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rose, and I had again nearly vomited. When I had got in front of the water-closet I vomited a great deal.

"I had never before vomited after my food, and not even after drinking wine. Some suspicions crossed my mind. 1 ordered the cooks to be taken into custody, and desired the meat to be given to a dog, which I directed to be shut up. Next morning about the first watch, the dog became sick, his belly swelled, and he seemed distressed. Although they threw stones at him, and shoved him, they could not make him rise. He remained in this condition till noon, after which he rose and recovered. Two young men had also eaten of this food. Next morning they too vomited much, one of • them was extremely ill, but both in the end escaped.

{Persian.)—A calamity fell upon me, but I escaped in safety.
Almighty God bestowed a new life upon me,—
I came from the other world,—
I was again born from my mother's womb.

(Tiirki.)—I was broken and dead, but am again raised to life;

Now, in the salvation of my life, I recognise the hand of God.

"I ordered Sultan Muhammed Bakhshi to guard and examine the cooks, and at last all the particulars came to light, as they have been detailed.

"On Monday, being a court day, I directed all the grandees and chief men, the Begs and Vazirs, to attend the Diwan. I brought in the two men and the two women, who, being questioned, detailed the whole circumstances of the aflair in all its particulars. The taster was ordered to be cut to pieces. I commanded the cook to be flayed alive. One of the women was ordered to be trampled to death by an elephant: the other I commanded to be shot with a matchlock. The lady I directed to be thrown into custody. She too, pursued by her guilt, will one day meet with due retribution. On Saturday I eat a bowl of milk. I also drank some of the makhtum flower, brayed and mixed in spirits. On Monday I drank the makhtum flower, and Teriake Faruk,1 mixed jn milk. The milk scoured my inside extremely. On Saturday, as on the first day, a quantity of extremely black substance, like parched bile, was voided. Thanks be to God, there are now no remains of illness! I did not fully comprehend before that life was so sweet a thing. The poet says,

(Turki.)—Whoever comes to the gates of death, knows the value of life.

"Whenever these awful occurrences pass before my memory, I feel myself involuntarily turn faint. The mercy of God has bestowed a new life on me, and how can my tongue express my gratitude? Having resolved with myself to overcome my repugnance, I have written fully and circumstantially everything that happened. Although the occurrences were awful, and not to be expressed by the tongue or lips, yet by the favour of Almighty God, other days awaited me, and have passed in happiness and health. That no alarm or uneasiness might find its way among you, I have written K. D. 1626. this on the 20th of the first Rabia, while in the Charbagh."

Decern. 25. ^ ^

1 These Teriaks are antidotes used to avert the effects of poison.

When I had recovered from this danger, I wrote and sent this letter to Kabul. As Ibrahim'* the ill-fated princess had been guilty of so enormous a crime, I gave her up to Yunis ^nfined. Ali, and Khwajeh Asad, to be put under contribution. After seizing her ready money and effects, her male and female slaves, she was given to Abderrahim's charge, to be kept in custody. Her grandson, the son of Ibrahim, had previously been guarded with Ibrahim's the greatest respect and delicacy. When an attempt of so heinous a nature was dis- KibuT' ° covered to have been made by the family, I did not think it prudent to have a son of Ibrahim's1 in this country. On Thursday the 29th of the first Rabia, I sent him to A. D. 1527. Kamran along with Mulla Sirsan, who had come from that prince on some business. J"""1"? 3

