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jan.1 On both of its banks there are gardens, all of which overlook the river. Its violets are particularly elegant. It abounds in streams of running water. In the spring its tulips and roses blow in great profusion. On the skirt of this same hill of Barak oh, between the hill2 and the town, there is a mosque, called the Mosque of Jouza; and from the hill there comes a great and wide stream of water. Beneath the outer court of the mosque, there is a meadow3 of clover, sheltered and pleasant, where every traveller and passenger loves to rest. It is a standing joke among the common people at Ush to carry across the three streams all such as fall asleep there.4 On this hill, about the latter end of the reign of Omer-Sheikh Mirza, there was discovered a species of stone finely waved red and white, of which they make the handles of knives, the clasps of belts, and other things of that sort, and it is a very beautiful stone. In all Ferghana for healthiness and beauty of situation, there is no place that equals Ush.
Another is Marghinan,0 which lies on the west of Andejan, at the distance of seven 3.Maighifaraangs, and is a fine district. It is noted for its pomegranates and apricots. There nan' is one species of pomegranate named ddna-kildn (or great seed), which, in its flavour, unites the sweet with a sweet acid, and may even be deemed to excel the pomegranate of Semnan.6 They have a way of taking out the stones of the zerd-alu (or apricot), and of putting in almonds in their place, after which the fruit is dried. When so prepared, it is termed Seikkhani, and is very pleasant. The game and venison are here also excellent. The white deer7 is found in its vicinity. All the inhabitants are Sarts;8 the race are great boxers, noisy and turbulent, so that they are famous all over Maweralnaher for their blustering and fondness for boxing, and most of the celebrated bullies of Samarkand and Bokhara are from Marghinan. The author9 of the Hedaya was from a village named Rashdan, a dependency of Marghinan.
Asfera is another district. It is situated at the foot of the mountains, and possesses <• Asfera. numerous streams and beautiful gardens. It lies south-west of Marghinan, at the distance of nine farsangs.10 Many species of fruit-trees abound there; but, in the gar
1 The river of Andejan is one of those that form the great river Sirr.
* The Persian has " between the garden (palace) and the town."
* The Persian reads "a meadow (or plain) of extraordinary beauty, having three fountains of water." 4 The meaning of this passage is obscure.
* Mr Metcalfe's MS. has Marghildn, which is its present name. It is a considerable town, and the capital of Ferghana-proper. Its trade consists chiefly in silk and shawl-wool.
6 Semnan, a town between Khorasan and Irak, near Damghan.
7 The ahue werak is said to be the arkali, described in many books of natural history. See Voy de Pallas, vol. IV. p. 325.
s The Sarts or Tajiks of these countries are the inhabitants of the towns and villages, and the cultivators of the ground, who speak the Persian tongue; as opposed to the Turks. They appear to be the remains of the more ancient population, and probably received the name of Tajik from the Turks as being subjects of the Arab or Taxi government; the Persians and Turks having first known the Arabs by the name of Tazi or Taji.
9 Sheikh Burhan-ed-din Ali.
10 About 36 miles. It is not easy to convert the Tartar and Indian measures used by Baber into English ones, with any degree of certainty; but a few observations are required to account for the mode of reduction adopted in the notes:
The smaller measure most commonly used is the Gtz. Abul-fazl (Ayeen Akberi, vol. I. p. 281) specifies three kinds of it, each consisting of twenty-four tesuj (fingers or inches), but the inch of the
dens, the almond trees are most numerous. The inhabitants are all mountaineers and Sarts. Among the small hills to the south-east of Asfera,1 is a slab of stone called sang aineh (the stone-mirror), its length is about ten gez. It is in some places as high as a man, in others not higher than his middle; everything is seen in it as in a glass. The district of Asfera is separated into four divisions, all situated at the foot of the hills; one of them is Asfera, another Warukh, another Sukh, and the fourth Hiishiar. When Muhammed Shiebani Khan defeated Sultan Mahmiid Khan and Ulchi Khan, and took Tashkend and Shahrokhia, I spent nearly a year in Sukh and Hushiar among the hills, in great distress; and it was from thence that I set out on my expedition to Kabul. ,i. Khojend. Khojend, another of the districts, is situated on the West of Andejan, at the distance of twenty-five farsaugs,'-' and it is also at the same distance from Samarkand.3 This is a very ancient city. Sheikh Maslehet and Khwajeh Kemal4 were of Khojend. Its fruits are very good, particularly its pomegranates, which are so celebrated, that the apples of Samarkand and the pomegranates of Khojend have passed into a proverb; but excellent as the latter are, they are greatly excelled at present by the pomegranates of Marghinan. The fortress of Khojend is situated on an eminence, having on the north the river Seihun, which flows past at the distance of about a bowshot. On the north of the fort and of the river Seihun, there is a hill, which is named Myoghil, where they say that there are turquoise and other mines. In this hill there are many serpents. Khojend is a good sporting country; the white deer, the mountain goat, the stag,5 the fowl of the desert,6 and the hare, are found in great
