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Calendar for the Year 1866.

SATURDAY.

MONDAY.
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY.
THURSDAY.
FRIDAY.

SATURDAY.
Com | SUNDAY.

VIII. Departmental Notices.

2195 Lemon, Kate,

2202 Russell, Mary Ann Agnes 2196 McNaught, Fanny (2016).

Blanche. 2197 Moore, Martha.

2203 Scarlett, Mary Elizabeth. PROVINCIAL CERTIFICATES GRANTED BY THE 2198 O'Brien, Rebecca.

2204 Stalker, Mary. CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION.

2199 Payne, Louisa.

2205 Tobias, Esther. The Chief Superintendent of Education, on the recommen

2200 Percival, Margaret.

2206 Worth, Jary Ann. 2201 Riddell, Mary.

2207 Young, Mary. dation of the Masters of the Normal School, and under the

EXPIRED CERTIFICATES. authority of the following section of the Upper Canada Consoli. dated Common School Act, 22 Victoria, chap. 64, has granted the nineteenth session, have been limited to one year from their respec

The certificates of the Second Class, Grade C, granted subsequently to to the undermentioned students of the Normal School, Provin- tive dates. Lists of certificates which expired before December, 1865, cial Certificates of Qualification as Common School Teachers in have already appeared in the Journal of Tiduca!ion, and the following any part of Upper Canada :

list comprises those which expired on the 22nd of that month : " 107. The Chief Saperintendent of Education, on the recommendation

MALES. of the Teachers in the Normal School, may give to any Teacher of Com- 1959 Duon, Robert.

1963 Johnson, Charles Richard. mon Schools a Certificate of Qualification, which shall be valid in any 1960 Eccles, Daniel.

1964 Jupp, William. part of Upper Canada until revoked; but no such certificate shall be 1961 Obtained and Class B. (2134). 1965 kichard, Alexander. given to any person who has not been a student in the Normal School." 1962 Jessop, Elisha.

1966 Richardson, Joshua John. The certificates are divided into classes, in harmony with the

FEMALES. general programme, according to which all teachers in Upper 2011 Oblained 1st Class C. [2070]. 2016 Oblained 2nd Class C. (2196). Canada are required to be examined and classified, and are valid 2012 Dodds, Margaret.

2017 McNaughien, Margaret. until revoked, or until the expiration of the time mentioned in 2014 Obtained 2nd Class C [2103]. 2019 Obtained 14 Class C. (21591;

2013 Henderson, Margaret Jane. 2018 Oblained 2.d Class C. (2109] the certificate.

2015 Oblained 2nd Class B. (2089). 1st Class B. (2076). Each certificate is numbered and recorded in the Register of

** A certificate bas no legal value after the date of its expiration. the Department, in the following order :

ALEXANDER MARLING, LL.B., THIRTY-FOURTH SESSION.-DATED 2280 DECEMBER, 1865. EDICATION OFFICE,

Registrar. Toronto, January, 1866. MALES. First Class.- Grade B.

2130 Armstrong, Thos Clinton Little 2111 Jackson, Thomas (2027]'.

2131 Croll, David. 2112 alcNaughten, Duncan (2034). 2132 Gage, William James.

2133 Gibbard, John. First Class.-Grade C. 2134 Gray, Samuel [1961]. 2113 Burrows, Frederick (1649).

2135 Hugging, John Routledge, 2114 Carscadden, Thomas (2040). 2136 Hughes, James.

18 66. 2137 Mark, Kenward.

1866. 2115 Dougla88, Wm. Alexander. 2116 Foreman, William [2042).

2138 Mundell, John. 2117 McLean, Daniel (2047). 2118 McLean, William Jenkinson.

Second Clas8.-Grade C. 2119 Meldrum, Norman Wm.[2061). (Expire 22nd December, 1866.)

JANUARY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 JULY

1 2120 Russell, James (2050). 2139 Beattie, William.

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 (31 days.)

(31 days). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2121 Tilley, William Edward. 2140 Bielby, William Wilson (813).

15 16 17 18 19 20 21

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2122 Whillans, Robert (2037). 2141 Clark, Robert. 2142 Davey, Peter Nicholas.

22 23 24 25 26 27 28

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Second Class-Grade A. 2143 Hendry, William John.

29 30 31

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2123 Bredin, Wilson Watson (1779). 2144 Hutton, Benjamin Lowe.