Humaiun, who had proceeded against the rebels of the East, having taken Jonpur, .Humaiun marched expeditiously to Ghazipur,2 for the purpose of attacking Nasir Khan. The t** TMaB\& Afghans in that quarter, on getting notice of his approach, passed the river Siru.3 The in Jor,p"i-i light detachment of the army, that had advanced, marched back again, after plundering the country. Humaiun then arranged everything as I had directed. He left Sultan Junid and a body of his best troops, to support Shah Mir Hussain in Jonpur. He also ordered Kazi Jla to remain behind, and left Sheikh Bayezid in Oud. Having left these posts well fortified, and with every means of defence, he crossed the Ganges at Kureh-Manikpur,4 and marched by way of Kalpi to join me. Alim Khan Jila1 Khan Jighet, who was in Kalpi,'' had sent letters of submission, but had not himself come to court. Humaiun, on arriving opposite to Kalpi, sent a person who removed all distrust from his mind, and Alim Khan accompanied Humaiun and was introduced to me. On Sunday the 3d of the last Rabia, Humaiun waited on me in the garden of And rejoins the Hesht-Behisht. That very same day Khwajeh Dost Khawend arrived from Ka- Atm. bul. January G.

At this time messengers began to come close upon each other from Mchdi Khwajeh, Approach to announce that the Rana Sanka was undoubtedly on his march, and had been joined Siu,ka to. by Hassan Khan Mewati; that it was become indispensably necessary to attend to their "J08 proceedings, in preference to every other object. That it would be beneficial to my affairs if a detachment could be sent on, before the Grand Army, to the assistance of Detachment Biana. In order, therefore, to harass the Rana's army, I pushed on before me towards ^^i 0f Biana, a light force, under the command of Muhammed Sultan Mirza, Yunis Ali, BunaShah Mans iir Birlas, Kitteh Beg, and Kismi Bujkeh. Naher Khan, a son of Hassan Khan Mewati, had fallen into my hands in the battle with Ibrahim; I had kept bim as a hostage, and his father, Hassan Khan, had ostentatiously maintained a correspond- Heis joined ence, and constantly asked back his son. Many imagined, that if I gratified Hassan K't,""©?*" Khan by sending his son to him, he would be extremely sensible of the obligation, and Alwir.

1 It is worthy of notice, that Baber refrains from mentioning his name.

2 Ghazipur is east from Jonpur, on the left bank of the Ganges, and like that city is in Behar.

3 The Sirwu or Sirjoo, is a branch of the Goger or Gogra, which joins it a little above Oud. Baber, however, applies that name to the joint stream, till it falls into the Ganges.

4 Kureh-Manikpur, so called to distinguish it from another Kureh or Currah, is about twenty miles above Allahabad on the Ganges, Kureh or Currah being on the right bank, and Manikpur higher up on the left.

5 Kalpi stands on the right bank of the Jumna, between Agra and Allahabad, and has always been a place of consequence.

exert himself actively in my service. I therefore invested his son, Naher Khan, with a dress of honour, and on his entering into an engagement, sent him hack to his father; but that wretch, as soon as he had ascertained that his son was released, and before the young man had reached him, totally forgetful of the obligation conferred on him, marched out of Alur, and went to join Rana Sanka. I was certainly guilty of a piece of imprudence in dismissing his son at such a crisis.

A great deal of rain fell about this time, and we had several parties at which Humaiun too was present; although he did not like wine, yet during these few days he drank it. Kitin Kara One of the most remarkable incidents of this period occurred at Balkb. When Hu

Baikh 1sT »naiun wae on his ^y from the fort of Zefer1 to Hindustan, Mulla Baba Beshagheri ribagh, &c. and his younger brother Baba Sheikh deserted from him by the road, and went and joined Kitin Kara Sultan. The troops in Balkh being hard pressed, that place fell into Kitrn Kara Sultan's hands. The traitor now taking on himself and his brother the management of an expedition against my dominions, entered the territory of Ibek, Kharim, and Sarabagh.2 Shah Sekander, being confounded by the fall of Balkh, surrendered the fort of Ghuri to the Uzbeks, and Mulla Baba and Baba Sheikh, with some Uzbeks, took possession of it. As Mir Hameh's fort was close at hand, he saw nothing left for it but to declare for the Uzbeks. A few days afterwards, the Mir and his party were ordered to Balkh, as a place of safety, while Baba Sheikh, with a body of Uzbeks, proceeded to occupy his castle. Mir Hameh introduced Baba Sheikh himself into the castle, and appointed the rest of his party their quarters in different parts, success of at some distance from each other. Mir Hameh having wounded Baba Sheikh, and Mir Ha- made him and some of the others prisoners, dispatched messengers full speed to Tengri Berdi at Kundez, to give him notice of what had happened. Tengri Berdi immediately sent Yar Ali, Abdal-Latif, and a party of his best men, to his assistance. Before their arrival, Mulla Baba had reached the castle with a party of Uzbeks, intending to have attacked it; he was, however, unable to effect anything, and the garrison having succeeded in joining the detachment sent by Tengri Berdi, reached Kundez in safety. As Baba Sheikh's wound was very severe, they cut off his head, which Mir Hameh brought along with him. I distinguished him by particular marks of honour and regard, and ranked him in the number of my most intimate and favourite servant*. When Baki Shaghawel marched against these two old traitors, I had promised him a reward of a ser of gold for each of their' heads. In addition to all the other marks of favour which I showed Mir Hameh, I gave him a ser 3 of gold according to that promise.

