. To the north of these hills, and of that unknown race of men whom they call Kas, lies Tibet.3 A great number of rivers take their rise in these mountains, and flow through Hin- Riven dustan. To the north of Sehrend, six rivers, the Sind, the Behat, the Chinab, the nTMrthern Ravi, the Biah, and the Setlej,4 take their rise in these mountains, and all uniting hillswith the Sind in the territory of Multan, take the common name of the Sind, which, flowing down to the west, passes through the country of Tatta, and disembogues into the sea of Oman. Besides these six rivers, there are other rivers, such as the Jumna, the Ganges, the Rahet,5 the Gumti, the Gagra, the Sirud, the Gandak, and a number of others, that all throw themselves into the Ganges,6 which, preserving its name, proceeds towards the east, and, passing through the midst of Bengal, empties itself into the Great Ocean. The sources of all these rivers are in the Sewalik mountains. There are, however, several other rivers, such as the Chambal, the Banas,7 the Other Betwa,8 and the Son, which rise from ranges of hills that are within Hindustan. In "veri" these ranges, it never snows. These rivers likewise fall into the Ganges.

There are several ranges of hills in Hindustan. Among these is a detached branch °thtr that runs from north to south. It rises in the territory of Delhi, at the Jehan-Numa,9 hills.

1 The Persian adds, " mir signifying a hill, and has being the name of the natives of the hill country."

2 The kitas, or kirtds, as here written, is a fringed knot made of the hair of the tail or mane of the mountain-cow, often set in gold, and hung round the necks of horses by way of ornament, or as a defence against fascination. It appears also to have been used as a banner.

3 The name of Sewalik is usually confined to the hills north and east of Penjab. Baber extends it to the great northern range. His etymology of the name is not happy.

* The Indus, Hydaspes, Ascesines, Hydraotes, Hesudrus, and Hyphasis.

5 The Turki has Rahep. Probably the Rapti, which joins the Ganges from Nepal.

6 By the Persians called Gang, by the Hindus Ganga.

7 The Banas, I am informed, rises to the north-west of Udipur, and runs into the Chambal near Rantambor. It is distinct from the Cane. The latter river is joined by the Bewas, which Rennell seems by mistake to have called the Banas. "I find," says my informant, " in my old journals, that they called it Bewas, or Bewuss, at Sagur."

8 The Betwa rises in Bopal, passes Chanderi and Jhansi, and falls into the Jumna below Kalpi.

9 Mirror of the world.

of the country.

a palace of Sultan Firoz Shah, which stands on a small rocky hillock. After passing this, it breaks, in the neighbourhood of Delhi, into a number of detached, scattered, small, rocky hills, that lie in different directions. When it gains the country of Mewat, the hills rise in height; and when it leaves Mewat, it enters the country of Biana. The countries of Sikri, Bari, and Dhulpur, are formed by this range, although not comprehended within it; and the hill-country of Gualiar, which they also call Galior, is formed by a detached offset from it. The hill-country of Rantambor, Chitur, Mandu, and Chandcri, is formed by branches of this same range. In some places it is interrupted for seven or eight kos.1 This hilly tract is composed of very low, rough, rugged, stony, and jungly hills. In this range it never snows; but several of the rivers of Hindustan originate among the hills of which it is composed, irrigation Most of the districts of Hindustan are plain and level. Though Hindustan contains so many provinces, none of them has any artificial canals2 for irrigation. It is watered only by rivers, though in some places, too, there is standing water.3 Even in those cities which are so situated as to admit of digging a water-course, and thereby bringing water into them, yet no water has been brought in. There may be several reasons for this. One of them is, that water is not absolutely requisite for the crops and gardens. The autumnal crop is nourished by the rains of the rainy season. It is remarkable that there is a spring crop even though no rain falls. They raise water for the young trees, till they are one or two years old, by means of a waterwheel or buckets; after that time it is not at all necessary to water them. Some vegetables they water. In Lahore, Debalpur, Sehrend, and the neighbouring districts, they water by means of a wheel. They first take two ropes, of a length suited to the depth of the well, and fasten each of them so as to form a circle; between the two circular ropes they insert pieces of wood connecting them, and to these they fix water-pitchers. The ropes so prepared, with the pitchers attached to them by means of the pieces of wood, they throw over a wheel that is placed on the top of the well. On the one end of the axletree of this wheel they place another wheel with teeth, and to the side of this last they apply a third, which they make with an upright axle. When the bullocks turn this last wheel round, its teeth working upon those of the second wheel, turn the large wheel on which is the circle of pitchers. They make a trough under the place where the water is discharged by the revolution of the pitchers, and from this trough convey the water to whatever place it may be required. They have another contrivance for raising water for irrigation in Agra, Biana, Ch and war, and that quarter, by means of a bucket. This is very troublesome, and filthy besides. On the brink of a well they fix in strongly two forked pieces of wood, and between their prongs insert a roller. They then fasten a great water-bucket to long ropes, which they bring over the roller; one end of this rope they tie to the bullock, and while one man drives the bullock, another is employed to pour the water out of the bucket (when it reaches the top of the well). Every time that the bullock raises the bucket from the well, as it is let down again, the rope slides along the bullock-course, is defiled with urine and dung, and in this filthy condition falls into

1 Ten or twelve miles. 9 Ab-rewan, perhaps small rivulets.

3 Kara-siilar, literally black waters. These are chiefly large tanks.


the well. In many instances, where fields require to be watered, the men and women draw water in buckets and irrigate them.