FEBRUARY
1 2 3 4

30 31
2124 Cooley, Robert.
2145 McEwen, Findlay.
(28 days). 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AUGUST

1 2 3 4 5 2125 Goldsmith, Stephen (2043). 2146 McGregor, John.

12 13 14 15 16 17 18! (31 days).

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2126 McFarlane, Archibald. 2147 McKellar, Archibald.

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2127 Ritchie, David Ferguson. 2148 McNair, Alexander [2063).

26 27 28

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2128 Smith, Peter (2051). 2149 Malcolm, Fullerton Boyd. MARCH

1 2 3 4

27 28 29 30 31 ... 2150 Pattison, Joseph Wilford.

(31 days). 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 SEPTEMBER... Second Class.--Grade B.

1 2 2151 Sharpe, Adam Middleton.

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

(30 days).

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2129 Adams, Richard. 2152 Snell, Elias Benson.

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

LO 11 12 13 14 15 16 FEMALES.

26 27 28 29 30 31

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 First Class.-Grade A. 2170 Black, Mary Elizabeth [2099]. APRIL .

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2153 Cameron, Annie Isabella [1811, 2171 Couzens, Emily.

(30 days). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 OCTOBER. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2172 Foster, Margaret Jane [2102). 1887, 1974, 2067].

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 (31 days).

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2154 ElliotMargaret (1901, 1975, 2173 Forster, Mary (2101).

16 17 18 19 20 21 22

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2069). 2174 Harris, Augusta Julia.

23 24 25 26 27 28 29

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 2155 Gillen, Mary.

2175!McCausland, Caroline Eliza-
beth.

30

29 30 31
First Class.-Grade B.
2176 Macniven, Susan [2104).

MAY
1 2 3 4 5 6 NOVEMBER

1 2 3 4 2156 Lanton, Emilie (2081). 2177 Medley, Emma.

(31 days), 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (30 days). 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2157 Spotton, Charlotte Elizabeth 2178 Nuthall, Phillis (2093).

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 (2074). 2179 O'Connell, Margaret (2106).

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2158 Sutherland, Annie Agnes[2010, 2180 Reed, Almeida Cordelia [2107].

28 29 30 31

26 27 28 29 30 2075]. 2181 Reynolds, Mary Ann [2108]. JUNE

1 2 3 DECEMBER

1 2 2159 Sutherland, Jemima Heleda 2182 Scales, Sophia Eliza.

(30 days). 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (31 days).

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [2019, 2076]. 2183 Sefton, Martha (2110).

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 First Class.-Grade C. 2184 Sutherland, Margaret.

18 19 20 21 22 23 24

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2160 Ferguson, Margaret [2079). 2185 Walker, Eliza Allan.

25 26 27 28 29 30

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2161 Gemmell, Jessie (1996, 2080). Second Class.-Grade O.

31. Second Class.- Orade A.

(Expire 22nd December, 1866.) 2162 Campbell, Mary (1812]. 2186 Baxter, Louisa.

NUMBER OF TEACHING DAYS IN 1866. 2163 Hatton, Emma.

2187 Bell, Emma Elizabeth, 2164 Kessack, Margaret (2090).

County Grammar Schools. 2188 Chambers, Elizabeth. 2165 Laing, Ellen. 2189 Comfort, Sara.

January

18 July 2166 Robinson, Annie (1595).

February 2190 Drury, Martha Jane.

15

20 August Sconnd Class-Grade B. 2191 Hamilton, Agnes Victoria. March

19 September

20 2167 Baldwin, Louise (1830). 2192 Hamilton, Jessio.

April
19 October..

23 2168 Bell, Sarah. 2193 Harbottle, Mary Ann. May

20 November..

21 2169 Bentley, Kate (2085). 2194 Lawrence, Fanny Helena. June

20 December

15 The figures in brackets indicate the number of a previous certificate obtained

Total ..... by the student named.

94

116 Total

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Terms, Vacations, Daily Exercises, and Holidays in the Grammar Schools 5. Onion Grammar and Common Schools are subject to the regulations of Upper Canada.

affecting bolidays and vacations in Grammar Schools. 1. There shall be four terms each year, to be designated the winter,

6. In order to enable the Educational Department to make an equitable spring, summer and autumn terms. The winter term shall begin the apportionment to Roman Catholic Separate Schools in city, towns, and vil. seventh of January, and end the Tuesday next before Easter; the spring lages where Union Grammar and Common Schools exist, it is necessary term shall begin the Wednesday after Easter, and close the last Friday in that both the Common and Separate Schools should observe the regulations June; the summer term shall begin the second Monday in August

, and end affecting holidays and vacations in Grammar Schools, as above. the Friday next before the fifteenth of October; the autumn term shall begin the Monday following the close of the summer term, and shall end

MOVABLE AND OTHER FESTIVALS. the twenty-second of December.