Kismi, who had proceeded at this time with a light force towards Diana, had cut off Khan Me- and brought away several heads. Kismi and Bujkeh, while riding out with a few ma«^ujoins rauders to procure intelligence, defeated two parties of the enemy's skirmishers, and Sanka. took seventy or eighty men; from whom Kismi having gained authentic information,

1 The Fort of Zefer was in Badakhshan.

'Ibek, Kharim, and Sarabagh, all stand on the Kliulm river between Khulm and Kehmerd.

3 If the aer here mentioned be of 1* tolas, the value is about J£87; if of Si tolas, about £i5.

that Hassan Khan Mewati had arrived and formed a junction with the Rana, he immediately returned back with the intelligence.

On Sunday the 8th of the month l I went to see Ustad Ali Kuli lire that same great Usiid Aii gun, of which the ball-chamber had been uninjured at the time of casting, and the an sgaT}' powder-chamber of which he had afterward cast and finished, as has been mentioned. We went to see how far it would throw. It was discharged about afternoon prayers, and carried one thousand six hundred paces. I bestowed on Ustad a dagger, a complete dress, and a Tipehak horse, as an honorary reward.

On Monday the 9th of the first Jemadi, I began my march to the holy war against Baber the heathen. Having passed the suburbs, I encamped on the plain, where I halted ^"nst'ltathree or four days, to collect the army and communicate the necessary instructions. na Sanka. As I did not place great reliance on the men of Hindustan, I employed their Amirs in making desultory excursions in different directions. Alim Khan was directed to proceed with a light force to Gualiar, to carry assistance to Rahimdad, while I appointed Makon, Kasim Sambali, Hamid with his brothers, and Muhammed Zeitun, to proceed with a light-armed party towards Sambal.2

At this station we received information that Rana Sanka had pushed on with all Defeat ot his army nearly as far as Biana.3 The party that had been sent out in advance were mrnt. 3 not able to reach the fort, nor even to communicate with it. The garrison of Biana had advanced too far from the fort, and with too little caution, and the enemy having unexpectedly fallen upon them in great force, completely routed them. Sanger Khan Jenjuheh fell on this occasion. When the affair began, Kitteh Beg came galloping up without his armour, and joined in the action. He had dismounted a Pagan, and was in the act of laying hold of him, when the Hindu, snatching a sword from a servant of Kitteh Beg, struck the Beg on the shoulder, and wounded him so severely, that he was not able to come into the field during the rest of the war against Rana Sanka. He, however, recovered long after, but never was completely well. Kismi, Shah Mansur Birlas, and every man that came from Biana, I know not whether from fear, or for the purpose of striking a panic into the people, bestowed unbounded praise on the courage and hardihood of the Pagan army.

Marahing hence, I sent forward Kasim, the master4 of horse, with the pioneers, to open a number of wells in the Perganna of Medhakur, which was the place where the army was to encamp.

On Saturday the fourteenth of the first Jemadi, I marched from the vicinity of Agra, feb. 16. and encamped in the ground where the wells had been dug.

