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gone. He had placed his entire reliance on Tambol, and had harassed and persecuted me and all my friends. I had conceived a rooted dislike to the man. Partly from shame and partly from apprehension, he could no longer remain with me, and asked leave to retire, which I granted with great pleasure. Ali Dost and Muhammed Dost, Ali Dost on leaving me, went and joined Tambol, by whom they were received and treated with allowed to much distinction; and I afterwards had many proofs of the mutinous and incendiary.retire" temper of both father and son. A year or two after, Ali Dost was seized with a can- Their fucerous sore in the hands, of which he died. Muhammed Dost went among the Uzbeks, where he did not succeed badly; but there, also, having been guilty of some piece of treachery to those whose salt he eat, he was obliged to nee, and came to the hilly districts of Andejan, where he spirited up some disturbances; but falling at last into the hands of the Uzbeks, they put out his eyes, and thus was verified the saying, "the salt has seized his eyes."1

After they had taken leave, I dispatched Ghuri Birlas with a party of horse towards Sheibani Bokhara, in quest of intelligence. He brought me back information that Sheibani Bokhara," Khan had taken Bokhara, and was marching on Samarkand. Not thinking my stay in that neighbourhood advisable, I proceeded towards Kesh,2 in which place were the families of many of the Begs of Samarkand. A week or two after my arrival there, information was brought that Sultan Ali Mirza had delivered up Samarkand to aml SamarSheibani Khan.

The circumstance of this event are as follows :—The mother of Sultan Ali Mirza, Particular named Ziihreh Begi Agha, was led by her stupidity and folly to send a messenger privately to Sheibani Khan, proposing that, if he would marry her, her son should surrender Samarkand into his hands, on condition that, when Sheibani recovered his own paternal dominions, he should restore Samarkand to Sultan Ali Mirza. Abu Yusef Arghun was let into the secret of this plan; nay, that traitor may be fairly regarded as the original projector of it.

of this event.

, TRANSACTIONS OF THE YEAR 906.3

Sheibani Khan advancing as had been arranged with the princess, halted at the Sheibani Bagh-e-Meidan.4 About noon, Sultan Ali Mirza, without acquainting any of his Begs, rjves before officers, cavaliers, or servants, with his intention, and without holding any consulta- Samarkand. tion, left the town by the Char-raheh gate, accompanied only by a few insignificant Sultan Ali

individuals of his personal attendants, and went to Sheibani Khan at the Bagh-e-Mei- out ana

meets him.

1 In the East, it is looked upon as the greatest crime to betray one in whose family or service a man has lived, or even with whom lie has eaten. Hence the epithet nemek-herdm, or treacherous to his salt, is one of the severest of reproaches.

