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attempt on Akhsi; and, with that view, entered the territory of Khokan.1 On recei-
ving information of this, I dispatched several Begs with a body of troops to fall upon
him without loss of time. The Begs having sent on some troops in advance, Hassan
Yakub, who received intelligence of the circumstance, fell hy night on this advanced
guard, which was separated from the. main body, surrounded the quarters they had
taken up for the night, and attacked them by discharges of arrows; but, having been
wounded in the dark in his hinder parts, by an arrow shot by one of his own men, he
was unable to retreat, and fell a sacrifice to his own misdeeds:—(Persian verse.)

When thou hast done wrong, hope not to be secure against calamity j
For its appropriate retribution awaits every dyed.

This same year I began to abstain from forbidden or dubious meats;2 and extended my caution to the knife, the spoon, and the table-cloth: I also seldom omitted my midnight prayers.

In the month of the latter Rabia, Sultan Mahmud Mirza was seized with a violent disorder, and, after an illness of six days, departed this life, in the forty-third year of his age.

He was born in the year 857, and was the third son of Sultan Abusaid Mirza by the same mother as Sultan Ahmed Mirza. He was of short stature, with little beard, corpulent, and a very rough-hewn man in his appearance.

As for his manners and habits, he never neglected his prayers, and his arrangements and regulations were excellent; he was well versed in calculation, and not a single dirhem or dinar3 of his revenues was expended without his knowledge. He was regular in paying the allowances of his servants; and his banquets, his donatives, the ceremonial of his court, and his entertainment of his dependants, were all excellent in their kind, and were conducted by a fixed rule and method. His dress was elegant, and according to the fashion on the day. He never permitted either the soldiery or people to deviate in the slightest degree from the orders or regulations which he prescribed. In the earlier part of -his life he was much devoted to falconry, and kept a number of hawks; and latterly was very fond of hunting the nihilam.4 He carried his violence and debauchery to a frantic excess; and was constantly drinking wine. He kept a number of catamites; and over the whole extent of his dominions, wherever -there was a handsome boy or youth, he used every means to carry him off, in order to gratify his passion. The very sons of his Begs, nay his own foster-brothers,5 and the

1 Khokan, the Khwakend^of the Arabian geographers, is the modern Kokan, which lies on the road from Khojend to Akhsi.

2 The Musulmans have many observances regarding unlawful meats, and ceremonial defilements. Some of these are not much attended to by soldiers or men in active life.

3 The dirhem and dinar are Persian pieces of money: the former is now of the value of about fivepence halfpenny; the latter of about nine shillings.

4 I do not know what animal the nihilam is. From its name it may perhaps be the NU-gau. It is said to be the Gawaxin kolii.

.'. The connexion formed between foster-brothers is always very strong in rude ages. The Turks called them Gokultash, or heart of stone, to denote their unchangeable attachment. Baber often mentions his Gokultishes with great affection.

children of his foster-brothers, he made catamites and employed in this way. And such currency did this vile practice gain in his time, that every man had his boy; insomuch, that to keep a catamite was thought to be a creditable things and not to have one was regarded as rather an imputation on a man's spirit. As a judgment upon him for his tyranny and depravity, all his sons were cut off in their youth.

He had a turn for versifying, and composed a Diwan; but his poetry is flat and in- His genius. sipid: and it is surely better not to write at all than to write in that style. He was of an unbelieving disposition, and treated Khwajeh Abid-ullah very ill. He was, in short, a man equally devoid of courage and of modesty. He kept about him a number of buffoons and scoundrels, who acted their vile and disgraceful tricks in the face of the court, and even at public audiences. He spoke ill, and his enunciation was often quite unintelligible.