largest equal to the breadth of eight barley-corns, that of the smallest equal to that of only six, according to some, each equal to six hairs irom the tail of a yabu horse. A fourth is mentioned as used in ancient books, and containing two spans and two inches. Hanway mentions three species of Gez; one of thirtytwo fingers; the Ilahi gez of forty-one fingers, and that of Bokhara of thirty-one inches English. In India the small gez is a cubit, or eighteen inches; the larger a half more, or twenty-seven inches, being three quarters of a yard. There is, however, one in common use of twenty inches; that used at Bombay is twenty-four inches; the Surat gez is twenty-three and a half. Baber himself makes the cubit six hand-breadths, and the gez or pace a cubit and a half, or nine hand-breadths. A fair allowance for the pace or gez of Baber would thus be thirty inches, which applies to his regular tenab or surveying cord. But as the regulated measures were larger than the ordinary one, we may perhaps assume two feet or a little more as an average popular gez. A great variety of other gez are to be found.
The farsang, the ancient parasanga, may be safely taken at about four English miles.
The varieties of the kos are numerous, as will be seen in Rennell's Memoir of a Map of Hindostan. Baber's measured kos at 4000 paces of thirty inches each, would be one English mile, seven furlongs, and thirty-three yards. But if the ordinary gez of twenty-four inches be taken, the kos will be one mile, four furlongs, and twenty-seven yards. The usual kos is perhaps nearly an English mile and a half.
The Turki Yeghaj is properly the farsang, but is frequently translated in the Persian by Shiran, which, I fancy, is the long kos.
In general I have, in a rough way, considered the gez as equal to two English feet, the kos as equal to an English mile and a half.
1 The Persian has " on the south one Shiraa cos from Asfera, among rising grounds," &c.
3 About KM miles.
3 The words, "and it is also at the same distance from Samarkand," are not in the Persian translations. The chasm still continues in the Turki copy.
4 These were two men eminent for their sanctity. '' Gawazen. '' Murgh-deshti.
plenty; but the air is extremely noisome, and inflammations of the eyes are common; insomuch, that they say that even the very sparrows have inflammations in the eyes. This badness of the air they ascribe to the hill on the north. Kandbadam is one of Kandbithe districts belonging to Khojend. Though of no great extent, yet it is rather a fine little district, and its almonds, from which it derives its name,1 are of excellent quality, and are exported to Hindustan, Hormuz,2 and other quarters. It is distant from Khojend five or six farsangs to the east. Between Kandbadam and Khojend, there is a desert, named Ha-dervish, where a sharp wind prevails, and constantly blows from the desert in the direction of Marghina11, which lies to the east of the desert, or in the direction of Khojend, which lies to the west, and this wind is excessively keen. It is said that certain JDervishes having encountered the wind in this desert, and being separated, were unable to find each other again, and perished, calling out, "Ha, Dervish! Ha, Dervish !"3 and that hence the desert is denominated Ha-dervish unto this day.
Of the districts to the north of Seihun, one is Akhsi, which in histories is called 6. Akhsi. Akhsikat.4 Hence Asir-ed-din, the poet, is termed Asir-ed-din Akhsikati. There is no town in Ferghana after Andejan, which is more considerable than this. It lies to the west of Andejan, at the distance of nine farsangs.D Omer-Sheikh Mirza made it his capital. The river Seihun flows under the walls of its castle. The castle is situated on a high precipice, and the steep ravines around serve instead of a moat. When Omer-Sheikh Mirza made it his capital, he, in one or two instances, scarped the ravines outside of the fort. In all Ferghana there is no fortified town so strong as this. The suburbs are rather more than a shiraa kos from the fort. The proverb, "Where is the town, and where are the trees ?"6 applies in a particular manner to Akhsi. The melons here are excellent; there is one species which is termed Mir Taimuri, no such melons are known to exist in the world. The melons of Bokhara are also celebrated; but, at the time when I took Samarkand, I had melons brought from Akhsi and Bokhara, and cut open at an entertainment, when those of Akhsi were judged beyond comparison the best. There is good hunting and hawking. From the river of Akhsi to the town there is a desert, in which the white deer are very numerous. Towards Andejan is a waste, abounding with the stag,7 the fowl of the desert, and the hare, all of which are extremely fat.