2 South of Samarkand, beyond the hills.

3 This year commenced on 28th July 1500. * Garden of the plain.

L

dan. Sheibani did not give him a very flattering reception; and, as soon as the cereL'niverul monies of meeting were over, made him sit down lower than himself. Khwajeh Yahia, 'on learning that the Mirza had gone out, was filled with alarm; but, seeing no remedy left, also went out of the town, and waited on Sheibani Khan, who received him without rising, and said some severe things to him. On his rising to go away, however, Sheibani Khan behaved more courteously, and rose from his seat. Jan Ali, the son of Khwajeh Ali Bai, who was in Rabat-Khwajeh, as soon as he heard that the Mirza had gone out, likewise went and presented himself to Sheibani Khan; so that the wretched and weak woman, for the sake of getting herself a husband, gave the family and honour of her son to the winds. Nor did Sheibani Khan mind her a bit, or value her even so much as his other handmaids, concubines, or women. Sultan Ali Mirza was confounded at the condition in which he now found himself, and deeply regretted the step which he had taken. Several young cavaliers about him, perceiving this, formed a plan for escaping with him; but he would not consent. As the hour of fate was at hand, he could not shun it. He had quarters assigned him Sultan Ah near Taimur Sultan. Three or four days afterwards, they put him to death in the to !"*,£" meadow of Kulbeh? From his over-anxiety to preserve this transitory and mortal life, he left a name of infamy behind him ; and, from following the suggestions of a woman, struck himself out of the list of those who have earned for themselves a glorious name. It is impossible to write any more of the transactions of such a personage, and impossible to listen any farther to the recital of such base and dastardly proceedings. .Murder of After the murder of Sultan Ali Mirza, the Khan sent Jan Ali after his prince; and VahU and as he entertained suspicions of Khwajeh Yahia, banished him, and sent him off for ih"sons- Khorasan, with his two sons, Khwajeh Muhammed Zakeria and Khwajeh Baki. They were followed by a party of Uzbeks, who martyred the Khwajeh and both his young sons, in the neighbourhood of Khwajeh Kardzin. Sheibani Khan denied all participation in the Khwajeh's death, alleging that it was the act of Kamber Bi and Kepek Bi.1 This is only making the matter worse, according to the saying, "the excuse is worse that the fault;" for when Begs presume to perpetrate such deeds without being authorised by their Khan or King, what confidence can be reposed in such a government? r.aber No sooner had the Uzbeks taken Samarkand, than we moved away from Kesh to

eavesKmh. wards Hissar.2 Muhammed Mazid Tcrkhan, and some of the other Begs of Samarkand, accompanied me, along with their wives, children, and families. On halting at the Valley3 of the district of Cheghanian, Muhammed Mazid Terkhan, and the Samarkand nobles, separating from me, went and took service with Khosrou Shah, while I, without town or territory, without any spot to which I could go, or in which I could remain, in spite of the miseries which Khosrou Shah had inflicted on my house and faPaMw mily, saw myself compelled to pass through the midst of his territories. I once had

through Khosrou

shah'i l The Uzbeks, down to the present time, distinguish the richer and more substantial men of property

territories, ^y the title of Bi, which corresponds very much with'master. The Uzbeks were composed of the four

tribes of Vigurs, Naimans, Durmans, and Kankerats.—See Attley't Voyages, vol. IV. p. 483.

2 They probably proceeded through the hills of the Derbend or the Kaluga Pass.

3 Auleng, a valley, meadow, or pasture-ground.

a fancy that I might go by way of the country of Karatigin 1 to join my younger maternal uncle Ilcheh Khan, but I did not. We resolved to go up by the Kamrud and to cross over the mountain of Sir-e-Tak.2 By the time we reached the confines of Nowendak, a servant of Khosrou Shah came to me, and, in his master's name, presented me with nine horses, and nine pieces of cloth.3 When I reached the gorge of Kamrud, Shir Ali Chehreh deserted from me and joined Wali, the younger brother of Khosrou Shah. The next morning Koch Beg separated from me and went to Hissar. Having entered the Valley of Kamrud, we went up the river. In these roads, which are extremely dangerous, often overhanging precipices, and in the steep and narrow hill passes and straits which we were obliged to ascend, numbers of our horses and camels failed, and were unable to proceed. After four or five days march, we reached the mountain pass of Sir-e-Tak. It is a pass, and such a pass! Never did I see one Surmounts so narrow and steep; never were paths so narrow and precipitous traversed by me. gir.^TiiT1 We travelled on with incredible fatigue and difficulty, amid dangerous narrows and tremendous gulphs. Having, after a hundred sufferings and losses, at length surmounted these murderous, steep, and narrow defiles, we came down on the confines of Reache* Kan. Among the mountains of Kan there is a large lake, which may be about a kos4 in circumference, and is very beautiful.

Here I received information that Ibrahim Terkhan had thrown himself into the for- Ibrahim tress of Shiraz, which he had put in a state of defence, and that Kamber Ali and Abul ^pii!" Kasim Kohbur, who had been in the fort of Khwajeh Didar, when the Uzbeks took Yar-ailak. Samarkand, not believing themselves able to hold out in the place, had repaired to Yar-ailak, the fortresses of which district they had occupied and put in a state of defence, and established themselves there.