Next morning I marched from that ground. It occurred to me that, situated as I Feb. 17. was, of all the places in this neighbourhood, Sikri5 being that in which water was Baber

marches for 1 Of the first Jemadi, which is the 10th of February 1527. SJkri

- Sambal lies to the east of the Ganges, nearly in the latitude of Delhi, and not far from Anopshir.
5 Biana lies between Agra and Rantambor, but nearer the former.
4 Mir Akhur.

1 Sikri was a favourite place of Baber's; he built a palace and laid out a garden there. When his grandson Akber made his pilgrimage on foot, from Agra to Ajmir, to the tomb of Khwajeh Mundi, and back, to procure the saint's intercession for his having male children, he visited a Dervish named Selim at Sikri, and learned from him that God had heard his prayers, and that he would have three sons.— most abundant, was, upon the whole, the most desirable station for a camp; but that it was possible that the Pagans might anticipate us, take possession of the water and encamp there. I therefore drew up my army in order of battle, with right and left wing and main body, and advanced forward in battle array. I sent on Derwish Muhammed Sarban with Kismnai,1 who had gone to Biana and returned back, and who had seen and knew every part of the country; ordering him to proceed to the banks of the Tank of Sikri, and to look out for a good ground for encamping. On reaching my station, I sent a messenger to Mehdi Khwajeh, to direct him to come and join me without delay, with the force that was in Biana. At the same time I sent a servant of Humaiun's, one Beg Mirak Moghul, with a body of troops, to get notice of the motions of the Pagans. They accordingly set out by night, and next morning returned with information, that the enemy were encamped a kos on this side of Bisawer.2 The same day Mehdi Khwajeh, with Muhammed Sultan Mirza, and the light troops that had been sent to Biana, returned and joined us. DiscomS- I had directed that the different Begs should have charge of the advance and scouts >ua!aziz's iQ turn." When it was Abdal-aziz's day, without taking any precautions, he advanced detachment. as far as Kanwaheh, which is five kos from Sikri. The Pagans were on their march forward when they got notice of his imprudent and disorderly advance, which they no sooner learned, than a body of four or five thousand of them at once pushed on and fell upon him. Abdal-aziz and Mulla Apak had with them about a thousand or fifteen hundred men. Without taking into consideration the numbers or position of the enemy, they immediately engaged. On the very first charge, a number of their men were taken prisoners and carried off the field.

The moment this intelligence arrived, I dispatched Mohib Ali Khalifeh, with his followers, to reinforce them. Mulla Hiissain and some others were sent close after to their support, being directed to push on, each according to the speed of his horse.3 I then detached Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng to cover their retreat. Before the arrival of the first reinforcement, consisting of Mohib Ali Khalifeh and his party, they had reduced Abdal-aziz and his detachment to great straits, had taken his horse-tail standard, and taken and put to death Mulla Niamet, Mulla Daiid, and Mulla Apak's younger brother, besides a number of others. No sooner did the first reinforcement come up, than Tahir Tebri, the maternal uncle of Mohib Ali, made a push forward, but was unable to effect a junction with his friends, and got into the midst of the enemy. Mohib Ali himself was thrown down in the action, but Baltu making a charge from behind, succeeded in bringing him off. They pursued our troops a full kos, but halted the moment they descried Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng's troops from a distance.

Messengers now arrived in rapid succession, to inform me that the enemy had advanced close upon us. We lost no time in buckling on our armour; we arrayed our

'r This prophecy," says Thevenot, "was so pleasing to Akber, especially when it began to be accomplished, that he called his eldest son Selim after the Dervish, and gave the town, which formerly had been called Sikri, the name of Fatehpur, which signifies place of joy and pleasure, and built there a very beautiful palace, with the intention of making it his capital."—Thevenot'* Travels, vol. V. p. 148.

1 Or Kismi. .* Bisawer is a small town tea or twelve miles north-west from Biana.

3 Abruk-sabruk.

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