The country and towns of Hindustan are extremely ugly. All its towns and lands have l« «p«ct. an uniform look ; its gardens have no walls; the greater part of it is a level plain. The banks of its rivers and streams, in consequence of the rushing of the torrents that descend during the rainyseason, are worn deep into the channel, which makes itgenerally difficult and troublesome to cross them. In many places, the plain is covered by a thorny brushwood, to such a degree that the people of the Pergannas, relying on these forests, take shelter in them, and, trusting to their inaccessible situation, often continue in a state of revolt, refusing to pay their taxes. In Hindustan, if you except the rivers, there is little running water.1 Now and then some standing water is to be met with. All these cities and countries derive their water from wells or tanks, in which it is collected during the rainy season. In Hindustan, the populousness and decay, or total destruction of villages, nay of cities, is almost instantaneous. Large cities that have been inhabited for a series of years (if, on an alarm, the inhabitants take to flight), in a single day, or a day and a half, are so completely abandoned, that you can scarcely discover a trace or mark of population.2 And if, on the other hand, they intend to settle on any particular spot, as they do not need to run water-courses, or to build flood-mounds, their crops being produced without irrigation,3 and the population of Hindustan being unlimited, inhabitant* swarm in in every direction. They make a tank or dig a well; there is no need of building a strong house or erecting a firm wall; they have abundance of strong grass, and plenty of timber, of which they run up hovels, and a village or town is constructed in an instant.

As for the animals peculiar to Hindustan, one is the elephant, the Hindustanis call I" quadit Hathi, which inhabits the district of Kalpi; and the higher you advance from thence .,^' towards the east, the more do the wild elephants increase in number. That is the phant. tract in which the elephant is chiefly taken. There may be thirty or forty villages in Karrah and Manikpur that arc occupied solely in this employment of taking elephants.'1

1 In Persia there are few rivers, but numbers of artificial canals or water-runs for irrigation, and for the supply of water to towns and villages. The same is the case in the valley of Sogbd, and the richer parts of Mawcralnaher.

* This is the wuka or walea, so well described by Colonel "VVilks in his Historical Sketches, vol. I. p. 309, note: "On the approach of an hostile army, the unfortunate inhabitants of India bury under ground their most cumbrous effects, and each individual, man, woman, and child above six years of age (the infant children being carried by their mothers), with a load of grain proportioned to their strength, issue from their beloved homes, and take the direction of a country (if such can be found) exempt from the miseries of war; sometimes of a strong fortress, but more generally of the most unfrequented hills and woods, where they prolong a miserable existence until the departure of the enemy; and if this should be protracted beyond the time for which they have provided food, a large portion necessarily dies of hunger." See the note itself. The Historical Sketches should be read by every one who desires to have an accurate idea of the South of India. It is to be regretted that we do not possess the history.of any other part of India, written with the same knowledge or research.

3 Lalmi.

* The improvement of Hindustan since Baber's time must be prodigious. The wild elephant is now confined to the forests under Heraala, and to the Ghats of Malabar. A wild elephant near Karrah (Currab), Manikpur, or Kalpi, is a thing, at the present day, totally unknown. May not their familiar existence in these countries, down to Baber's days, be considered as rather hostile to the accounts given of the superabundant population of Hindustan in remote times?

