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gardens. When D' Herbelot and Petis de la Croix* give tke city a compass of twelve farsangs, or forty-eight miles, they have not observed that the whole garden-grounds around it must have been included in the range. A wall one hundred and twenty farsangs in length, said to have been built by Kishtasp, King of Persia, to check the incursions of the Turks, and to protect the province of Samarkand, is probably fabulous, no notice being taken of any remains of it in latter times. Yet a similar one certainly existed, lower down the river,.for the defence of the highly-cultivated districts of Bokhara.

A town of considerable note in the northern part of the country is Jizzikh or Jizik, better known in history by the name of Dizak. It lies towards the Ak-tagh mountains, on the road to the Pass of Ak-Kutel. To the south of Jizzikh, on the road to Samarkand, is Shiraz, which has long been in ruins.

Down the river, below Samarkand, was the town of Sir-e-pul (or Bridgend), so frequently mentioned by Baber. It is probably the place noticed by Abulfedaf under the name of Kashufaghn, and by the Arabs called Ras-al-kantara, a translation of its Persian name.

The town and castle of Dabusi or Dabusia, often mentioned in the history of Bokhara, lies between that city and Samarkand.

The city of Bokhara, which is now the capital of the country, as it frequently was in former times, has given its name in Europe to the countries of Great and Little Bucharia. These names, however, are unknown in Asia, the name of Bokhara being confined to the city of that name and the country subject to it. It lies far down in the Valley of Soghd, in the middle of a rich country intersected by numerous water-courses. It is said, at the present day, to contain a hundred thousand inhabitants, and it is, perhaps, the most eminent seat of Musulman learning now existing. Thompson, who vi- sited it in 1740, gives an amusing account of the city and its trade.J It was visited by Jenkinson in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,§ and in 1812 by Izzet Ulla, whose account of its present state is highly interesting.

The fort of Ghajhdewan, which lies north-west of Bokhara close on the desert of Khwarizm, is remarkable for a great defeat sustained by Baber and his Persian auxiliaries, when he was compelled to raise the siege.

The hills of Nurattau lie ten miles north from Bokhara, and run from east to west for about twenty-four miles. This is probably the N&r of the Arabian .geographers, with the addition of tau, a hill. \

Miankal, which is several times mentioned by Baber, includes Katta-Korghan, YungKorghan, Penjshembeb, Khattichi, and some other places on both sides of the Kohik near Dabusi.

But the minuteness of Babels own description of the country, its rivers and mountains, precludes the necessity of any farther remarks.

* See Bibl. Orientale, Art. Samarkand; and Hist, de Ghengiz-can, p. 220.

+ P. 35. + Hanway's Travels, vol. I. p. 240. § Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. I.

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III. COUNTRIES ALONG THE SIRR, OR JAXARTES.

The countries along the Sirr have always been much less considerable than those on the Amu. The Sirr, or Jaxartes, rises among the lofty mountains which divide Ferghana from Kashghar. The chief source appears to lie east from Ush, nearly two degrees. On the west side of the Ala-tagh range are the sources of the Sirr, and on the east side, at no great distance, is the source of the Kashghar river. The Sirr, after dividing Ferghana, takes a turn to the north-west, passes to the south of Tashkend, and flowing down through the sandy desert, is nearly lost in the sands before it reaches the Sea of Aral.

i."' ,. i 1. Ferghana.

The particular account of this country, with which the Memoirs of Baber open, renders it needless to enter into any description of it. It now forms the powerful kingdom of Kokan, whose capital, of the same name, is the ancient Khuakend, lying between Khojend and Ahsi. Though Ferghana is in general fertile, yet several small deserts are to be found within its extent. It is divided into two parts by the Sirr: That on the left bank has for its boundary on the south the snowy mountains of Asfera, which on their northern face slope down into the hill countries of Wadil, Warukh, Hushiar, Sukh, &c.; while their southern side forms the frontier of Karatigin. On the west it has Uratippa, from which it is divided by the river Aksu, which flows into the Sirr. The portion of Ferghana on the right bank of the Sirr, has for its western boundary a range of hills running south from the Ala-tagh, past Ahsi to Khojend, on , the Sirr, and dividing Ferghana from Tashkend. The north appears to be protected by the lofty and barren mountains called Ala-tagh, which are probably always covered with snow, and which also wind round to its eastern frontier, where they separate it from the territory of Kashghar. The country north of the Sirr, which formerly contained Ahsi and Kasan, is now called Nemengan. The Ala-tagh mountains are generally represented as being joined, on their north-east angle, by a range of mountains running far eastward, and connecting them with those of Ulugh-tagh. None of them, however, are probably high, where they join in with the hills that bound Ferghana, as we find that the Kirghis pass freely at all seasons, on the north and east of that country, from Tashkend to the vicinity of Kashghar; and the whole tract is, indeed, generally designated as belonging to the same pastoral range: thus, in the accounts of the Russian travellers, when speaking of the Great Horde of Kirghis, we find Kashghar. Tashkend, and Otrar put together, as constituting their range along the Ala, or Alaktagh Mountains, without adverting to any intervening hills.* One Usbek traveller, from whom I had an account of his journey from Kashghar to Astrakhan, mentioned, that he passed some broad low hills near Almaligh; so that, if any connecting range

