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There was no person with me on the part of Ibrahim Terkhan; but, after I had entered the city, and while I was sitting in the Khanekah1 (or convent), Ahmed Terkhan, his younger brother, arrived with a party of his retainers. The citizens in general were fast asleep, but the shopkeepers, peeping out of their shops, and discovering what had happened, offered up prayers of thanksgiving. In a short time the rest of the citizens were apprized of the event, when they manifested great joy, and most hearty congratulations passed on both sides between them and my followers. They pursued the And expels Uzbeks in every street and corner with sticks and stones, hunting them down and killing them like mad dogs: they put to death about four or five hundred Uzbeks in this manner. The Governor of the city, Jan Vafa, was in Khwajeh Yahia's house, but contrived to make his escape, and rejoined Sheibani Khan. Received Qn entering the gate, I had instantly proceeded towards the college and Khanekah,

the inhabi. and, on reaching the latter, I took my seat under the grand Tak (or arched hall). Till 1 morning the tumult and war-shouts were heard on every side. Some of the chief

people and shopkeepers, on learning what had passed, came with much joy to bid me welcome, bringing me such offerings of food ready dressed as they had at hand, and breathed out prayers for my success.

When it was morning, information was brought that the Uzbeks were in possession of the Iron Gate, and were maintaining themselves in it. I immediately mounted my horse, and galloped to the place, accompanied only by fifteen or twenty men; but the rabble of the town, who were prowling about in every lane and corner, had driven the Uzbeks from the Iron Gate before I could come up.

Sheibani Khan, on learning what was passing, set out hurriedly, and about sunrise appeared before the Iron Gate, with a hundred or a hundred and fifty horse. It was a noble opportunity; but I had a mere handful of men with me, as has been mentioned. Sheibani Khan, soon discovering that he could effect nothing, did not stop,. but turned back and retired. Encamps I now left the town, and encamped at the Bostan-serai.2 The men of rank and town?" 'consequence, and all such as were in office in the city, now came out and waited on me, offering me their congratulations. For nearly a hundred and forty years, Samarkand had been the capital of my family. A foreign robber, one knew not whence he came, had seized the kingdom, which dropped from our hands. Almighty God now Compares restored it to me, and gave me back my plundered and pillaged country. Sultan Husofsamar- saTM Mirza had also surprised Heri, much in the same way in which I had now taken 5 tofHni. Samarkand. But to persons of judgment and discrimination it is evident, and it is clear to every man of candour, that there was a very great difference between the two occurrences. The first distinction is, that Sultan Hussain Mirza was a mighty and powerful sovereign, of great experience, and in the maturity of his years and understanding. The second is, that his opponent, Yadgar Muhammed Mirza, was an inexperienced lad of seventeen or eighteen years of age. A third distinction is, that Mir Ali, the master of horse, who was perfectly acquainted with the whole conduct and

1 The Khanekah was a convent, with which was connected a caravansera for travellers, an endowment for charitable purposes, and sometimes an establishment for lectures. The extent of the buildings made it convenient for head-quarters.

* The Garden Palace.

proceedings of the enemy, was in his interest, and sent messengers to give him notice of them, and to hring him in an unguarded hour on his foe. A fourth difference is, that his opponent was not in a fortress, but at the Raven Garden,1 and when Sultan Hussain Mirza took the place, Yadgar Muhammed Mirza, with his attendants, had drunk so deeply of wine, that the only three persons on watch at Yadgar Muhammed Mirza's door were all drunk, as well as himself. The fifth distinction is, that he came and took it at the very first attempt, while the enemy were in the state of unsuspecting negligence that has been described. On the other hand, when I took Samarkand, I was only nineteen, and had neither seen much action nor been improved by great experience. In the next place, I had opposed to me an enemy like Sheibani Khan, a man full of talents, of deep experience, and in the meridian of life. In the third place, no person came from Samarkand to give me any information; for though the townspeople were well inclined to me, yet, from dread of Sheibani Khan, none of them dared to think of such a step. In the fourth place, my enemies were in a fortified place, and I had both to take the place and to route the enemy. Fifthly, I had once before come for the purpose of surprising Samarkand, and thereby put the enemy on their guard; yet, on a second attempt, by the favour of God, I succeeded and gained the city. In these observations, I have no wish to detract from any man's merit; the facts were exactly as has been mentioned. Nor, in what I have said, is it my wish to exalt the merits of my own enterprise beyond the truth; I have merely detailed the circumstances precisely as they stood.

