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if they were not double the number of Khosrou Shah's party, were at least one and a half times the number, consulting only their own comfort and safety, did not dare to leave their trenches. Khosrou Shah's force, good and bad, great and small, might perhaps amount to four or five thousand. And this Khosrou Shah, who, for the sake of this fleeting, unstable world, and for. the vanity of being attended by a set of faithless servants, did so many bad actions, earned such a portion of infamy, and was guilty of so much tyranny and injustice; who seized so many extensive countries, and entertained so many adherents and soldiers, that, at last, his army amounted to twenty or thirty thousand men, while the countries and districts which he had occupied, exceeded in extent those of his sovereign and his Mirzas, in the whole course of his life, had only this one exploit to boast of, to entitle him or his adherents to lay claim to the praise of generalship or bravery; while those who did not venture out of their trenches from fear, became notorious for want of spirit, and their cowardice passed into a standing reproach. But is for. Badia-ez-Zeman Mirza, having decamped, halted after some marches at Talikan1 treat. in the Ulugh Bagh.s Khosrou Shah remained in the fort of Kundez, and sent his

brother Wali with a chosen body of well-appointed troops to Ishkamish,3 Fuliil, and the skirts of that hill-country, to hang upon the rear of the enemy, and to harass them in their march. On one occasion Mohib Ali Korchi, accompanied by a body of wellarmed warriors, having fallen in with a party of the enemy on the banks of the river of Khutlan,4 completely discomfited them. On another occasion he again attacked a party of their troops, and returned, after dismounting some of their men, and cutting off a few heads. In emulation of these exploits, Sidim Ali Derban, and his younger brother Kuli Beg, with Behlul Ayub and a party of spirited young men, having overtaken the army of Khorasan at Amberkoh, near Khwajeh Changal,5 charged them on their march, but without success; and Sidim and Kuli Baba, with a whole body of their followers, were dismounted and made prisoners.6 Sultan Hus- When news of these transactions reached Sultan Hussain Mirza, whose army, besides,

sain Mirza . . . - . . .

raises the was not without apprehensions on account ot the spring rains or Jtlissar, he patched HV'°f up a Veace > m consequence of which Mahmud Birlas having come out of the fort, and being met on the part of the besiegers by Haji Pir Bekawal with a few great lords; and such musicians and singers as were to be got being collected, the eldest daughter of Sultan Mahmud Mirza by Khanzadeh Begum was given in marriage to Haider Mirza, who was the son of Sultan Hussain Mirza by Payendeh Sultan Begum, and grand-son of Sultan Abusaid Mirza by one of his daughters; after which the Sultan broke up from Hissar and took the route of Kundez. Advances Having reached Kundez, he drove in all the enemy's parties, and set about making

and make* peace.

1 Talikan lies nearly 60 miles higher up the river than Kundez.
2 That is, the Great Garden.

3 Ishkamish lies higher up the Aksera river than Kundez, on the Bangi branch of it.
* The Persian has Silab.

4 Khwajeh Changal lies on the Talikan river about fourteen miles below that place.

6 The above paragraph is not in Dr Leyden's manuscript, and is taken from the other copies.

his arrangements for the siege; hut Badia-ez-Zeman Mirza having interposed as mediator, a peace was concluded; and, all prisoners made on both sides being mutually delivered up, the army retired.

The elevation of Khosrou Shah, and all his subsequent doings, so much out of his sphere, were entirely owing to the two expeditions of Sultan Hussain Mirza to reduce him, and to the retreat of that monarch without effecting his purpose.

When Sultan Hussain Mirza reached Balkh, in order the better to watch the poten- GivesBalkh tates of Maweralnaher, he gave Balkh to Badia-ez-Zeman Mirza, and the province of fTM|j f sne-r;i" Asterabad to Muzaffer Hussain Mirza; and made them both kneel at the same levee1 two sons. for the grant of these provinces. This arrangement gave great offence to Badia-ezZeman,' and was the original cause of his engaging in a long scries of rebellions and revolts.