Another district is Kasan, which lies to the north of Akhsi, and is of small extent. 7. Hasan. As the river of Andejan comes from Ush, so the river of Akhsi comes from Kasan. The air of Kasan is extremely good, and its gardens are beautiful. In consequence of its gardens being all sheltered along the banks of the stream, they call it the mantle
1 Kand or kend signifies a town in Tiirki, and barium an almond. 3 Our Isle of Ormus, in the mouth of the Persian Gulph.
3 Help, Dervish! help, Dervish!
* It is singular that D'Herbelot expresses doubts whether Tashkend, Khojend, and Akhsikat, are not all the same place.—See these articles in the Bibliotheque Orientale; a very strong proof of the imperfection of the geography of these quarters down to his time.
5 About 36 miles. 6 i. e. Where are your houses and gardens }—Leyden. 1 Gawazen.
of five lambskins.1 There is, a standing quarrel between the inhabitants of Kasan and those of Ush concerning the beauty and climate of their respective districts.
All around the -country of Ferghana, among the mountains, there are excellent Yailaks2 (or summer stations). The tabulghu wood is found here among the mountains, and in no other country. The tabulghu, which has a red bark, is a wood of which they make walking-staves, whip-handles, and bird-cages. They also cut it into the forked tops of arrows.3 It is an excellent wood, and is carried to a great distance, as a rarity in much request. In many books it is related, that the Yabruj-us-sannam4 grows on these hills; but now it is quite unknown. There is, however, a species of grass which is produced on the mountains of Bete-kend,5 and which the people of the country term aihoti, that is said to have the virtue of the mehergiah, and is what passes under the name of mehergiah. In these hills, also, there are mines of turquoise and of iron.
The revenues of Ferghana may suffice, without oppressing the country, to maintain three or four thousand troops. Omer °' ^s Omer-Sheikh Mirza was a prince of high ambition and magnificent pretensions,
Sheikh he was always bent on some scheme of conquest. He several times led an army against Samarkand, was repeatedly defeated, and as often returned back disappointed and desponding. He oftener than once called in to his assistance his father-in-law, Yunis Khan, who was descended of Chaghatai Khan, the second son of Chengis Khan, and who was at that time the Khan of the tribe6 of Moghuls in the dominions of Chaghatai Khan. He was also my maternal grandfather. Every time that he was called in, Omer-Sheikh gave him some province; but as things did not succeed to the Mirza's
1 Postin-pish-burra. The Persian has posttn e mish hurra, or lambskin mantle.
2 The wandering tribes all over Persia and Turkestan are accustomed to shift their ground according to the season. In summer, they move northward, or ascend the hills and higher grounds. The Persian Court is often transferred to these summer quarters, for the purpose of shunning the excessive heats. They are called Yailaks, from the Turki word Yai, summer. In winter, they move southward, or descend to warm and sheltered valleys, to their winter stations, which are called Kishldks, a word derived from Kish, which in the Turki signifies winter. The custom is as old as the age of Cyrus.—See Xenoph. Inst. Cyr. Lib. viii, p. 222. 5 Giz.
* t. e. The mallow consecrated to idols.—Leyden. The Yabruj-us-sannam is the plant called the mandragora or mandrake.—See the Ulfaz Udwiyeh, or Materia Medica of Noureddeen Mohamed Abdalla Shirazy, published with a translation, by Gladwin, Calcutta, 1793. The name aikoti is derived from the Turki word ayek, vivacity, and oti, grass. Mehergiah seems to be merely a Persian translation of the name, from meher, affection, and giali, grass. It is, however, called atikoti, or dog-grass, a name which comes from the way in which it is said to be gathered. They have a fancy that any person who plucks up this grass dies; on which account they are said to dig round its roots, and when these are sufficiently loosened, tie it to the neck of a dog, who, by his endeavours to get away, pulls it out of the earth.—See D'Herbelot, Art. Abrousanam. The same story is still told.
