« 이전계속 »
CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAP OF FERGHANA AND
By CHARLES WADDINGTON, Eso.
OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY'S ENGINEERS.
I Some time ago, at the request of Mr Erskine, undertook the construction of a map, to illustrate the operations of the Emperor Baber in Ferghana and the neighbouring countries. For the execution of this design, Mr Erskine had been for some time employed in making collections, as he found it difficult, or impossible, to trace the expeditions and marches of Baber, in the erroneous and defective maps of those countries, extant. Mr Erskine had procured several routes, written by natives who had visited those countries, with which the kindness of Mr Elphinstone and other gentlemen had supplied him. In addition to these materials, I was furnished with the longitudes and latitudes of many of the principal towns, chiefly from the Arabian geographers, with some particulars regarding these countries, contained in a sketch drawn up by Mr Elphinstone, and with all the books and maps which could throw any light on the subject; besides having the constant benefit of the advice and assistance, which Mr Erskine's extensive reading, and intimate knowledge of the country, enabled him to afford me.
The chief difficulty which presented itself on the commencement of my labours, was the want of some well-ascertained points, from which the intermediate spaces might be filled in with tolerable accuracy. Samarkand alone, from the numerous observations that have been taken in it, appeared to be a station sufficiently well determined, to be depended on; and, unfortunately, it is situated so much to the south of the country which was the chief object of my attention, that it promised to be of but little use to me. From the peculiar nature of the country, there must always be the greatest difficulty in ascertaining the relative positions of Ferghana and Bokhara, as there is but one communication between them, by a long narrow pass near Khojend, between the mountains and the river. The whole of Karatigin is perfectly impracticable from its mountainous nature, and precludes the possibility of procuring a cross route from Badakhshan or Hissar, which would determine at once, with accuracy, the true position of Ferghana. On the uncertain method of* laying down this country, from the circuitous routes through Khojend, the only check that can be obtained, is by continuing those routes to Kashghar, which, besides being pretty well ascertained by observation, has a direct route from Badakhshan. Of this check I endeavoured to avail myself.
My first step, after laying down Samarkand in long. 64° 53> and lat. 39° 40', which was the mean of the best observations in my possession, was to protract separately all my routes; when, by comparing them together, and making due allowances for the winding of roads and other impediments, I have reason to think that I obtained the distance very correctly, between those places through which the routes most frequently passed. The distance between Samarkand and Bokhara, I found in this manner to be 112 miles in a direct line, which agrees remarkably well with the distance which Baber gives between these two cities.
It may not be amiss here to remark, that I did not see the translation of Baber's life, till I had laid down the whole of my routes to the north of Samarkand; and when the minuteness of his descriptions, and the opportunities he had of being well acquainted with the country, are considered, the coincidence of his accounts with the positions I had already given to the principal towns, will be esteemed no slight proof of the general accuracy of the map.
Having observations on the latitude and longitude of Bokhara, by almost all the geographers, from whose observations Samarkand had been fixed, I easily ascertained the latitude of the place; and, intersecting it with the distance between the two cities, I also determined its longitude. Khojend, which is a considerable place, and has had many observations taken of its latitude, was fixed in like manner; that is to say, comparing the differences of the latitude of Khojend and Samarkand, as given by my several authorities, I found that they agreed very well, and I thus determined with considerable correctness, the latitude of Khojend to be 41° 5', and, by intersecting it with its distance from Samarkand, I made its longitude 66° 49'; for the longitudes, as given by geographers, differ so widely, that much confidence cannot be placed in them.
I should mention here, that some of my routes and Baber himself, always speak of Khojend as lying to the east of Samarkand. I do not, however, think that this should be taken in its strict sense, as the natives of the East express themselves always in a loose way with respect to the direction of a place, though in giving its distance they will be pretty correct. I consider, therefore, that in calling Khojend east of Samarkand, they merely mean, that it lies more to the cast, than it does to the north or south of that city. Now, there can be no doubt, from the concurrence of all geographers in giving about one and a half degree of difference, in the latitude of the two cities, that it cannot lie to the cast of Samarkand. On the other hand, the
circumstance that I have just mentioned, that Khojend is considered in all my authorities, as heing situated to the east or north-east of Samarkand, proves I think sufficiently, the incorrectness of the position given, almost universally, to Khojend in all preceding maps, which is due north, or nearly so, of Samarkand. I have one more argument in favour of the position I have given to Khojend. The town of Jizzakh, a place of considerable note, is well fixed by numerous routes from Bokhara and Samarkand. The whole of my routes make it project somewhat to the westward of a line drawn from Samarkand to Khojend, which it also does in the map, as now laid down; whereas, should Khojend be removed more to the north, Jizzakh would lie to the east, instead of the west of this line.
Having thus settled the position of Khojend, I proceeded to determine that of Kokan, and here I was necessitated to trust entirely to the two routes, which alone reached beyond Khojend, and which both agreed in placing it, as nearly as possible, in a line with that city and Samarkand. I had, I think, only one observation on Kokan, and that not much to be depended on; however, on account of its short distance from Khojend, it cannot be much misplaced.
The grand route from Samarkand to Kashghar, which has hitherto preserved nearly a north-easterly direction, now takes a sudden turn to the eastward, and, passing through Ferghana, crosses the lofty mountains which lie to the east of that country, and reaches Kashghar; its general direction being a little to the south of east, though, from the mountainous nature of the country, it makes occasionally considerable deviations from that line.