Some poets amused themselves in making memorial verses expressive of the date of the transaction. I still recollect a couplet of one of them :—

Tell mo, then, my soul! what is its date?

Know, that it is " The Victory ofBaber Behader."*

After the conquest of Samarkand, Shadwar, Soghd, and the people who were in the Sbidwar, forts in the Tumans, began to come over to me one after another. The Uzbeks aban- ,\^i^ ,u, doned, from terror, some of the forts which they held, and made their escape. In Baber. others, the inhabitants attacked the Uzbeks, drove them out, and declared for me. Many seized on their Daroghas,3 and put their towns in a state of defence on my account. At this time, Sheibani Khan's wife and family, with his heavy baggage, as well as that of the other Uzbeks, arrived from Turkestan. Sheibani Khan had remained till now in the vicinity of Khwajeh-Didar and Ali-abad ; but, perceiving such a disposition in the garrisons to surrender the forts, and in the inhabitants to come over spontaneously to my side, he marched off from his encampment towards Bokhara. Shribani By the divine favour, before the end of three or four months, most of the fortified ai££" places of Soghd and Miankar4 had come under my allegiance. Baki Terkhan, too, Bokhara, seized a favourable opportunity, and entered the fort of Karshi. 'Khozar and Karshi4 were both lost to the Uzbeks. Karakul was also taken by Abul Hassan Mirza's men, who came from Merv. My affairs succeeded everywhere prosperously.

1 Bagh-e-Zaghan. 2 Fateh Baler Behuder. The numeral letters yield 905, not 906.

1 Chief magistrates.

* Miankar, or Miankal, is the country on both sides of the Kohik, near Dabusi.

• Khozar and Karshi lie S. W. from Sheher-Sebz; Karakul S. W. from Bokhara.

Babels fa- After my departure from Andejan, my mother and grandmother,1 with my family TM'Jy *TMve and household, had set out after me, and with great difficulty, and after enduring kand. many hardships, had reached Uratippa. I now sent and brought them to Samarkand.

About this time I had a daughter by Aisha Sultan Begum, the daughter of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the first wife whom I had married. She received the name of Fakheral-Nissa (the Ornament of Women). This was my first child, and at this time I was just nineteen. In a month or forty days she went to share the mercy of God. He sends to No sooner had I got possession of Samarkand, than I repeatedly dispatched ambasbourimf sadors and messengers, one after another, to all the Khans and Sultans, Amirs and princes to chiefs, on every hand round about, to request their aid and assistance. These messenjistanct. gers I kept going back and forward without intermission. Some of the neighbouring princes, although men of experience, gave me an unceremonious refusal. Others, who had been guilty of insults and injuries to my family, remained inactive out of apprehension; while the few that did send me assistance, did not afford me such as the occasion demanded, as will be particularly mentioned in its place. Correspond* At the time when I took Samarkand this second time, Ali Shir Beg2 was still alive. si1ir Beg. I na^ a letter from him, which I answered. On the back of the letter which I addressed to him, I wrote a couplet that I had composed in the Turki language; but before his reply could arrive, the commotions and troubles had begun. Mulla Binai Sheibaui Khan, after taking Samarkand, had received Mulla Binai into his service, m Samar- smee which time the Mulla had attended him. A few days after I took the place, the Mulla came to Samarkand. Kasim Beg having suspicions of him, ordered him to retire to Sheher-Sebz; but soon after, as he was a man of great knowledge, and as the charges against him were not established, I invited him to return to the capital. He was constantly composing kasidehs and ghazels.3 He addressed to me a ghazel adapted to a musical air, in the Nawa measure ; 'and about the same time composed and sent me the following quatrain :—

I neither possess grain to eat,

Nor the perversion of grain * to put on;

Without food nor raiment,

How can one display his learning and genius?

