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adherents, began to talk of peace and an accommodation. Those who were really attached to me were kept entirely in the dark as to the intended treaty, and we were altogether averse to it. But, as the two personages who have been named, were the Begs of chief authority, it was to be apprehended that, if we did not listen to their wishes, and refused to make peace, more serious consequences might follow. It was necessary A peace therefore to comply, and a peace was concluded on the-following terms: That the coun_. try lying on the Akhsi side of the river of Khojend should belong to Jehangir Mirza;

that on the Andejan side to me: that Uzkend, too, should be given up to me, when they had withdrawn their wives and families from it: that after we had settled our territories, land Jehangir Mirza should unite and proceed in concert against Samarkand; and that, as soon as I had conquered and gained complete possession of Samarkand, I should resign Andejan to Jehangir Mirza. The day after these conditions were agreed on, it being towards the end of Rajeb,i Jehangir Mtrza and Tambol came and paid me their respects. We ratified everything that had been arranged; Jehangir Mirza having taken leave, proceeded to Akhsi, while I returned to Andejan. On my arrival there, I ordered Khalil, the younger brother of Tambol, and a number of other prisoners, to be brought out, and having given them dresses of honour, dismissed them. The enemy on their part released such of my Begs and officers as had been taken prisoners, as Taghai Beg, Muhammed Dost, Mir Shah Kochin, Sidi Beg, Kasim Ajeb, Pir Weis and Miram Diwan, and sent them to me. Tyrannical After our return to Andejan, the manners and deportment of Ali Dost Beg under>if Ali Dost went a complete change. He began to conduct himself with great hostility towards Be"" those who had adhered to me in all my dangers and difficulties. He first of all dis

missed Khalifeh. He then imprisoned and plundered Ibrahim Saru and Weis Laghari without fault or pretext; and dismissed them, after stripping them of their governments. He next fell upon Kasim Beg, and got quit of him. He published a proclamation, that Khalifeh and Ibrahim Saru were stanch friends of Khwajeh Kazi, and had intended to murder him in revenge for the Kazi's blood. His son Muhammed Dost began to assume the state of a sovereign. His style of intercourse, his entertainments, his levee, his furniture, were all those of a king. The father and son ventured on such doings, relying on the support of Tambol- Nor did I retain sufficient authority or power to be able to check them in their outrageous proceedings; for, while I had close at hand an enemy so powerful as Tambol, who was always eager to afford them his aid, and to bear them out in any act, however violent, they might safely do whatever their hearts desired. My situation was singularly delicate, and I was forced to be silent. Many were the indignities which I suffered at that time, both from the father and son. Baber mar. Aisha Sultan Begum, the daughter of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, to whom I had been Sultan Be- betrothed in the lifetime of my father and uncle, having arrived in Khojend, I now sum' married her, in the month of Shaban. In the first period of my being a married man,

though I had no small affection for her, yet, from modesty and bashfulness, I went to her only once in ten, fifteen, or twenty days. My affection afterwards declined, and

1 The end of February, 1500.

my shyness increased; insomuch, that my mother the Khanem, used to fall upon me and scold me with great fury, sending me off like a criminal to visit her once in a month or forty days.

At this time there happened to be a lad belonging to the camp-bazar, named Baberi. His attachThere was an odd sort of coincidence in our names:— Baberi"

(Turki verse.)—I became wonderfully fond of him;

Nay, to speak the truth, mad and distracted after him.

Before this I never had conceived a passion for any one; and indeed had never been
so circumstanced as either to hear or witness any words spoken expressive of love or
amorous passion.1 In this situation I composed a few verses in Persian, of which the
following is a couplet:—

Never was lover so wretched, so enamoured, so dishonoured as 1;
And may fair never be found so pitiless, so disdainful as thou!

Sometimes it happened that Baberi came to visit me; when, from shame and modesty,
I found myself unable to look him direct in the face. How then is it to be supposed
that I could amuse him with conversation or a disclosure of my passion? From in-
toxication and confusion of mind I was unable to thank him for his visit; it is not
therefore to be imagined that I had power to reproach him with his departure. I had
not even self-command enough to receive him with the common forms of politeness.
One day while this affection and attachment lasted, I was by chance passing through
a narrow lane with only a few attendants, when, of a sudden, I met Baberi face to
face. Such was the impression produced on me by this rencounter, that I almost fell
to pieces. I had not the power to meet his eyes, or to articulate a single word. With
great confusion and shame I passed on and left him, remembering the verses of Mu-
liamined Salikh :—

I am abashed whenever I see my love;

My companions look to me, and I look another way.