* See Decouvertes Russes, vo1. III. p. 380, and vol. V. p. 498.

runs from the Ala-tagh to the Ulugh-tagh, it is probably a very low one, and easily surmounted.

Baber justly describes his native country as encircled with hills on every side except towards Khojend, where, however, the opening between the hills and the Sirr is very narrow. "•

Abulfeda mentions, that in the mountains of Ferghana they have black stones which burn like charcoal, and, when kindled, afford a very intense heat.* The fact, of the existence of coal in the Ala-tagh range, and to the east of it, is confirmed by recent travellers. It is found in great plenty, and forms the ordinary fuel of the natives.

2. Tashkend.

The country of Tashkend lies along the north bank of the Sirr, having that river on the south, and the Ala-tagh mountains, running parallel to it, on the greater part of its northern frontier; the hills near Ahsi bound it on the east, and the desert of the Kara Kilpaks on the west. The ancient Turkistan-Proper stretched considerably to the north and westward of this country. The range of Ala-tagh mountains which extend along its northern boundary, run from east to west, at no great distance from the Sirr, and decline in height toward the western desert. The inferior range of hills that run from the Ala-tagh, between Tashkend and Ahsi, within eight miles of the latter place, f we find several times crossed by armies that marched from Tashkend to Kasan, Ahsi, and the northern provinces of Ferghana. In this route lies the Julgeh Ahengeran, or Ironsmith's dale, and Kundezlik and Amani, so often mentioned in the Memoirs of Baber. It was probably by this road that the caravan of Tashkend proceeded to Uzkend, on the route to Kashghar; though it appears sometimes to have gone to Kashghar by keeping to the north of the Ala-tagh hills. The road generally pursued from Tashkend to Ahsi did not follow the course of the Sirr, but went eastward directly towards Ahsi, cutting off, to the south, the large tract of country surrounded on three sides by the river which runs south-west from Ahsi to Khojend, and north-west from Khojend to Tashkend. The city of Shahrokhia lay between Khojend and Tashkend, on the Sirr, while Sciram lay north-west of Tashkend, still lower down. Magnificent accounts of the wealth, cultivation and populousness of Tashkend, and the country along the rich banks of the Sirr, in the time of the Arabs, and of the Khwarizmian dynasty, are given by Ebn Haukal, Abulfeda, and the historians of Chengiz Khan; and the many works of learning and science which issued from this country at that era, sufficiently attest that these praises were not altogether gratuitous. The dynasty of Khwarizmian kings, destroyed by Chengiz Khan, were eminent encouragers of letters. In Baber's time, Tashkend and Shahrokhia were its chief towns. A considerable traffic has of late years been carried on at Tashkend, between the Russians and the inhabitants of Bokhara, but the country is not in a flourishing state.

* Chorasm. Descript. p. 38.

t D'Herbelot says, art. Aksiket, that the plain reaches to the hills, which are only two leagues (perhaps farsangs) off. Albufeda says they are at the distance of one farsang.

The range of the Great Horde of the Kirghis extends from Tashkend all round the Ala-tagh Mountains, through the western part of the country of Kashghar and Yarkend, and even into Upper Kashghar and Pamir, close to Derwaz and Badakhshau. They are Turks, and speak a dialect of the Turki language, though probably mingled with Moghul words.