About this period, I sometimes amused myself with composing a couplet or two, but did not venture on the perfect ghazel, or ode. I composed and sent him a rubai (or quatrain), in the Turki language:—

1 Walidha may mean my mothers, my father's widows.

2 A more particular account of this eminent man, who was the greatest patron of literature and the arts of the age in which he lived, is afterwards given in the account of Herat.

-' A species of odes.

4 The merit of these verses depends upon an untranslateable play of words in the original. The Persians and Hindustanis are accustomed to divert themselves by ringing changes on their words. Ghaleh, maleh, roti, boti, &c. The perverted word the Persians call the mokhmel of the proper term. The mokhmel, or perversion of ghaleh, grain, is maleh, which happens to signify a sort of reddish-coloured cotton, of which cloth is manufactured. The poet, therefore, by saying that he has not ghaleh (grain), nor its mokhmel, maleh (cotton), gives to understand that he has neither food nor clothing.

Your affairs shall all succeed to your heart's content;
Presents and a settled allowance shall be ordered for your reward.
I comprehend your allusion to the grain and its perversion;
Your person shall fill the cloth, and the grain shall fill your house.

Mulla Binai composed and sent me a rubai, in which he assumed the rhyme of my quatrain for the redif of his own, and gave it another rhyme:—

My Mizra, who shall be sovereign hy sea and land,
Shall be distinguished in the world for his genius;
If my reward was such for a single unmeaning word,2
What would it have been had I spoken with understanding'.

At this time Khwajeh Aba-al-Barka, surnamed Feraki, came from Sheher-Sebz.
He said, " You should have kept the same rhyme j" and recited the following rubai:—

This tyranny which the sphere exercises shall be inquired into;
This generous Sultan shall redress her misdeeds;
O cup-btarer ! if hitherto thou hast not brimmed my cup,
At this turn (or reign) shall it be filled to the brim.

This winter my affairs were in the most prosperous state, while those of Sheibani Bitot's Khan were at a low ebb. At this very period, however, one or two rather unfortu- Lrou$P"" nate incidents occurred. The party from Merv, that had taken possession of Karakul, proved unable to maintain it, so that it fell again into the hands of the Uzbeks. Ahmed Terkhan, the younger brother of Ibrahim Terkhan, held the fortress of Dabusi. Sheibani Khan came and invested it; and, before I could collect my army and march to its relief, took it by storm, and made an indiscriminate massacre of the garrison. At the taking of Samarkand, I had with me in all only two hundred and forty men. In the course of five or six months, by the favour of God, they had so much increased, that I could venture to engage so powerful a chief as Sheibani Khan in a pitche.d battle at Sir-e-pul, as shall be mentioned. Of all the princes in my vicinity, from whom I had asked assistance, none afforded me any except the Khan, who sent Ayub Begchik and Kashkeh Mahmud, with about four or five hundred men. From Jehtingir Mirza, Tambol's younger brother brought a hundred men to my assistance. From Sultan Hussain Mirza, a prince of power and talent, a monarch of experience, He Retire* and than whom none was better acquainted with the temper and views of Sheibani "0°^1M"nf, Khan, not a man appeared; nor did I receive a single man from Badia-ez-Zeman fTM»» li» Mirza. Khosrou Shah, from terror, did not send any; for, as my family had suffered gi much from his unprincipled conduct, as has been mentioned, he entertained great apprehensions of me.