5 Bete-kend.—Mr Elphinstone's Turki copy has Yetikent; Mr Metcalfe's Persian MS. Bikesht; my Persian MS. Neikenet. s Ulus.
7 It would seem, that when Jaghatai or Chaghatai Khan received possession of his share of the empire of Chengis Khan, he also got a tribe of Moghuls to attend him, and to confirm his authority over the Turki population. The same appears to have been the case in Kipchak, which was given to another brother; and also in the formation of the kingdom of Tura, under Sheibani.
wish, Yunis Khan was unable to keep his footing in the country, and was therefore repeatedly compelled, sometimes from the misconduct of Omer-Sheikh Mirza, sometimes from the hostility of other Moghul tribes, to return back to Moghulistan. The last time, however, that he brought his force, Omer-Sheikh Mirza1 gave Yunis Khan the country of Tashkend, which was then in the possession of the Mirza. Tashkend is sometimes denominated Shash, and sometimes Chach, from whence comes the phrase, a bow of Chach. From that time to the year 908, the countries of Tashkend and Shah- TMDA rokhia remained subject to the Chaghatai Khans. At this time, the Khanship of the (Ulus or) tribe of Moghuls was held by my maternal uncle, Sultan Mahmud Khan, the eldest son of Yunis Khan. He and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the King of Samarkand, who was my father Omer-Sheikh Mirza's elder brother, having taken offence at Omer-Sheikh Mirza's conduct, entered into a negotiation, the result of which was, that Sultan Ahmed Mirza having given Sultan Mahmud Khan one of his daughters in marriage, they this year concluded an alliance, when the latter marched an army A. D. son. from the north of the river of Khojend, and the former another from the south of it, j^*"" against that prince's dominions. him.
At this very crisis a singular incident occurred. It has already been mentioned that the fort of Akhsi is situated on a steep precipice, on the very edge of which some of its buildings are raised. On Monday, the 4th of the month of Ramzan, of the year v^June, that has been mentioned, Omer-Sheikh Mirza was precipitated from the top of the His death, steep, with his pigeons, and pigeon-house,2 and took his flight to the other world.
He was then in the thirty-ninth year of his age. He was born at Samarkand in the His early year 860. He was the fourth son of Sultan Abusaid Mirza, being younger than A. D. 1446. Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Sultan Muhammed Mirza, and Sultan Mahmud Mirza. Sultan Abusaid Mirza was the son of Sultan Muhammed Mirza, the son of Mirza Miranshah, who was the third son of Taimur Beg, being younger than Omer-Sheikh Mirza and Jehangir Mirza, and elder than Shahrokh Mirza. Sultan Abusaid Mirza had at first given Kabul to the Mirza, and sent him off for that country, attended by Baba Kabuli as his Beg-atkah, (or Protector and Regent.) He, however, recalled him to Samarkand, when he had reached the Dera-Gez,3 in order that he might be present at the festival of the circumeision of the Mirzas.4 After the festival, as Taimur Beg had given Omer-Sheikh Mirza the elder, the country of Ferghana, Abusaid was induced, by the coincidence of names, to bestow on his son Omer-Sheikh the country
1 The character of the restless Omer-Sheikh, as given hy Catrou, may serve to show how history is sometimes written:—" Jamais Prince Tartare ne parut d'un naturel plus paisible que Sec Omor. Content du royaume que la Providence lui avoit assigne, il ne troubla point ses voisins par son ambition, et n'accabla point ses sujets de tributs et de fatigues."—Hist. Generate du Mogol, p. 47.
2 The Musulman princes of Asia are often ridiculously fond of training tame pigeons. These are taught to take circular flights, to tumble in the air, to attack each other when on the wing, and to stand on the defensive. Abul-fazl tells us (Ayeen Akbery, vol. I. p. 251,) that in Akber's pigeon-houses each pigeon, before he received his allowance of grain, performed fifteen circular flights and seventy tumbles. In the same place may be found a curious account of the mode of training them.
3 The valley of Gez or Manna, which lies on the Delias or Balkhab south of lialkli.
4 The festival given by Abusaid Mirza at Mour or Merv, A. D. 1465, to celebrate the circumcision of his sons, lasted five months, and was famous for its uncommon splendour.