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hills to Ly or Ladak, from thence to Yarkend and Kashghar, whence he returned by Ush, Khojend, Uratippa, Samarkand, Bokhara, and the Afghan country. This route traverses a very great proportion of the little-frequented districts so often spoken of by Baber, and lies through the heart of that Prince's paternal kingdom. The instructions of Mr Moorcroft appear to have been so judicious, that the Journal of Syed Izzet-Ulla, besides giving an accurate itinerary of the country through which he passed, contains many amusing facts regarding the manners and state of society of the inhabitants, and was found of the greatest service in the construction of the Map.
The countries which were the scene of Baber's early transactions are so little known, and so imperfectly laid down in all our maps, that I was desirous that a chart of at least Ferghana and Maweralnaher should be constructed with the assistance of the new materials afforded from different quarters, and my friend Mr Charles Waddington of the Bombay Engineers kindly undertook the labour. The mode which he adopted for laying it down, will be best explained by his own Memoir. Having only one fixed point by which to correct his positions, the difficulties he had to encounter were very great. How well he has overcome them the Map itself is.the best evidence. The additions and improvements made in the geography of all the country beyond the Oxus, but especially in the country of Ferghana and the districts near Samarkand, will be visible by comparing his delineation with any previous one of these countries. Mr Waddington laid me under the greatest obligations by the ready politeness with which, for a considerable period of time, he devoted to the completion of the Map, most of the few hours allowed him for relaxation from his professional duties; and it is not a little to his honour, that while still only in the first step of his professional career, he has exhibited not only a love of knowledge, but a judgment and science in the use of his materials, that would have done no discredit to the most experienced officer of the scientific corps to which he belongs. Of the following work this portion will very generally be considered as the most valuable.
Before concluding, it may be necessary to say something of the orthography adopted in writing Asiatic words. I have in general preserved that used by Dr Leyden. The vowels have the sound that is given to them in Italian; i has the sound of the English ee; u, of the English oo; of the consonants the ghain is expressed by gh; the two Kafs are not discriminated; g has always its hard sound; shin is expressed by sh; die by ch, which has the sound of ce in Italian, &ndj expresses the Italian gi. *
* On the whole, however, I am but little satisfied with the orthography used throughout, as the novelty of the spelling often gives a strange and singular aspect to words that are well known. Were it not for the inconvenience attending all innovations in matters of popular usage, it would add much to the distinctness of the orthography of Oriental words if our c, which is an useless letter, were used before vowels of every description uniformly to represent the sound of our ch, or that given to c in Italian before cor i; x, which is also an useless letter, might represent the sound it sometimes has in Portuguese, of our sh. Indeed these letters are so used by Meninski, and this use has the good effect of making fewer artificial compounds necessary to represent simple sounds. But use has already fixed anomalously the spelling of so many words, that little uniformity can now be looked for in any great proportion of Eastern words. In some names which are familiar in English, as Lahore, Jumna, Ganges, &c. I have not altered the spelling, considering them as in some degree naturalised by use.
REMARKS ON THE TARTAR TRIBES;
THE GEOGRAPHY OF UZBEK TURKISTAN.
The Emperor Baber was of Tartar race, and the language in which his commentaries are written, was that spoken by the tribes who inhabited the desert to the north and east of the Caspian. On the very edge of this desert he was born, but the changes of his fortune in the course of his eventful life, carried him sometimes as a fugitive, and sometimes as a conqueror, into various provinces of Asia. Some correct general idea of the character of the race to which he belonged, and of the geography of the several countries which he visited, is absolutely necessary, to enable the reader to follow him with pleasure in his chequered career. But the geography of the provinces which form the scene of his early story, and in particular that of the countries beyond the great river Oxus or Amu, one of which was his native country and hereditary kingdom, is peculiarly obscure; insomuch, that by one of our latest and best-informed geographers, it has been justly characterised as being " chiefly conjectural," and as " remaining, to the disgrace of science, in a wretched state of imperfection." * Some of these imperfections Mr Elphinstone's valuable collections, and the Memoirs of Baber themselves, may assist in removing. But the principal object of the following remarks, is to give such an idea of the natural divisions of the country as may render the position and extent of the various provinces mentioned by Baber, distinctly understood, as some of them are not to be found in the geographical systems of the present day.
The whole of Asia may be considered as divided into two parts by the great chain of mountains which runs from China and the Birman Empire on the east, to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean on the west. From the eastward, where it is of great
* Pinkerton's Geography, Vol. II. p. 37. Third ed. 4to.