In the month of Shawal3 I marched out of the city to meet Sheibani Khan, and fixed Baber my head-quarters in the Bagh-e-nou,4 where I halted five or six days for the purpose mar^h«»

Sheib.i"i 1 The kafia is the rhyme; the redif consists of a few syllables, like a running chorus, that close the K1,0• line. The redif here is the Tiirki word bulghtlsidur, shall be, which served as the rhyme to Baber's verses. In the subsequent verses of Khwajeh Aba-al-Barka, the original rhyme is resumed. It is to be observed, that the third line of a quatrain requires no rhyme. * In most instances, the mokhmel of a word has no sense whatever. 3 Shawal 90S begins 20th April 1501. New Garden.


of collecting the troops, and getting ready all the necessaries of war. Setting oat from the Bagh-e-nou, I proceeded, by successive marches, to Sir-e-pul,1 after passing which I halted and encamped, strongly fortifying our camp with a palisade and ditch. SheinearKaid.. han* I^an moved forward from the opposite direction to meet us, and encamped near **i- the town of Khwajeh-Kardzin. There was about a farsang between his camp and mine.

skirmishes We remained four or five days in this position, and every day parties of my men fell
rn>oe. fa ^^h tne enemy, and skirmished with them. One day, a larger body of the enemv
than usual advanced, and there was a very sharp fight, without any marked advantage
on either side. Of my troops, one who had a standard, behaved ill, ran off, and got
into the trench. There were persons who pretended to say that the standard was Sidi
Kara Beg's; and, in truth, Sidi Kara, though most valiant in speech, by no means
made the same figure with his sword. One night Sheibani Khan attempted to sur-
prise us, but wc were so well defended by our ditch and chevaux-de-frise, that he could
effect nothing. After raising the war-shout on the edge of our ditch, and giving us a
few discharges of arrows, they drew off.
Babtt re- ^ now turned my whole attention and solicitude to the approaching battle. Kamber
solves to en. Al i assisted me. Baki Terkhan, with a thousand or two thousand men, had arrived
in Kesh, and would have joined me in two days. Syed Muhammed Doghlet, the Mir's
son,* too, was advancing with a thousand or fifteen hundred men, who had been sent
to my assistance by the Khan my maternal uncle; they had reached Dabul, only four
farsangs3 from my camp, and would have joined me next morning. Such was our
situation, when I precipitated matters, and hurried on the battle:

He who with impatient haste lays his hand on his sword,
Will afterwards gnaw that hand with his teeth from regret.

The cause of my eagerness to engage, was, that the stars called the Sahzyulduz (or eight stars) were on that day exactly between the two armies; and if I bad suffered that day to elapse, they would have continued favourable to the enemy for the space of thirteen or fourteen days. These observances were all nonsense, and my precipitation was without the least solid excuse. .Arrange- In the morning, having made the troops array themselves in their armour, and ca^"k OT parison and cover their horses with cloth of mail, we marched out and moved towards the enemy, having drawn out the army in order of battle, with right and left wing, centre and advance. On the right wing were posted Ibrahim Saru, Ibrahim Jani, Abul Kasim Kohbur, with several other Begs. On the left wing were stationed Ibrahim Terkhan, Muhammed Mazid Terkhan, with the other Begs of Samarkand, Saltan Hussain Arghiin, Kara Birlas Pir Ahmed, and Khwajeh Hussain. In the centre, were Kasim Beg, and some of my inferior nobility and attached adherents. In the advance, were Kamber Al i Silakh (the skinner), Bandch AH, Khwajeh AH, Mir Shah Kdchin, Syed Kasim the chamberlain, Khaldar the younger brother of Bandeh Ali, Kuch* Beg, Haider Kasim the son of Ka*im Beg, with a number of my best armed men and most faithful parlizans. Wo nmrched right forward to the enemy, and they, on their part,


'Jlrnlgrncl. • Miraiul. 3 Sixteen miles. 4 Or Koch.

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