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lxviii ACCOUNT OF THE MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS
its peculiar nature, which is that of a very hroad chain of mountains rising from an elevated table land, there is little reason to doubt that it is a continuation of the Muztagh. The only considerable river to which this range gives rise on the south is, I believe, the Surkhab or Karatigin, which, according to Lieutenant Macartney, has a course of 180 miles to its junction with the river Amu. A large river runs into the Sirr near Kokan, dividing into two branches as it approaches that city, which, according to Lieutenant Macartney, comes from the Asfera mountains, and has a course of 70 miles before it joins the Sirr. It appears probable, that the river rising in the mountains between Kokan and Kashghar, which is said by Izzet Ullah to join the Sirr near Khojend, is the same as this Kokan river. The Asfera mountains extend from a long. of 71° to their termination near Khojend, and it is a strong evidence of their magnitude and impracticability, that the only communication between Bokhara and Ferghana, is by the pass of Khojend, between the extremity of this range and the river Sirr. All the mountains which now remain to be described proceed from this range.
I shall first notice the Ak-tagh, or White Mountains, which leave the Asfera mountains in long. 67° 30'. On approaching Uratippa they separate into two parts, the most westerly, which I can only trace as far as 63° 30' long., forming the northern boundary of the Valley of Soghd; whilst the other, which is the proper Ak-tagh, separates Bokhara from Yar-Ailak, and terminates in two divisions at Jizzakh and Jopar. This range has been laid down from the concurrent testimony of all my routes, as well as of Baber's accounts, and I feel, myself, great confidence in its correctness.
The next branch which proceeds from the Asfera'mountains, and which is much more considerable than the former, is the Kara-tagh or Black mountains. Of this range I have scarcely any information. All that appears to be certainly known of it is, that it proceeds from the Asfera mountains, from which it holds nearly a southerly direction, and that it is lofty and exceedingly rugged and precipitous. The celebrated pass of Derbend is situated in this range, which is the usual communication between Shehr Sebz and Hissar. Mr Erskine has suggested to me, since the construction of the map, that this range probably leaves the Asfera mountains near Khojend, and that the hills running from the north of Khojend to the Minghulak mountains, are a continuation of the range, through which the Sirr forces its way at the pass of Khojend. I am rather inclined, however, to prefer the position I have given to the northern part of this range in the map, as I can find, in my routes, no account of any such lofty mountains near Khojend, and, were I to insert them, they would leave no space for the length assigned to the Ak-Su and Khojend rivers, and would not agree with Baber's marches over the mountains from Asfera to Samarkand. The Kara-tagh gives rise to several rivers. The Kohik, the Shirabad river, the Hissar river, and the Cheghanian, are amongst the number. It will not be unseasonable here, to mention the great uncertainty which there is concerning the positions of Hissar and Cheghanian, and indeed respecting the whole country of Hissar; a circumstance peculiarly unfortunate, as it is the scene of many of Baber's exploits. The two above-mentioned cities have had many observations, but they differ so widely that no confidence can be placed in them. I have laid them down in the map from some routes in Ebn Ilaukal.
OF BOKHARA AND FERGHANA. lxix
The Samarkand mountains, which form the southern boundary of the Valley of Soghd, though I have not traced them beyond 66° of long., I have every reason to suppose, are a branch of the Kara-tagh. Were I to turn them to the north, they would intercept the Koliik river, the source of which is universally agreed to be situated at a great distance to the eastward in the mountains which lie towards Sirkul. The only river which rises from the Samarkand hills, is the Karshi river.
Much more might be said respecting the geography of these countries, but I have studied brevity as much as possible in this Memoir. For the same reason I have avoided giving any account of the political boundaries and divisions of Bokhara and Ferghana, a general idea of which may be formed from an inspection of the map. From what little I have said, it will be seen that the geography of these countries is still in a most imperfect state. I trust that the attempt I have made to give a tolerably correct delineation of them, though it must contain many and considerable errors, will be received with indulgence; particularly when it is considered that, of its northern portion, Ferghana, little more has appeared in preceding maps than the name. I have the satisfaction at least of knowing that its principal object, the illustration of the first part of Baber's Memoirs, has been in a great measure attained, and that whatever faults may hereafter be discovered in it, have not arisen from want of diligence, in the use and comparison of such materials as could be procured. The public already know what Mr Elphinstone has done for geography in his excellent map lately published with his description of Caubul. The greater part of the materials used in the construction of this map, have been supplied by his kindness. The only merit I can claim, is that of comparing these modern accounts with the particulars of the country already known, and committing the result to paper.
Tannah, December 29, 1816.
MEMOIRS OF BABER.
In the month of Ramzan,1 in the year eight hundred and ninety-nine, and in the Account of twelfth year of my age, I became King of Ferghana. Ferghana.