He fought two battles, both of them with Sultan Hussain Mirza; the first at Astera- His wars. bad,1 in which he was defeated; the second in the territory of Andekhud,2 at a place named Chekman,3 in which likewise he was defeated. He went twice on a religious war against Kaferistau' on the south of Badakhshan; on which account he used in the Toghra5 of his Firmans the style of Sultan Mahmud Ghazi.6

Sultan Abusaid Mirza bestowed on him Asterabad, and, after the unfortunate Hisdomibusiness of Irak, he repaired to Khorasan. At that crisis Kamber Ali Beg, the Hakim nionsof Hissar, who, according to orders which he had received from Sultan Abusaid Mirza, was conducting the army of Hindustan towards Irak to the assistance of that prince, had got as far as Khorasan, where he joined Sultan Mahmud Mirza. The people of Khorasan, immediately on hearing the report of Sultan Hussain Mirza's approach, rose in revolt, and drove Sultan Mahmud Mirza out of Khorasan; whereupon he repaired to Sultan Ahmed Mirza at Samarkand. A few months after, Syed Beder, Khosrou Shah, and some other officers, under the direction of Ahmed Mushtak, carried off Sultan Mahmud Mirza, and fled with him to Hissar, to Kamber Ali Beg. From that time downward, Kohlugha, with all the countries to the south of the hill of Kotin,7 such as Termez, Cheghanian, Hissar, Khultan, Kundez, Badakhshan, and the districts as far as the mountain of Hindukush, remained in the possession of Sultan Mahmud Mirza. On the death of his elder brother Sultan Ahmed Mirza, that prince's territories also fell into his hands.

He had five sons and eleven daughters. The eldest of his sons was Sultan Masaud H" family.

Mirza, whose mother was Khanzadeh Begum, a daughter of Mir Buzurg of Termez; sultan

another of his sons was Baiesanghar Mirza, whose mother was Pasheh Begum; a third Masaud

was Sultan Ali Mirza, whose mother, Zuhreh Beghi Agha, was an Uzbek and a con- Baiesaii

cubine. Another son was Sultan Hussain Mirza, whose mother was Khanzadeh Be- sh" Mirza.

Sultan Ali

1 On the south-east corner of the Caspian. .

* Below the hills, west of Balkh 88 miles, towards the Desert. Hussain

3 Mr Metcalfe's copy has Chekmdn-terui. i The country of the Siahposbes. Mirza.

'' The Toghra is the ornamented preamble of public papers containing the prince's titles, &c.

6 Ghazi means victorious in a holy war.

7 The hill of Kotin seems to be the mountainous country that bounds Karatigin on the south. Kohlugha, or Kaluga, is the Pass of Derbend (between Hissar and Kesh) where there was probably a fort.

gum, the grand-daughter1 of Mir Buzurg. He went to the mercy of the Almighty in his SultanWeU father's lifetime, at the age of thirteen. The other son was Sultan Weis Mirza, whose mother, Sultan Nigar Khanum, was a daughter of Yunis Khan, and the younger sister of my mother. The transactions of these four Mirzas will he detailed in the succeeding years. His daugh- Of the daughters, three were hy the same mother with Baiesanghar Mirza; the eld,ers" est of whom Sultan Mahmud Mirza gave in marriage to Malek Muhammed Mirza,