Leaving Kan on the right, we marched towards Keshtud. 5 The Malek of Kan was Baber is ill renowned for his hospitality, generosity, politeness, and humanity. When Sultan Hus- tne M»iek sain Mirza came against Hissar, Sultan Masaud Mirza fled to his younger brother ofKinBaiesanghar Mirza at Samarkand, by this road. The Malek of Kan presented him with seventy or eighty horses as a peshkesh, and did him many other services of the like nature. To me he presented a single worthless horse, but did not come himself to greet me: Yet so it was, that those who were famed for generosity, proved niggards when they had to do with me; and those who were so celebrated for their hospitality, quite forgot it when I was concerned. Khosrou Shah too, was one who possessed a high reputation for liberality and generosity, and the services which he rendered to Badia-ez-zeman Mirza have already been mentioned. He certainly received Baki

1 In that case he would probably have passed the hills into the Kashgar territory, and then proceeded to the east of the Ala-tagh mountains, which separated Kashghar and the country of the Moghuls from Ush, Kasan, &c. The Persian copies read Karatigin and Aldi.

* The valley of Kamrud leads up from the low country of Hissar to Sir-e-Tfik, which seems to be on the summit of the Kara-tagh mountains. On getting across these mountains, Baber came on the country near the source of the Kohik, and on one skirt of Yar-ailak.

3 The Moghuls and Turks have a superstitious reverence for the number nine, and presents are generally made by nine or thrice nine pieces of each kind.

4 About a mile and a half.

s Mr Metcalfe's MS. has Keshbud, the Persian Kesud and Kebud.

Terkhan and the other Begs with unbounded kindness and liberality. I twice passed
through his country. Let it not be told to my peers that the humanity and politeness
which he showed to my lowest servants, were not vouchsafed to me; nay that he did
not even treat me with so much respect as he did them :—

Turki.—0, my soul! who has ever experienced good treatment from worldlings?
Hope not that those in whom there is no good, can show it to others?

. Advances to Immediately on leaving Kan, it occurred to me that Keshtud must certainly be in the possession of the Uzbeks, I made a rapid push towards it, but found the place ruined and desolate, not a man being there. Leaving it behind, I advanced, and halted on the banks of the Kohik. I passed this river by a bridge towards its bend at Yari, and dispatched Kasim Beg and some other Begs for the purpose of surprising the fortress of Rabat-Khwajeh. Passing Yari and the hill of Shankar-Khaneh,1 we arrived

Reaches in Yar-ailak. The Begs who were sent against Rabat-Khwajeh, at the instant of applying their scaling-ladders, perceiving that the garrison had taken the alarm, and that the attempt had failed, mounted their horses and abandoned the enterprize. Kamber Ali, who was in Sangraz,2 came and waited on me. Abul Kasim Kohbur and Ibrahim Terkhan sent some of their confidential servants to pay me their respects, and assure me of their attachment.

From the villages of Yar-ailak we came to Asfendek. At that time Sheibani Khau was in the vicinity of Khwajeh-Didar, accompanied by three or four thousand Uzbeks, and about as many, more soldiers who had been collected from various quarters. He had bestowed the Daroghaship of Samarkand on Khan Vafa Mirza, who occupied the place with five or six hundred men. Khamzeh Sultan and Mehdi Sultan, with their adherents and followers, were encamped near Samarkand in the Kurugh-Budineh. My men, good and bad, amounted only to two hundred and forty. Having consulted with

Resolves to the whole of my Begs and officers, we finally were agreed in opinion, that as Sheibani

I'lark''1/*" Khan had taken Samarkand so recently, the men of the place had probably formed no attachment to him, nor he to them; that if anything was ever to be done, this was the crisis; that could we succeed in scaling the fort by surprise, and making ourselves master of it, the inhabitants of Samarkand would certainly declare in our favour; they had nothing else for it; that if they did not assist me, at least they would not fight for the Uzbeks. At all events, after the city was once taken, whatever God's will might be, be it done. Having come to these conclusions, we mounted and left Yar-ailak after noon-tide prayers, and rode rapidly the greater part of the night. By midnight we

Fails in one reached Yuret Khan. That night, learning that the garrison were on the alert, we did not venture to approach the place, but returned from Yuret-Khan : and as the morning dawned, we passed the river Kohik a little below Rabat-Khwajeh, and regained Yarailak.