In the same month of Ramzan, the rebellion of the Terkhans broke out in Sa- May or markand. It was occasioned by the conduct of Baiesanghar Mirza, who held much i^jjt'of'" greater intercourse with the Begs and soldiers of Hissar, and behaved towards them the Tctwith much more confidence and familiarity, than he did towards those of Samarkand. Samarkand. Sheikh Abdul la Birlas was a Beg of high rank, and prime minister; sueh was the in- Baiesantimacy and attachment subsisting between his sons and the prince, that they had all unpopular* the appearance of standing to each other in the relation of mistress and lover. This witli tiwmgave great offence to the Terkhan Begs, and to several of the nobles of Samarkand, so that in the end Dervish Muhammed Terkhan leaving Bokhara, brought Sultan Ali Sultan AH Mirza from Karshi,5 proclaimed him king; and advanced along with him to Samarkand claimed to the New Garden,4 where Baiesanp-har Mirza then resided. Having seized that ing'

,.,.«!• «- «« Baiesan

prince by stratagem, they separated him from his servants and retainers, conducted ghar seized. him to the citadel, and put the two Mirzas in one place. About afternoon prayers they had a consultation, and came to the severe resolution of sending the Mirza to Gokserai. Baiesanghar Mirza, under pretence of a necessary occasion, entered an edifice on the north-east of the palace gardens. The Terkhans waited without at the door, while Muhammed Kuli Kochin and Hassan Sherbetchi entered along with him. In the back part of this house, into which the Mirza had gone under the pretence that but escapes. has been mentioned, there was a door through which there had formerly been a passage out, but which had been closed up by brick on edge. The young prince contrived to throw down some of the bricks, got out, effected his escape from the citadel on the Ghadfer side of the bastion, and, descending by the Aqueduct, threw himself over the dotihi5 or parapet wall. He betook himself to Khwajeh Kafshir, to the house of Khwajchka Khwajeh. Those who waited without, after a certain time, having entered to look after him, found that the Mirza had escaped.

1 This ceremony of kneeling, or rather heuding the knee, to the prince on receiving a grant, was equivalent to an acknowledgment of vassalage.

3 Badia-ez-Zeman insisted that his father had previously made a grant of Asterabad to Muhammed Momin Mirza, a son of Badia-ez-Zeman, and the young Mirza was now in possession of it.

'Karshi lies south of Kesb. 4 Bagh-e-nou.

'' The dotihi is a double wall that projects from fortifications in order to enclose and cover a road which generally leads down to water. •

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Next morning the Terkhans collected round the house of Khwajehka Khwajeh, demanding the prince; but the Khwajeh refused to deliver him up; while they, on the other hand, dared not seize him by force, the Khwajeh's influence being too great to permit them to make such an attempt. After one or two days, Khwajeh Abul Maka'rim, Ahmed Haji Beg, and some others of the Begs and soldiers, with a multitude of the town's-people rising tumultuously, brought away the Mirza from the Khwajeh's house, and besieged Sultan Ali Mirza and the Terkhans in the citadel, which they were unable to hold out for a single day. Muhammed Mazid Terkhan escaping by the gate of the four roads,1 proceeded to Bokhara; while Sultan Ali Mirza, with Dervish Muhammed Terkhan, fell into the hands of the assailants.