The country of Ferghana is situated in the fifth climate, on the extreme boundary of Boundam*. the habitable world. On the east, it has Kashgar; on the west, Samarkand; on the /
south, the hill-country on the confines of Badakhshan; on the north, although in former times there were cities such as Almaligh,2 Almatu, and Yangi, which is known in books of history by the name of Otrar; yet, at the present date, in consequence of the incursions of the Uzbeks, they are desolate, and no population remains.
Ferghana is a country of small extent, but abounding in grain and fruits; and it is surrounded with hills on all sides except on the west, towards Samarkand and Khojend, where there are none; and on that side alone can it be entered by foreign enemies. The river Seihun, which is generally known by the name of the river of Khojend, comes from the north-east, and after passing through this country, flows towards the west. It then runs on the north of Khojend and south of Finakat,3 which is now better known as Shahrokhia; and thence, inclining to the north, flows down towards Turkestan; and meeting with no other river in its course, is wholly swallowed up in the sandy desert considerably below Turkestan, and disappears.
In this country there are seven districts, five on the south of the Seihun, and two on the north.
Of the districts on the south of the river, one is Andejan, which has a central posi- Dirision». tion and is the capital of Ferghana. It abounds in grain and fruits, its grapes and me-' } n'
i The month of Ramzan, A.H. 899, begins on the 6th June, A.D. 1194. Thia was the year of Charles VIII.'s expedition to Naples.
* Almaligh or Almdlig, in Turki, signifies "a grove of apple trees." Almatu, in the same language, signifies "abounding in apples." Almaligh is a city which lies north-east from Kasan, on the other side of the Ala-tagh mountains. Otrar lies between Tashkend and the sea of Aral; and in the days of Taimur was a place of great note. He died there while preparing for his expedition against China.
1 Finakat is also called Bcnakat and Fiakat. It is situated on the Seihun or Sirr, between Tashken>t and Khojend. •
Ions arc excellent and plentiful. In the melon season it is not customary to sell them at the beds.1 There are no better Nashpatis2 produced than those of Andejan. In Maweralnaher, after the fortresses of Samarkand and Kesh, none is equal in size to Andejan. It has three gates. The citadel is situated on the south of the city. The water-courses of the mills by which the water enters the city, are nine ;3 and it is remarkable that of all the water that enters the city, none flows out of it. Around the fortress, on the edge of the stone-faced moat, is a broad highway covered with pebbles. All round the fort are the suburbs, which are only separated from the moat by this highway that runs along its banks.
The district abounds in birds and beasts of game. Its pheasants4 are so fat, that the report goes that four persons may dine on the broth5 of one of them, and not be able to finish it. The inhabitants of the country are all Turks, and there is none in^town or market who does not understand the Turki tongue. The common speech of the people of this country is the same as the correct language of composition, so that the works of Mir Ali Shir, sirnamed Nawai, though he was bred and flourished at Heri,6 are written in this dialect. The inhabitants are remarkable for their beauty. Khwajeh Yusef, so famous for his science in music, was a native of Andejan. The air is unwholesome,7 and in the autumn8 agues are prevalent. Ush. Another district is Ush, which is situated to the south-east of Andejan, but more to the east, and distant from Andejan four farsangs9 by the road. The air of Ush is excellent. It is abundantly supplied with running water, and is extremely pleasant in spring. The exellencies of Ush are celebrated even in the sacred traditions.10 On the south-east of the fort is a mountain of a beautiful figure, named Bara-koh, on the top of which Sultan Mah mud Khan built a small summer-house, beneath which, on the shoulder of the hill, in the year 902,u I built a larger palace and colonnade. Although the former is in the more elevated situation, yet that built by me is the more pleasant of the two; the whole town and suburbs are seen stretched out below. The river of Andejan, after passing through the suburbs of Ush, flows on towards Ande
1 t. c. Passengers eat them gratuitously.—Leyden.
s The Nashapti is a species of melon.
3 The Persian translations here differ—My copy reads, "Nine streams of water enter the fort, and it is singular that they do not all come from the same place."—Mr Metcalfe's copy reads, "And it is singular that they all issue from the same place."—A leaf of the Turki original is here unfortunately torn out, so that the text cannot be corrected from it , The original may perhaps be, " a stream of water large enough to turn nine mills," that being a Persian mode of describing the size of a stream; though tht reading of Mr Metcalfe's copy is admissible.
5 The broth here mentioned is called Ishkaneh, and i3 a sort of stew, or rather jelly broth.
8 The ancient name of Herat, whence probably the Aria of antiquity.
7 The Persian here differs, " The air is, however, corrupt, so that inflammations and swellings of the eyea are common; such as by physicians are called qerb." The chasm in Mr Elphinstone's Turki copy still continues.
9 The farsang may in general be taken at four English miles. It is the ancient parasanga
10 The Hadis.
11 About A.D. 1496-7.