3. Uratippa.

The country of Uratippa, which is also called Ustrush, Ustrushta, Setrushta, Istenishan, and Ushrushna, is the hilly tract which lies west of Khojend, whence it is separated by the river Aksu. It has that river and the Asfera mountains, including part of Karatigin, on the east; on the south-east, in the days of Baber, it seems to have stretched over to the Kara-tagh mountains, which divided it from Hissar, while Yar-ailak completed its, boundary in that quarter. On the south, the Ak-tagh and Uratippa mountains divided it from Samarkand and Bokhara; on the north, the Sirr, and probably the districts of Ilak, separate it from Tashkend; and on the west it has the desert of Ghaz, (by Abulfeda, called Ghazna,) or the Kara Kilpaks, towards the sea of Aral. It is full of broken hill and dale, and anciently was studded with small and nearly independent castles, each of which had its separate district . The slope of country is towards the desert of Aral. It is now subject to Bokhara. Uratippa and Ramin, or Zamin, are its chief towns. It has been celebrated from early ages for the quantity of sal ammoniac which it produces in some natural caverns in the hills. It has no considerable river,* but several smaller streams, most of which probably disappear in the sandy desert. In all our maps, the Kezil (or Red River) is made to rise in the hill country of Uratippa, and to proceed downward to join the Amu, below the cultivated country of Khwarizm. Yet Ebn Haukalf tells us, that in all Setrushta (or Uratippa), there is not one river considerable enough to admit of the plying of boats; and the river, after leaving Uratippa, would have to run for several days' journey through a desert sand. It rather seems, that no such separate river exists; but that the Kezil is only a branch that proceeds from, and returns to, the Amu. Hazarasp4 which certainly stands on the Amu, is said to lie on the north side of the Kezil. This must be just where the Kezil runs off- from the great river. Kit, or Kath,§ the old capital of Khwarizm, which was six farsangs, or twenty-four miles, from Hazarasp down the Amu, and certainly stood on that river, is, however, said to lie on the north side of the Kezil. The different branches of the Amu, in passing through Khwarizm, or Urgenj, have different names, like the various branches of the Ganges in Bengal. This, with some other causes, has spread a good deal of confusion over the geography of the former country. In the instance in question, a great river being found, and its connexion with the Aran not being known, it was natural to search for its sources in the hills to the east.

"See Ebn Haukal and Abulfeda. J Astley or Green's Voyages, vol. IV. p. 482.

t P. 263. § Ibid.

f

4. The Desert Of The Kara Kilfaks.

The desert country which is bounded by the sea of Aral on the west, the river Sirr on the north, Uratippa on the east, and Bokhara and Kwarizm on the south, is now traversed by the wandering Turki tribe of Kara Kilpaks (or Black Bonnets), who, according to the general opinion, are Turkomans, though some accounts describe them as Uzbeks. This district, which was, by the Arabian geographers, called Ghaz, and sometimes, if we may trust the readings of the manuscripts, Ghaznah, probably extends a little to the north, beyond the place where the Sirr loses itself in the sand. These wanderers have a considerable range, but are few in number. The desert is six or seven days' journey from east to west, and upwards of ten from north to south.

5. Ilak.

Ilak, probably, is not a separate district, but comprehends the rich pastoral country on both sides of the Sirr, on the southern side, reaching up the skirts, and among the valleys of the hills of Uratippa that branch towards the Sirr, and belong to Uratippa; and on the north having some similar tracts subject to Tashkend and Shahrokhia. It is, by some ancient geographers, made to comprehend the whole country between the northern hills of Tashkend and the river, including Tashkend and Benaket, or Shahrokhia. It is little known, and is probably dependent on Tashkend to the north of the Sirr, and on Uratippa to the south.

f

6. TURKISTAN.

The country peculiarly called Turkistan by Baber, lies below Seiram, between it and the sea of Aral. It lies on the right bank of the Sirr, and stretches considerably to the north, along the banks of some small rivers that come from the east and north. Some part of it was rich, and had been populous. A city of the same name stands on one of these inferior streams. In the time of the Arabs, it is said to have been a rich and flourishing country, full of considerable towns, such as Jund, Yangikent, &c. In the time of Baber, it seems to have had few towns, but was the chief seat of the Uzbeks, who had recently settled there, and whose territories extended a considerable way to the north; though Sheibani Khan never recovered the great kingdom of Tura, whence his grandfather Abulkhair had been expelled, the succession of which was continued in another branch of the family. It was to this Turkistan that Sheibani Khan retired, when unsuccessful in his first attempt on Samarkand; and it was from the deserts around this tract, and from Tashkend, which they had conquered, that his successors called the Tartars, who assisted them in expelling Baber from Maweral

naher, after Sheibani's death.

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Such is a general outline of the divisions of the country of Uzbek Turkistan, which may deserve that name, from having had its principal districts chiefly occupied for up

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