Baiesanghar Mirza was. in Ahmed Haji Beg's house when Dervish Muhammed Terkhan was brought in. One or two questions were put to him, to which he gave no satisfactory answer; and indeed the business in which he had been engaged was not such as admitted of it. He was ordered to be put to death. He showed a want of firmness, and clung to a pillar; - but this did not save him, and he received his punishment. Sultan Ali Mirza was ordered to be conducted to Gok-serai, and to have the mil or fire-pencil applied to his eyes. The Gok-serai is one of the palaces which Taimur Beg built;3 it is situated in the citadel of Samarkand. It is remarkable on this account, that every prince of the race of Taimur who is elevated to the throne, mounts it at this place; and every one who loses his life for aspiring to the throne loses it here. Insomuch, that it has passed into a common expression, that such a prince has been conducted to the Gok-serai, a hint which is perfectly well understood to mean, that he has been put to death. Sultan Ali Mirza was accordingly carried to Gok-serai, and had the fire-pencil applied to his eyes; but whether it happened from the surgeon's want of skill, or from intention, no injury was done to them. Without disclosing this circumstance, he went to Khwajeh Yahia's house, and, after two or three days, fled, and joined the Terkhans at Bokhara. From this period an enmity subsisted between the sons of the reverend Khwajeh Abid-ulla, for the elder became the spiritual guide of the elder prince, and the younger of the younger. In a few days Khwajeh Yahia followed him to Bokhara.

Baiesanghar Mirza, having collected an army, advanced towards Bokhara against Sultan Ali Mirza; but when he arrived in the vicinity of that city, Sultan Ali Mirza and the Terkhan Begs, having arrayed their force, marched out, and a trifling action ensued, which terminated in favour of Sultan Ali Mirza, Baiesanghar Mirza being defeated. Ahmed Haji Beg was taken prisoner, with a number of his best troops, the greater part of whom were put to death. The male and female servants and slaves of Dervish Muhammed Terkhan, under pretence of revenging the blood of their master, put Ahmed Haji Beg to a miserable death. Sultan Ali Mirza pursued Baiesanghar Mirza as far as Samarkand.

and defeats Baiesanghar .Mirza.

1 Deneazeh chehdr-raheh.

J Probably with a reference to the usage of the Tartars and Arabs, with whom the pole that supports the tent is sacred and considered as a sanctuary; a reverence in some situations transferred to the pillar of a house.

'It is curious that though Gok-serai, the green palace, is here said to be one of the palaces built by Taimur Beg, we are told by Petis de la Croix, Hist, of Genghis Can, p. 171, that that conqueror put to death Gayer Khan, who made the brave defence of Otrar, in the palace of Gheucserai, and the same fact is repeated p. 227, and said to have taken place in Gheucserai, without the city of Samarkand. Perhaps Taimur Beg only rebuilt the palace, or the proverbial faying, applied by a later historian, may have produced the mistake.

This intelligence reached me at Andejan in the month of Shawal,1 and in that same Baber month I too mounted and set out with my army to attempt the conquest of Samar- m"n»fSii. kand. As Sultan Hussain Mirza had retired from Hissar and Kundez, and as Sultan markand. Masaud Mirza and Khosrou Shah had recovered from their alarm, Sultan Masaud Mirza now likewise, on his side, advanced by Shehrsebz,2 in order to assert his pretensions to Samarkand. Khosrou Shah sent his younger brother Wali to accompany the Mirza. For three or four months Samarkand was thus beleaguered on three sides; Samarkand when Khwajeh Yahia came to me from Sultan Ali Mirza, with proposals for an alliance JJ^ "jjTM and confederacy between us, and managed matters so successfully that a personal conference was agreed upon. I therefore moved with my army three or four farsangs,3 on the Soghd side of Samarkand, and he also came from the opposite direction with his army towards the same place. Sultan Ali Mirza then advancing on his side with four or five persons, and I on mine with the same number, we had an interview on Baber's inhorseback in the midst of the river Kohik; and after a short conference, he returned Kujjjj'xb towards his own side and I to mine. On that occasion I saw Mulla Binai and Mu- Mirza. hammed Saleh, who were with the Khwajeh. Muhammed Saleh I never saw except on this occasion; but Mulla Binai4 was afterwards for some time in my service.