Circumcision.
Jan. 11 Easter Sunday

April 1 2. The exercises of the day shall not commence later than nine o'clock, Septuagesima Sunday ... Jan. 28 Rogation Sunday

May 6 a.m., nnd shall not exceed six bours in duration, exclusive of all the time Quinqnagesima Sunday.. Feb. 11 Ascension Day May 10 allowed at noon for recrention, and of vot more than ten minutes during Ash Wednesday Feb. 14 Whit Sunday... each forenoon and each asternoon. Nevertheless, a less number of hours of First Sunday in Lent

May 20 Feb. 18 Trinity Sunday

May 27 daily teaching may be determined upon in any Grammar School, at the

Palm Sunday...
Mar. 25 Advent Sunday

Dec. 2 option of the Board of Trustees.

Dec. 25 s Every Saturday shall be a holiday; or, if preferred by the Board of Good Friday

Mar. 30 Christmas Day Trustees and Head Master of any Grammar School, the afternoons of Wednesday and Saturday in each week shall be half holidays.

APPOINTMENT OF GRAMMAR SCHOOL TRUSTEES. 4. The public half yearly examinations required to be held in each Some misapprehension of the meaning of the second section of the regrammar school. [by the eighth clause of the twenty-fifth section of the cent Grammar School Act having given rise to erroneous artion on the Upper Canada Consolidated Grammar School Act) shall take place, the part of Municipal Councils, it seems vecessary to explain that the law does one immediately before the Christian holidays, and the other immediately but state that ihe first meeting of the Newly Elected Council shall appoint before the summer vacation,

the Grammar School Trustees. The “Corporatious" of Turns avd Vil. 5. Any teacher of a Grammar or Common School shall be entitled to five lages, and the "Councils" of Counties and Cities, are the terms mentioned of the ordinary school-teaching days of each year to be selected by such in the act; and as obese corporations have a continuous existence, the law teacher, for the purpose of visiting and observing the methods of classifi. intends that the first meeting in January, whether of the old or new coudcation, ieaching and discipline practised in other schools than that in which cil, should appoint the Grammar School Trustees. The Board of Grammar he or she teaches.

School Trustees in cities may consist of eight members, but in towns and

villages they cannot exeeed six. Teaching Days in Common and Separate Schools. January 22 July ...

22 STANDARD BRITISH PERIODICALS. February 20 August

13 March 21 September

20

THE LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW (Conservative.) April . 21 October..

THE EDINBURGH REVIEW (Whig.)

23 22 November.. May

THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW (Radical.)

22 June 21 | December

THE NORTH BRITISH REVIEW (Free. Church.) and 15

BLACKWOOD'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE (Tory.) Total 127 Total .......

115

Terms for 1866, payable in U.S. currency. N. B.-In Cities, Towns, and Villages, Common and Separate Schools For any one of the Reviews .

$4.00 per annum. have only three teaching days in August: and where the common and For any two of the Reviews

7.00 Grammar Schools are united, the Grammar School terms and regulations For any three of the Reviews

10.00 apply to both.

For all four of the Reviews.

12.00 For Blackwood's Magazine...

4.00 Hours of Daily Teaching, Holidays, and Vacations.

For Blackwood and one Review

7.00 1. The hours of teaching each day shall not exceed sir, exclusive of all For Blackwood and any two of the Reviews

10.00 the time allowed at noon for recreation. Nevertheless, a less number of For Blackwood and three of the Reviews

13.00 hours for daily teaching may be determined upon in any school, at the For Blackwood and the four Reviews ...

15.00 option of the trustees.

CLUBS : 2. Good Friday shall be a holiday, and every Saturday as directed by

A discount of twenty per cent, will be allowed to clubs of four or more the statute, 3. There shall be tano vacations in each year; the first, or summer vaca

persons. Thus, four copies of Blackwood, or of one Review, will be sent tion, shall continue for two weeks from the First Monday in August; the for $48.00, and so on.

to one address for $12.80. Four copies of the four Reviews and Blackwood, second, for eight days, at Christmas.