breadth, it keeps a north-westerly course, rising in height as it advances, and forming the hill countries of Assam, Bootan, Nepal, Sirinagar, Tibet, and Ladak. It encloses the valley of Kashmir, near which it seems to have gained its greatest height, and thence proceeds westward, passing to the north of Peshawer and Kabul, after which it appears to break into a variety of smaller ranges of hills that proceed in a westerly and south-westerly direction, generally terminating in the province of Khorasan. Near Herat, in that province, the mountains sink away, but the range appears to rise again near Meshhed, and is by some considered as resuming its course, running to the south of the Caspian and bounding Mazenderan, whence it proceeds on through Armenia, and thence into Asia Minor, finding its termination in the mountains of ancient Lycia. This immense range, which some consider as terminating at Herat, while it divides Bengal, Hindustan, the Penjab, Afghanistan, Persia, and part of the Turkish territory, from the country of the Moghul and Turki tribes, which, with few exceptions, occupy the whole extent of country from the borders of China to the sea of Azof, may also be considered as separating, in its whole course, nations of comparatise.civilization from uncivilized tribes. To the south of this range, if we perhaps except some part of the Afghan territory, which, indeed, may rather be held as part of the range itself than as south of it, there is no nation which, at some period or other of its history, has not been the seat of a powerful empire, and of all those arts and-refinements of life whichattend a numerous and wealthy population, when protected by a government that permits the fancies and energies of the human mind to follow their natural bias. The degrees of civilization and of happiness possessed in these various regions may have been extremely different; but many of the comforts of wealth and abundance, and no small share of the higher treasures of cultivated judgment and imagination, must have been enjoyed by nations that could produce the various systems of Indian philosophy and science, a drama so polished as the Sakontala, a poet like Ferdousi, or a moralist like Sadi. While to the south of this range we everywhere see flourishing cities, cultivated fields, and all the forms of a regular government and policy, to the north of it, if we except China and the countries to the south of the Sirr or Jaxartes, and along its banks, we find tribes who, down to the present day, wander over their extensive regions as their forefathers did, little if at all more refined than they appear to have been at the very dawn of history. Their flocks are still their wealth, their camp their city, and the same government exists of separate chiefs, who arc not much exalted in luxury or information above the commonest of their subjects around them.
The belt of mountains that forms the boundary between the pastoral and civilized nations, is inhabited, in all its extent, by hill-tribes who differ considerably from both of the others. The countries to the east of Kashmir, at least those lying on the southern face of the range, are chiefly of Hindu origin, as appears from their languages; while the countries to the west of Kashmir, including that of the Dards, Tibat-Balti or Little Tibet, Chitral and Kafferistan,* which speak an unknown tongue, with the Hazaras and Aimaks, contain a series of nations who appear never to have attained the arts, the
* From the researches of Mr Elphinstone, it appears that the language of Kafferistan is probably of Hindu origin. ,
ease, or the civilization of the southern states; but who at the same time, unlike those to the north, have in general settled on some particular spot, built villages and towns, and cultivated the soil. No work of literature or genius has ever proceeded from this range. The inhabitants, justly jealous of their independence, have rarely encouraged any intercourse with the civilized slaves to the south, and do not appear, till very recently, to have had much commerce with their northern neighbours. The labour of providing for subsistence, the remoteness of their scattered habitations, and the limited means of intercourse with each other, appear, in all ages, to have stifled among them the first seeds of improvement.* Yet even among these mountains, the powerful influence of a rich soil and happy climate, in promoting civilization, is strongly visible. The vale of Kashmir is placed near their centre; and such has been the effect of the plenty and ease resulting from these circumstances, that that fortunate country has not only been always famous for the richness of its productions, and the skill of its manufacturers, but was, at one period, the seat of a considerable empire; and its historians furnish us with a long catalogue of its authors on every art and in every department of literature, some of whom are still held in deserved estimation.
Baber was descended from one of the tribes that inhabited to the north of this range. That immense tract of country which is known by the general name of Tartary, extends over nearly all the north of Asia, and over a considerable part of the south-east of Europe. It corresponds very nearly with the ancient Scythia. The tribes that inhabit it, differ from each other in manners, features, and language. Of these, the most powerful and numerous seem to belong to three races: 1st, The Mandshurs, called also Manjdrs and Manckks, to the east, who extend from the Eastern Ocean along the north of China. 2dly, The Monguls or Moghuls, who chiefly occupy the central regions between the other two: and 3dly, The people, by Europeans, and particularly the Russians and latter travellers, exclusively called Tartars or Tatars, and sometimes Western Tartars, names not acknowledged by themselves, but who may with more propriety receive their original name of Turks, by which their principal branches still designate themselves.-)- .
The country of the Manchus, containing all that lies east of the Siolki Mountains, and north of the range of Kinchan, may be neglected on the present occasion; the influence of its inhabitants having been confined chiefly to China, of which they are now the rulers.
The Moghul and Turki tribes have exercised a far more important influence on the nations around them. The Moghuls extend over all the country between the Siolki Mountains and China on the east; the mountainous country from China towards Leh or Ladak on the south; a line from Leh through the desert of Kobi to the east of Terfan, and thence by the Ulugh Tagh, J the Chiju river, and the Kuchik Tagh hills§ on
* The same may be said of the indigenous population of Afghanistan, particularly of the hill country.
t None of these three great classes have any general name to comprehend the whole tribes of which they consist. Each little tribe has a separate name. The grand distinction and affinity are marked chiefly by language.
1 Great mountains. § Little mountains.