After this conference with Sultan Ali Mirza, as the winter season was fast approaching, and great scarcity prevailed in the country of Samarkand, I returned to Andejan, and Sultan Ali Mirza to Bokhara. Sultan Masaud Mirza being deeply enamoured of the daughter of Shiekh Abdulla Birlas, married her; and renouncing his schemes of ambition, returned to Hissar. Nay, this was his only object in advancing against Sa- The inva.

markand. dersallre.

tire. About this time Mehedi Sultan fled from the territory of Shiraz and Kanbai and

went to Samarkand; and Khamzeh Sultan, having received my permission, also went

from Ramin and repaired to the same place.

1 The month of Shawal A. H. 901, begins 13th June 1496.

* Or Kesh, S. E. of Samarkand.

3 About fourteen miles; the Persian has sltaraa (kos), which would be probably six or seven miles.

* A particular account of Mulla Binai is afterwards given in describing the eminent men of Sultan Hussain Mina's Court. He was distinguished as a man of letters and a wit.

THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE YEAR 902.1

During this winter the affairs of Baiesanghar Mirza had attained their most prosperous situation. Abdal Kerim Ashret having advanced on the part of Sultan Ali Mehedi Mirza to K6f in and its environs, Mehedi Sultan issued from Samarkand with Baiesan

Suhan defeats Abdal ghar Mirza's light troops, and attacked him by surprise. Abdal Kerim Ashret and

Mehedi Sultan having met face to face, engaged each other with their scymitars. Abdal Kerim's horse fell with him, and, as he was in the act of rising, Mehedi Sultan struck a blow that severed his wrist; after which he took him prisoner and completely defeated the invaders. These Sultans, however, perceiving that the affairs of Samarkand and the court of the Mirzas were in complete disorder, availed themselves of their foresight and went off to join Sheibani Khan.

Elated by the issue of this skirmish, the men of Samarkand assembled and marched out in array to meet Sultan Ali Mirza. Baiesanghar Mirza advanced to Sirepul, and I nsuccess- Sultan Ali Mirza to Khwajeh Kardzin. At this same time, Khwajeh Abul Makarim, to surprise with Weis Laghari, Muhammed Bakir, and Mir Kasim Duldai, who were of the Begs Bokhara. of Andejan, acting on the advice of Khwajeh Murad, set out one night with a party of the household and retainers of Baiesanghar Mirza, intending to surprise Bokhara. Before they reached the city, however, the people of Bokhara were alarmed, and the attempt failed; so that they were obliged to return back without effecting anything. Baber In my conference with Sultan Ali Mirza, it had been settled, that, in the summer,

a^sfsa. ne should advance from Bokhara, and I from Andejan, to form the siege of Samarmarkand. kand. According to this agreement, in the month of Ramzan, I mounted, and proceeded from Andejan to Yar-Hak, where, having received information that the Mirzas were lying front to front, I dispatched Tulun Khwajeh Moghul, with two or three hundred skirmishers, to advance on them with all expedition. By the time that they got near, Baiesanghar Mirza being apprized of our approach, broke up and retreated in great disorder. The detachment, that same night, having overtaken their rear, killed a number of men with their arrows, took a great many prisoners, and acquired much booty. In two days I arrived at the fortress of Shiraz,2 which at that time belonged to Kasim Duldai. The commandant whom he had left in the place not being able to maintain it, delivered up the fortress, which I committed to the charge of Ibra2d June him Saru. Next morning, after having performed the prayers of the Idi-Fitr,^ proceeded towards Samarkand, and halted in the fields of Abyar.4 The same day, Kasim

1 The year A. H. 902 begins on the 9th September 1+96.

* The Shiraz here spoken of lies about 25 miles north of Samarkand.

3 The Id'Oi-JUr is the festival of the first new moon in Shawal, when the long fast of Ramzan finishes. The first appearance of the new moon is watched for as the end of the fast, and is instantly announced, as the signal of joy, from the minarets of the mosques.

4 Fields of Abyar, the Kurtigh of Abyar. These Kurtgh are retired fields, in which the Prince in the summer months encamps to enjoy the season, taking the females of his family with him. The outskirts of them are carefully guarded by patrolcs, to keep off" intruders.

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