POSTAGE. Note- In cities, tovons, and incorporated villages, the summer vacation shall continue four weeks, from the first Monday in August

. (See also but Twenty-four Cents a year for Blackwood," and but Eight Cents a year

When sent by mail, the Postage to any part of the United States will be paragraph 4 of ihe Grammar School Terms, Vacations, &c.)

for each of the Reviews. Subscribers in the British Provinces will 4. All agreements between trustees and teachers shall be subject to the have their Numbers free of the United States postage. foregoing regulations; and no teacher shall be deprived of any part of his

Reduced Prices for Previous Years. salary on account of observing allowed holidays and vacations. 2

Subscribers may obtain the Reprints immediately preceding 1806, as foli It should be observed, that the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth sec

lows, viz:-Blackwood from September, 1864, to December, 1865, inclusive, tions of the Upper Canada Consolidated Grammar School Act, empower at the rate of $2.50 a year. The North British from January, 1863, to Boards of Trustees to prescribe any duties, or make regulations, in connec

December, 1865, inclusive; the Edinburgh and the Westminster from tion with their respective schools, which are not provided for by, or are

April, 1864, to December, 1865, inclusive, and the London Quarterly for not inconsistent with, the general regulations prescribed by the Council of the year 1865, at the rate of $1.50 a year for each or any Review. Public Instruction, and approved of by the Governor General in Council.

A few copies yet remain of all the Four Reviews for 1863 at $4.00 2 No deduction whatever can be lawfully made from any teacher's sal- a set, or $1.50 for any one. LEONARD SCOTT & CO., PUBLISHERS, ary for any allowed holidays or vacations ; or for the exemption of pay.

38 Walker Street, N. Y. ment of rates by indigent persons, authorized by law.

N. B.—These Periodicals can be ordered from Messrs. W. C. CHEWETT 3 This regnlation applies to union grammar and common schools, as Co., Toronto, at the old rates in Canada currency. the law provides for the union of common schools with grammar schools not the union of the latter with the former. In all cases, therefore, in

L. S. & Co. also publish the “FARMER'S GUIDE," by HENRY STZwhich common schools are united with the grammar schools, the union puens, of Edinburgh, and the late J. P. Nonton, of Yale College. 2 vols. schools are subjected to the regulations which are bere prescribed in Royal Octavo, 1600 pages, and numerous Engravings. respect to grammar schools.

Price $7.00 for the two volumes—by Mail, post paid, $8.00. 4 Each Grammar and Common School Master and Teacher must give at least one week's notice to the Trustees; and, in addition, the Grammar line, which may be remitted in postage stamps, or otherwise.

ADVERTISEMENTS inserted in the Journal of Education for 20 cents per School Master must communicate with the Educational Department, so that he may not be absent during the visits of the Inspector to his School. back vols., neatly stitched, supplied on the same terms. Allsubscriptions

TERMS: For a single copy of the Journalof Education, $1 perandum, In order that no loss of apportionment may accrue to any school in consequence of the Master's absence under this regulation, a proportionate in all cases accompany the order. Single numbers, 10 cents each.

to commence with the January Number, and payment in advance must amount of average attendance will be credited to the school for the time 80 employed by the teacher; but under no circumstances can lost time be

All communications to be addressed to J. GEORG2 Kopoint, LL.E.

Education Office, Toronto. lawfully made up by teaching on any of the prescribed holidays or half holidays, nor will such time be reckoned by the Department,

LOVELL AND GIBSON, PRINTERB, YONGE STREET, TORONTO.

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CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER:

PAOB

In 1816—now fifty years ago, and nine years after District I. PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA...

17 (Grammar) Schools were established-provision was first made II. AMENDMENTS TO UPPER CANADA SCHOOL LAW.-(1)

The Chief Super. intendent's Convention. (2) School Conventions in Upper Canada. (3) by the legislature for the support and maintenance of Common Compulsory Education in Upper Canada. (4) Local Superintendant's an Important Office. (5) McNab's Magistrate's Manual for Upper Schools in Upper Canada : $24,000 per annum were voted for Canada: Arson of School Houses, &c.; Embezzlement by Trustees ; Offences by Assessors; Offences relating to Schools............