As it would have been folly to expect any considerable degree of correctness, in protracting so long a route from a point so uncertainly laid down as Kokan, I was obliged to assume a position for Kashghar from some of the oest authenticated maps; and then having two fixed points, at the extremities of the routes, I easily inserted them, and had the satisfaction of finding, that their length did not materially differ from the distance which I had already given in the map, between the two towns. One of the routes, written by Syed Izzet Ulla, a most intelligent traveller, enabled me, by the information it afforded respecting the surrounding country, to insert many towns and villages of Ferghana, besides those actually passed through in the journey. The other gave little more than the length of the stages and the names of the places through which it passed.
I had now completed an outline of the country to the north of Samarkand and Bokhara, and it will be sufficient to add, that it has been filled in from the information afforded by Baber's and Mr Elphinstone's description of the country, and from such particulars as could be gleaned from the accounts of Ebn Haukal, and other writers who have touched on the geography of these countries.
As I found, after availing myself of every piece of information which I could at all consider as correct, that the map was still so meagre and imperfect as, in many places, not to answer my chief object, the illustration of Baber's expeditions, it became necessary to insert many towns and some small rivers, as well as to complete the ranges of mountains, from very imperfect and doubtful authorities. The former I have distinguished by affixing an asterisk to their names; with respect to the latter, I shall distinguish what is doubtful, and what may be depended on, in a short account of the mountains and rivers contained in the map.
But before I proceed to this part of my Memoir, it will be proper to give some account of the method adopted in drawing the countries to the south of Samarkand and Bokhara. For the situation of all the grand points, I am indebted to a MS. map of Lieut. Macartney, corrected by the Honorable Mr Elphinstone, and, generally speaking, the whole of the intermediate towns, rivers, &c. have been inserted from the same authority. However, from having some routes which were not in existence at the time Mr Macartney constructed his map, I was enabled to make many corrections and additions. Particularly, in the journey between Bokhara and Balkh, I have inserted some villages, and a small river which runs into the Kohik river; I have plotted another route along the Amu river, which extends as far as Eljik, the western extremity of Bokhara; I have laid down two cross routes through the desert, one, from Karshi to Bushir on the Amu river; another, from Karshi through Kirki to Andkho. I also carefully compared such routes, as I believe must have been in Lieut. Macartney's possession, with his map, and had occasion sometimes to make slight alterations, though I never did so without a most careful examination, being well aware of the general accuracy of his works. One of the most considerable alterations which I have made, is placing Hezret Imam, the Karatigin river, and the route from Killa-Barat-Beg to Wiskirni, considerably more to the west than they stand in his map. My authority for so doing, was, on one side, a route which, coming up the Amu river, passes through Hezret Imam, and proceeds to Kundez. On the other side, this arrangement agrees remarkably well with the journey along the Amu through Badakshan, which joins the route between Killa-Barat-Beg and Wiskirni at a place called Yokatut. I have inserted a few additional towns or villages in Badakhshan on the banks of the Amu, as well as the streams which flow into that river from the southward. Amongst the former will be seen Shehr Derwaz the capital of Derwaz, which is inhabited by a fair and handsome race of people, calling themselves descendants of Alexander the Great. The limits and provinces of Bokhara, I was enabled to describe from the MS. accounts of that kingdom by Mr Elphinstone.
A SHORT ACCOUNT
MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS OF BOKHARA AND
The principal range which connects the lofty mountains of Hindukush and Muztagh, and which gives rise to the two most considerable rivers in the map, is the Belut-tagh, whose highest point appears to be the mountain of Pushtikhar, the source of the river Amu. From this spot till its junction with the Hindukush, the range is well laid down and described in Mr Elphinstone's Caubul, and it is quite unnecessary for me to say anything about it in this Memoir, a very small part only appearing in the map. That portion of the range which lies to the north of Pushtikhar, is what must now engage our attention; and, of this little seems to be known, except that it joins the Muz-tagh. It appears exceedingly probable, and has already been conjectured by Mr Elphinstone, that the mountains crossed by the route between Ferghana and Kashghar, are a continuation of this range. These mountains, when they reach the lat. of 42°, throw out a branch called the range of Minghulak, reaching to Tashkend, and, shortly after, either terminate or become so inconsiderable, as to form no obstacle to a free communication between Tashkend and Kashghar to the north of the Minghulak mountains. In long, about 71° and lat. about 41° 31' in the Belut-tagh, lies the real source of the Sirr or Seihun river; though what is usually considered as its source, is situated in the Minghulak mountains, considerably to the north-east, in long, about 70° and lat. 42° 81>. The Belut-tagh, in its progress from Pushtikhar to Muztagh, probably throws out many branches to the west, as the whole of the country in that direction is described as mountainous in the extreme. The only branch of the Belut-tagh, to the south of Pushtikhar, which is contained in the map, is the Badakhshan mountains, which have the effect of giving a north-westerly direction to the river Amu, during part of its course. The rivers which rise from the west of the Beluttagh, are the Sirr river, the Shiber, the Penj or Amu, and the Badakhshan river. Those to the east are the Kashghar river and the Kameh river.
The mountains which I shall next speak of, and which, from their magnitude, ought perhaps first to have engaged our attention, are the Asfera mountains, which I have also seen denominated the Pamere mountains. This range forms the southern boundary of Ferghana, and runs in a direction almost due east and west. From its latitude and