The verses were wonderfully suited to my situation. From the violence of my passion and the effervescence of youth and madness, I used to stroll bare-headed and barefoot through lane and street, garden and orchard, neglecting the attentions due to friend and stranger; and the respect due to myself and others:—

1 The whole of this is very curious. Baber, following the ideas of his age and country, talks of this as his first love, considering his marriage, as marriages in Asia are considered, merely as a contract of convenience, with which affection has nothing to do. This is inevitable, from the state of seclusion in which women are kept, and from the tender age at which the children of respectable families are always betrothed to each other. The levity with which he speaks of his passion for Baberi is no less characteristic. The prevalence of the vice in question, in Mahommedan countries, results from the degraded situation of women in society. We must not look for refined moral excellence in man, while woman is a slave, or occupies an inferior place in the scale of social life. We may regret that Baber did not rise higher above the moral level of his country ; but it is useful to see how even the most powerful minds may be influenced by education. With these remarks, I take leave of this passage in Baber's life, to which I shall not again recur.

(Turki verse.)—During the fit of passion, I was mad and deranged ; nor did I know
That such is his state who is enamoured of a fairy face.

Sometimes, like a distracted man, 1 roamed alone over the mountains and deserts; sometimes I went wandering about from street to street in search of mansions and gardens. I could neither sit nor go; I could neither stand nor walk.

( Turki verse.)—I had neither strength to go nor power to stay;
To such a state did you reduce me, O my heart!

Rupture be- This same year a quarrel broke out between Sultan Ali Mirza1 and Muhammed
,wee".?ul" Mazld Terkhan, originating in the high state and overbearing influence attained by the
Mirza and Terkhans. They had taken complete possession of the whole of Bokhara, and did not
IthSiwT" give any one a single dang * from its revenues. Muhammed Mazid Terkhan had in
like manner gained unbounded influence in Samarkand, and conferred all the districts
belonging to it on his own sons, his followers and adherents: and, excepting a small
provision settled on him from the revenue of the city, not ajils3 from any other quar-
ter reached Sultan Ali Mirza. The Sultan had now grown up to man's estate, and it
was not to be expected that he could continue to submit to such treatment. In con-
Muhammed junction with some of his most attached servants, he formed a design against Muham-
khSn"flies"" me^ Mazid Terkhan, who, having got notice of the plot, left the city with his domesties
from Sa- and servants, his adherents and retainers, along with such of the Begs as were inti-
mately connected with him, such as Sultan Hussain Arghun, Pir Ahmed, Khwajeh
Hussain, the younger brother of Uziin Hassan, Kara Birlas, Salikh Muhammed, and
several other Begs and Cavaliers.
Khan Mir- At this period, Sultan Mahmud Khan dispatched Khan Mirza,4 accompanied by
Z*a^iu«SaS Muhammed Hussain Doghlet, Ahmed Beg, and a number of his Moghuls, against Sa-
markand; markand. Hafez Beg Duldai, with his son, Tahir Beg, were the governors of Khan
Mirza. Hassan Nabireh, Hindu Beg, and a great many cavaliers, from attachment to
Hafiz Beg and Tahir Beg, deserted from Sultan Ali Mirza and joined Mirza Khan.
Muhammed Mazid Terkhan sent messengers to invite Khan Mirza and the Moghul
army; and himself, advancing to the territory of Shadwar, had a conference with
Mirza Khan and the Moghul Begs. The Moghul Begs, however, agreed so ill with
Muhammed Beg and the others, that they even formed the design of seizing upon him:
but he and his Begs having discovered the plot, made their escape from the Moghul
army by stratagem. After the defection of this force, the Moghuls found themselves
unable to maintain their ground alone. Sultan Ali Mirza, accompanied by a small
force which he had with him at the time, pushed on by rapid marches from Samar-
kand, and overtook and fell upon Khan Mirza and the Moghul army, as they reached

1 Sultan Ali Mirza, it will be remembered, was still King of Bokhara and of Samarkand, which he had entered when it was abandoned by Baber.

- A small silver coin, the sixth part of a dirhem ; at the present day, of the value of about a penny.

5 A small copper coin.

4 Khan Mirza was Weis Mirza, the youngest son of Sultan Mahmud Mirza. On his father's death, his mother had him conveyed to Tashkend to her brother's court.

their ground at Yar-ailak. The Moghuls were unable to sustain the attack, and fled but is dein confusion. Thus, towards the close of his life, Sultan Al i Mirza performed one to- g^m,, Ah lerably fair achievement. Mirza.

Muhammed Mazid Terkhan, and the rest of his party, seeing that they had now no- Baber iuthing to expect from Sultan Al i Mirza, or the Mjrzas his brothers, dispatched Abdal Samarkand. Wahab, (a Moghul, who had formerly been in my service, and who, at the siege of Andejan, had gallantly exerted himself, and freely hazarded his life to support Khwajeh Kazi,) for the purpose of inviting me to their assistance. I was at that time in the sad condition which has been mentioned. I was fully resolved to attempt Samarkand, and, in making peace, this had been the view held out to me. I now, therefore, immediately sent the Moghul to Akhsi to Jehangir Mirza, post, with relays of horses, while I myself set out against Samarkand with such troops as were along with me. It was the month of Zilkadeh when I marched on the expedition. On the fourth day, June 1500. I reached Kaba, and halted. About the time of afternoon prayers, I received intelligence that Khalil, Sultan Ahmed Tambol's younger brother, had surprised the fortress Hears of the of Ush.