the son of his paternal uncle Manucheher Mirza. By Khanzadeh Begum, the granddaughter of Mir Buzurg, he had five daughters, the eldest of whom, after the death of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, was given to Ababeker Kashghari. The second daughter was Begeh Begum, whom Sultan Hussain Mirza, when he besieged Hissar, engaged to Haider Mirza, his son by Payendeh Sultan Begum, a daughter of Abusaid Mirza; after which he made peace and raised the siege. The third daughter was Ak-Begum. When Sultan Hussain Mirza advanced against Kundez, Omar-Sheikh Mirza sent his son Jehangir Mirza with the army of Andejan to succour the place; at which time A.D. 1504. the fourth princess was betrothed to Jehangir Mirza. In the year 910, when Baki Cheghaniani came and met me on the banks of the Amu, these Begums were with their mothers in Termez, and they all of them came along with the wife of Baki Cheghaniani and accompanied me; and, on our reaching Kohmerd, Jehangir Mirza married his bride. They had one daughter, who is at present with her grandmother Khanzadeh Begum in Badakhshan. The fifth daughter was Zeineb Sultan Begum, whom, when I took Kabul, I married, at the instance of my mother, Kutluk Nigar Khanum. We did not agree very well; two or three years after our marriage she was seized with the small-pox, which carried her off. Another of Sultan Mahmud Mirza's daughters was Makhdum Sultan Begum, who was the elder sister of Sultan Ali Mirza, by the same mother. She is now in Badakhshan. His other two daughters were by concubines; the name of the one was Rajeb Sultan, that of the other Moheb . Sultan. Hi» Wives. -j.he enief of his wives was Khanzadeh Begum,1 the daughter of Mir Buzurg of liegum. Termez, to whom the Mirza was strongly attached, and who was the mother of Sultan Masaud Mirza. The Mirza was deeply afflicted at her death. After that event he Khanzldeh married th* grand-daughter of Mir Buzurg, the daughter of a brother of Khanzadeh Begum. Begum. She also was called Khanzadeh Begum, and she was the mother of five Begum. daughters and one son. Another of his wives was Pasheh Begum, the daughter of Ali Shir Beg Beharlm, one of the Begs of the Turkoman Horde of the Black Sheep. She had been married before to Muhammedi Mirza, the son of Jehan-shah Mirza Barani, a Turkoman of the Black Sheep. At the period when Uzun Hassan, who was a Turkoman of the White Sheep, took Azerbaejan and Irak from the family of Jehanshah Mirza, the sons of Ali Shir Beg, with four or five thousand families of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep, entered the service of Sultan Abusaid Mirza. After the defeat of the Sultan, they found their way to the countries north of the Amu: and

1 It is to be remembered that Sultan Mahmud Mirza had two wives of the name of Khanzadeh Begum, the one the daughter, the other the grand-daughter of Mir Buzurg.

when Sultan Mahmud Mirza went from Samarkand to Hissar, they entered his service. It was at that time that the Mirza married this Pasheh Begum, who was the mother of one of his sons and three of his daughters. Another of his wives was Sultan Sultan NiNigar Khanum, whose extraction has already been mentioned in the account of the J^1"" Khans.

He had many concubines and handmaids, the principal of whom was Zohreh Begi HisconcuAgha, an Uzbek, whom he had taken in the lifetime of Sultan Abusaid Mirza. She bmes* was the mother of one son and one daughter. By two of his numerous handmaids, he had the two daughters who have already been mentioned.

The first of his Begs was Khosrou Shah,1 who was from Turkestan, of a tribe of His Begs. Kipchak. In his youth he had been in the Rervice of the Terkhan Begs, nay, had been Khosrou a catamite. He next was in the service of Mazid Beg Arghun, who treated him with great favour. He accompanied Sultan Mahmud Mirza in the disastrous expedition into IrSk; and, during the course of the retreat, did him such acceptable service, that the Mirza gave him high marks of his regard. He afterwards rose to an exceeding height of power. In the time of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, his dependants amounted to the number of five or six thousand. From the banks of the Amu to the mountain Hindukush, the whole country, except Badakhshan, depended on him, and he enjoyed the whole revenues of it. He was remarkable for making a very extensive distribution of victuals,2 and for his liberality. Though a Turk, he applied his attention to the mode of raising his revenues, and he spent them liberally as they were collected. After the death of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, in the reign of that prince's sons, he reached the highest pitch of greatness, and indeed became independent, and his retainers rose to the number of twenty thousand. Though he prayed regularly, and abstained from forbidden foods, yet he was black-hearted and vicious, of mean understanding, and slender talents, faithless, and a traitor. For the sake of the short and fleeting pomp of this vain world, he put out the eyes of one, and murdered another of the sons of the benefactor, in whose service he had been, and by whom he had been patronised and protected; rendering himself accursed of God, abhorred of men, and worthy of execration and shame till the day of final retribution. These crimes he perpetrated merely to secure the enjoyment of some poor worldly vanities ; yet with all the power of his many and populous territories, in spite of his magazines of warlike stores, and the multitude of his servants, he had not the spirit to face a barn-door chicken. He will be often mentioned again in these memoirs.