They account to the government for the elephants which they take. The elephant is an immense animal, and of great sagacity. It understands whatever you tell it, and does whatever it is bid. Its value is in proportion to its size. When it arrives at a proper age they sell it, and the largest brings the highest price. They say that in some islands the elephant grows to the height of ten gez.1 I have never, in these countries, seen one above four or five gez.2 The elephant eats and drinks entirely by means of his trunk. He cannot live if he loses it. On the two sides of his trunk, in his upper jaw, he has two tusks; it is by applying these teeth, and exerting all his force, that he overturns walls and tears up trees; and, when he fights or performs any operation that requires great exertion, he makes use of these tusks, which they call Aqj. The tusks are highly valued by the Hindus. The elephant is not covered with hair or wool3 like other animals. The natives of Hindustan place great reliance on their elephants; in their armies, every division has invariably a certain number with it. The elephant has some valuable-qualities; it can carry a great quantity of baggage over deep and rapid torrents, and passes them with ease; gun-carriages, which it takes four or five hundred men to drag, two or three elephants draw without difficulty. But it has a great stomach, and a single elephant will consume the grain of seven or fourteen camels. Rhinoceros. The rhinoceros is another. This also is a huge animal. Its bulk is equal to that of three buffaloes. The opinion prevalent in our countries, that a rhinoceros can lift an elephant on its horn, is probably a mistake. It has a single horn over its nose, upwards of a span in length, but I never eaw one of two spans. Out of one of the largest of these horns I had a drinking-vessel4 made, and a dice-box, and about three or four fingers' bulk of it might be left. Its hide is very thick. If it be shot at with a powerful bow, drawn up to the armpit with much force, and if the arrow pierces at all, it enters only three or four fingers' breadth. They say, however, that there are parts of his skin that may be pierced, and the arrows enter deep. On the sides of its two shoulderblades, and of its two thighs, are folds that hang loose, and appear at a distance like cloth housings dangling over it. It bears more resemblance to the horse than to any other animal.5 As the horse has a large stomach, so has this; as the pastern of the horse is composed of a single bone, so also is that of the rhinoceros; as there is a gumek6 in the horse's fore leg, so is there in that of the rhinoceros. It is more ferocious than the elephant, and cannot be rendered so tame or obedient. There are numbers of them in the j tingles of Pershawer and Hashnaghar, as well as between the river Sind and Behreh in the jungles. In Hindustan too, they abound on the banks of the river SirwiiJ In the course of my expeditions into Hindustan, in the jungles of Pershawer, and Hashnaghar,8 I frequently killed the rhinoceros. It strikes powerfully with its horn, with which, in the course of these hunts, many men, and many horses,

1 About twenty feet. * Eight or ten feet. •1 Its skin is scattered with thin hair.

4 The rhinoceros's horn was supposed to sweat on the approach of poison, a quality which fitted it, in a peculiar manner, for being made into a drinking-cup for an eastern king.

5 It is to the eye more like the elephant, or a huge overgrown hog.

6 A marginal note on the Turki copy, translates gumek, marrow. » The Gogra.
9 The rhinoceros is now entirely expelled from the countries about the Indus.

were gored. In one hunt, it tossed with its horn, a full spear's length, the horse of a young man named Maksud, whence he got the name of Rhinoceros Maksud.

Another animal is the wild buffalo. It is much larger than the common buffalo. Its Wild bufhorns go back like those of the common buffalo, but not so as to grow into the flesh. It is a very destructive and ferocious animal.

Another is the nilgau. Its height is about equal to that of a horse. It is somewhat Nilgau. slenderer. The male is bluish, whence it is called the nilgau.1 It has two small horns, and on its neck has some hair, more than a span in length,2 which bears much resemblance to the mountain-cow tassels.3 Its tail is like the bull's. The colour of the female is like that of the gawezin deer; she has no horns, nor any hair on the under part of her neck; and is plumper than the male.

Another is the kotah-paicheh.4 Its size may be equal to that of the white deer. Its Kotah-paitwo fore legs as well as its thighs are short, whence its name—(short-legged). Its horns "*"*• are branching like those of the gawezin, but less. Every year too it casts its horns like the stag. It is a bad runner, and therefore never leaves the jungle.

There is another species of deer that resembles the male honeh or jiran. Its back is Antelope, black, its belly white, its horns longer than those of the honeh, and more crooked. The Hindustanis call it kilhereh. This word was probably originally kalahern, that is (black deer), which they have corrupted into kilhereh. The female is white. They take deer by means of this kilhereh. They make fast a running-net to its horns, and tie a stone larger than a foot-ball to its leg, that, after it is separated from the deer, it may be hindered from running far. When the deer sees the wild kilhereh, it advances up to it, presenting its head. This species of deer is very fond of fighting, and comes on to butt with its horns. When they have engaged and pushed at each other with their horns, in the course of their moving backwards and forwards, the net which has been fastened on the tame one's horns, gets entangled in those of the wild deer, and prevents its escape. Though the wild deer uses every effort to flee, the tame one does not run off, and is greatly impeded by the stone tied to its leg, which keeps back the other also. In this way they take a number of deer^5 which they afterwards tame. They likewise take deer by setting nets. They breed this tame deer to fight in their houses; it makes an excellent battle.

There is on the skirts of the mountains of Hindustan another deer which is smaller. Deer. It may be equal in size to a sheep6 of a year old.

Another is the gau-kini; it is a small species of cow, like the larger kochkar (or Gau-kini. ram) of our country. Its flesh is very tender and savoury.

The monkey is another of the animals of the country. The Hindustanis call it Monkey. Bander. There are many species of them. One species is the same that is brought to our countries. The jugglers teach them tricks-. It is met with in the hill-country

1 Blue ox.

3 On the lower part of its neck is a thick circumscribed tuft of hair.—D. W. (For this and the succeeding notes marked D. W. I am indebted to David White, M.D. second Member of the Medical Board of Bombay, and well known for his botanical researches.)

3 Kitas. • Short-legged.

* This way of catching the antelope is still in constant use in India. • Tugli ghalchen.

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