One day I happened to be in the castle of Asfendek with some of my inferior nobles

1 Hawk-house.

s I know not whether the name of this place, which occurs several times, is Sangraz or Sangzar, it being written both ways.

and officers, such as Dost Nasir, Nevian Gokultash, Kasim Gokultash, Khan Kuli Kerimdad, Sheikh Dervish, Khosrou Gokultash, and Miram Nasir, who were sitting and conversing around me. The conversation turned at random on a variety of subjects. I happened to say, "Come! let us hit on a lucky guess, and may God accomplish it! When shall we take Samarkand?" Some said, "We shall take it in the spring," (it was then the harvest;) some said in a month, some in forty days, some in twenty days. Nevian Gokultash said, "We shall take it within a fortnight;" and Almighty God verified his words, for we did take it within the fortnight.

About this time I had a remarkable dream. I thought that the reverend Khwajeh BainVt Abid-iilla had come to visit me. I went out to receive him, and the Khwajeh came t'rea,nin and sat down. It appeared to me that a table was spread for him, but perhaps not with sufficient attention to neatness, on which account the holy man seemed to be somewhat displeased. Mulla Baba observing this, made me a sign. I answered him likewise by signs, that the fault was not mine, but the person's who had spread the tablecloth. The Khwajeh perceived what passed, and was satisfied with my excuse. When he rose to depart I attended him out. In the hall of the house, however, he seemed to seize me by the right or left arm, and lifted me up so high that one of my feet was raised from the ground, while he said to me in Turki, Sheikh Maslefiet Berdi, "Your religious instructor has counselled you."1 A few days after this I took Samarkand.

One or two days after seeing this dream, I went from the fort of Asfendek to that Makes am.of Wasmand. Although I had once already set out to surprise Samarkand, and, after ther at" reaching the very suburbs, had been obliged to return, from finding the garrison on the alert; nevertheless, placing my confidence in the Almighty, I once more set out from Wasmand on the same enterprize, after mid-day prayers, and pushed on for Samarkand with the greatest expedition. Khwajeh Abdal Makaram was along with me. At midnight we reached the bridge of the Moghak2 at the Khiawan3 (or public pleasureground), whence I detached forward seventy or eighty of my best men, with instructions to fix their scaling-ladders on the wall opposite to the Lovers' Cave,4 to mount by them and e'nter the fort; after which they were to proceed immediately against the party who were stationed at the Firozeh-gate, to take possession of it, and then to apprize me of their success by a messenger. They accordingly went, scaled the walls opposite to the Lovers' Cave, and entered the place without giving the least alarm. am] enters Thence they proceeded to the Firozeh-gate, where they found Fazil Terkhan, who was Samarkand not of the Terkhan Begs, but a Terkhan merchant of Turkestan, that had served under Sheibani Khan in Turkestan, and had been promoted by him. They instantly fell upon Fazil Terkhan and put him and a number of his retainers to the sword, broke the lock of the gate with axes, and threw it open. At that very moment I came up to the gate and instantly entered. Abul Kasim Kohbur did not himself come on this enterprize, but he sent his younger brother Ahmed Kasim with thirty or forty of his followers.

1 Or rather perhaps, Sheikh Maslehet gives it.

* Or Pul-e-Moghak may be a village near Kitl-e-Moghak. Moghak literally means a ditch or hollow. 1 The Khiawan or Khiaban, as already mentioned, is a park shaded by avenues of trees, under which

the town's people went out to divert themselves.

* Mogtaar-e-Ashikan.

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