Another was Pir Muhammed Ilchi Bugha, a Kochin. In the war of Hazarasp, near pir Muthe gates of Balkh, he did great execution with his fists by way of bravado, in the pre- chi Bugha. sence of Sultan Abusaid Mirza. He was a brave man, and always remained in the employment of the Mirza, who was much influenced by his opinions. When Sultan Hussain Mirza besieged Kundez, Pir Muhammed, from rivalry to Khosrou Shah, made

1 This Khosrou Shah acts a considerable part in the course of these Memoirs.

2 These distributions of victuals were made, as has been remarked, for the purpose of acquiring and retaining followers.

a night attack on the enemy with a handful of unarmed men, contrary to all rule, but accomplished nothing; and indeed what could be expected from an attempt made on a mighty army with such inferior force? Being hotly pursued by some light-armed horse, he threw himself into the river, and was drowned. Ayftb. Another was Ayub, who had served Sultan Abusaid Mirza in the band of Khora

san Youths. He was a man of courage, and was Beg Utke (or governor) to Baiesanghar Mirza. He was moderate in his table and dress, and of an humorous, lively turn. Sultan Mahmud Mirza having called him Bihya (or shameless), the epithet stuck to him. Wali. Wali was another of them, the younger brother of the full blood of Khosrou Shah.

He took good care of his servants. It was, however, at the instigation of this man, that Sultan Masaud Mirza was blinded, and Baiesanghar Mirza put to death. He was in the habit of speaking ill of everybody behind their backs. He was a foul-tongued, scurrilous, self-conceited, scatter-brained fellow. He never approved of any thing or any person, hut himself or his own. When I separated Khosrou Shah from his servants in the country of Kundez, in the vicinity of Kilkai and Doshi, and dismissed him, Wali, from dread of the Uzbeks, went to Anderab and Sirab. The Aimaks of these quarters defeated and plundered him, and he afterwards came to Kabul with my permission. Wali subsequently went to Muhammed Sheibani Khan, who ordered his head to be struck off in Samarkand. sheikh Ab- Another of his chiefs was Sheikh-Abdulla Birlas. He married Shah Sultan MuduiiaBirlas. hammed's daughter,1 who, by the mother's side, was aunt to Sultan Mahmud Khan and Ababeker Mirza. He wore his frock very strait and tightened by a belt. He was an upright, unaffected man. Mahmud Another was Mahmud Birlas, who was of the Birlases of Nundak. He had attainBirlas. ed tne rank of ]3eg in Sultan Abusaid Mirza's time. When that prince subdued the territories of Irak, he gave Kerman to this Mahmud Birlas; and at a later period, when Ababeker Mirza, accompanied by Mazid Beg Arghun, and the Begs of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep, came against Sultan Mahmud Mirza at Hissar, and the Mirza fled to Samarkand to his elder brother, Mahmud Birlas refused to surrender Hissar, and manfully held it out. He was a poet, and composed a Diwan. Khosrou After Sultan Mahmud Mirza's death, Khosrou Shah wished to conceal the event,

shah expel- and 8eized upon the treasure. How was it possible that such an event could remain

led irom * ,

Samarkand, concealed? It was instantly noised about among all the towns-people and inhabitants of Samarkand. That day happened to be a great festival; the soldiery and citizens, rising tumultuously, fell upon Khosrou Shah. Ahmed Haji Beg and the Terkhan Begs, having allayed the tumult, sent off Khosrou Shah towards Hissar. Sultan Mahmud Mirza, in his lifetime, had given Hissar to his eldest son Sultan Masaud Mirza, and Bokhara to Baiesanghar Mirza, and sent them away to their governments, so that, at this time, neither of them was at hand. After the expulsion of Khosrou Shah, the

1 Shah Sultan Muhammed, King of Badakhshan, has already been mentioned as the father of Shah Begum, who was one of the wives of Yunis Khan, and mother of the Great and Little Khans, and their two sisters.

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