The affair happened in this way:—At the peace, the prisoners, the chief of whom was Khalil, the younger brother of Tambol, had been set at liberty, as has been mentioned. Tambol had sent Khalil, in order to remove his family and effects from Uzkend. Having entered Uzkend under pretence of carrying away the family, day after day he promised to carry them off; but,- under one pretext or another, never left the place. When I had set out on my expedition, availing himself of the opportunity, and perceiving Ush to be destitute of troops, he made an attack in the night, and took it by surprise.

When this news reached me, I judged it inexpedient, on several accounts, either to Continues halt or turn back against him; I therefore continued to advance on Samarkand. One of the reasons which influenced me was, that all my soldiers of note had gone off different ways, each to his own home, to make ready their accoutrements and arms, and, relying on the peace, we had never suspected any craft or treachery from our enemy. Another was, that the intrigues and cabals of Kamber Al i and Al i Dost, two of my Begs of the first eminence, now began to be very evident, so that all confidence in them was at an end, as I have already given to understand. A farther motive was, that as the party of the nobles of Samarkand, at the head of whom was Muhammed Mazid Terkhan, had sent to invite me, it would have been most absurd, on account of a small place like Andejan, to lose time, and perhaps such a noble capital as Samarkand. From Kaba we advanced to Marghinan, which I had bestowed on Sultan Ahmed Beg, the father of Koch Beg. He was himself prevented by his situation and connexions from accompanying me, and remained in Marghinan; but his son, Koch Beg, with one or two of his brothers, went along with me. We proceeded by way of Aspera, and halted on reaching Mehen, a village belonging to that district. By a fortunate coincidence, Kasim Beg, with his troops, Al i Dost, with his men, Syed Kasim, and a very considerable number of good soldiers, that very night arrived in Mehen, as if they had come post by assignation, and all joined me. Leaving Mehen, and passing

Kamber
Ali seized
bv Tambol.

by the route of the plain Jasan,1 we reached Uratippa, crossing the bridge of Chapan.2 Kamber Ali, confiding in Tambol, had gone from his own government of Khojend to Akhsi, in order to consult with him regarding the arrangements of the army ; no sooner had he reached that place, than he was taken into custody, and Tambol advanced to seize his districts; verifying the Turki proverb:—

To trust a friend will show you raw;
Your friend will stuff your hide with straw.

Effect!) his escape.

Uaber reaches Yu ret-Khan.

Many of his Begs return to his service.

While they were conducting him from one place to another, however, he effected his escape by the way, and, barefooted and bareheaded, after encountering a multitude of hardships, came and joined me while I was at Uratippa.

At Uratippa I received intelligence that Sheibani Khan had defeated Baki Terkhan, at the fort of Dabiisi, and was advancing against Bokhara. From Uratippa, by the route of Ilagh-burkeh, I reached Sengraz,3 the commandant4 of which surrendered the place. As Kamber Ali had joined me in a ruined state, and completely plundered, I left him behind in Sengraz, and advanced forward. When we had reached YuretKhan, the Begs of Samarkand, at the head of whom was Muhammed Mazid Khan, came to meet me, and tendered me their duty. I consulted with them about the taking of Samarkand. They assured me that Khwajeh Yahia was attached to me; and that if he could be prevailed upon heartily to co-operate, Samarkand might be taken with the greatest facility, without combat or struggle. I therefore several times sent persons to confer with Khwajeh Yahia. The Khwajeh did not send me any message, but silently used every exertion to facilitate my entrance into Samarkand; at the same time, he did not say a word to make me despair of success.

Marching from Yuret-Khan, I advanced to the Dergham. From the banks of the Dergham I sent Khwajeh Muhammed Ali, my librarian, to Khwajeh Yahia. He brought me back instructions to advance, and that the city should be given up to me. Mounting just at nightfall, we left the Dergham, and rode towards the city. But Sultan Mahmud Duldai, the father of Sultan Muhammed Duldai, having deserted from me at Yuret-Khan, and gone over to the enemy, had informed them of our proceedings; so that, our motions being discovered, the design did not succeed. I therefore returned back to the banks of the Dergham.

While I remained encamped there, Ibrahim Saru Munkaligh, who had received many favours from me, but whom Ali Dost had plundered and driven from my service while we were at Yar-ailak, returned, accompanied by Muhammed Yusef, the son of Syed Yusef Beg, and again entered into my service. The greater part of my Begs and most attached servants, whom Ali Dost Beg, from jealousy, had treated ill, banishing some of them, plundering others, and ruining the rest by heavy contributions, all returned to me at this period, one after another. The power of Ali Dost was now

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