18

this purpose. Even this grant was, in 1820, reduced to the III. EDUCATION OF FARMERS.-(1) Necessity for Educated Farmers in Canada. (2) Agricultural Chemistry in our Public Schools.........

pittance of $10,000 per annum; and this small sum continued IV. CORRESPONDENCE ON SUBJECTS OF INSTRUCTION.-(1) Remarks on to be the entire parliamentary grant in aid of Common Schools

Grammar. (2) How to Teach Spelling. (3) Writing for those who can Write

22 until 1833, when it was raised to treble that amount. From V. PAPERS ON PRACTICAL EDUCATION.-(1) Admirable Suggestions for Teachers.........

1833 until 1840, the grant fluctuated between $30,000 and

24 VI. PRIZE SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF CANADA...

25 $35,000. No life, however, animated the system, and the peoVII. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.–No. 9. Admiral Baldwin, R.N. 10. George Boomer, Esq. 11. Mr. David Wilson. 12. Rov. Father Tellier. 13.

ple themselves evinced little interest in it, and contributed as Chief Justice Parker. 14. The King of Belgium. 15. Rev. Dr. Wayland. 27 small a sum as possible for its support. In 1836, an effort was VIII. PAPERS ON COLONIAL SUBJECTS.-(1) Sir Morton Peto on Canada. (2)

Statistics of the British Colonies, 1861-1863. (3) Canadian Statistics. made to revivify the old system, and to endow it with an annual

(A) Art in the Back-woods. (5) The French Acadians .... IX. PAPERS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.-(1) Across the Red River and grant of $60,000; but the eventful crisis of 1837–8 so dwarfed

Rocky Mountains. (2) The Source of the Nile......
X. MISCELLANEOUS.-(1) Winter. (2) The Coronation of Winter. (3)

every other question into insignificance except that of our very Liberty of the Press in Russia. (4) British Periodical Literature. political existence as a British province, that nothing was done.

Sunday Magazine
XI. DEPARTMENTAL NOTICES.--Common School Manual for Upper Canada.
No Pensions to Common School Teachers unless they Subscribe to the

In 1840–1, the turning point was, however, reached ; and the
Fund. Postage Regulation in regard to Grammar and Common Sohool
Returns. School Registers supplied through Local Superintendents...

first United Legislature of Canada passed an Act in 1841, establishing a definite system of Common School education for the

whole province, and endowing it with the then munificent sum of PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA.

$200,000 per annum- the proportion of which, coming to In connection with the County School Conventions, now being Upper Canada, was only $80,000. In 1845, the proportion of so successfully held by the Chief Superintendent throughout the Upper Canada share was increased to $84,000. It remained Upper Canada, it may not be uninteresting to take a brief glance at this sum until 1851, when it was again divided-giving Upper at the progress which the school system has made since its first Canada $100,000. In 1853, and subsequently, it has been establishment in the Province.

divided according to the ratio of population in Upper and Lower The great interest which has been displayed at these Educa-Canada. tional Conventions is a gratifying proof of the vitality of the The School Act of 1841 first embodied the important princischool system, and shows how fully alive the people are to the ple of self-imposed taxation by the municipalities in aid of practical importance of the questions affecting the schools which common Schools, as a condition of receiving a share of the have been brought before them. The discussions thus far have Legislative School Grant. In 1843, the School Law underwent more than realized the expectations of the Department; while some amendment in its details ; and in the following year the the ability and good feeling which has been generally displayed Rev. Dr. Ryerson-present head of the Educational Departin the discussions afford a good guarantee that any change in ment—was appointed by His Excellency the Governor General. the working of our school system will be considered on its own Changes and various amendments were made in the law as it merits, apart from political or personal feeling.

then stood, in 1843, 1846, 1847, and 1849. In 1850, however, The twenty-five years during which a system of public school a comprehensive School Act, was drafted by the Chief Supereducation has been in operation in Upper Canada, have been intendent. That Act (amended in 1853 and 1860) is still the marked by great and important changes—many of which have law of the land, and is the basis of our present school system. received the sanction of School Conventions in former years. As an evidence of our educational growth during the last These changes we propose briefly to review, so as to see what twenty-one years, it may be interesting to see from the following actual progress we have been making during the last quarter of summary table the progress which the school system has made a century.

during that time :

1844.

1850.

1855.

1860.

1864.

STATISTICS of Common Schools in Upper Canada, for a period of causing the tax for educational purposes to be upon the whole more

twenty-one years, showing the Total Amounts under the follow- equable, less direct, and therefore less oppressive. " Commising sub-headings, for the years 1844, 1850, 1855, 1860, 1864, sioners," as they are called, are deputed from the board to visit each and 186).

school. They make regular reports, and upon their recommendation changes, &c. are made. It would seem, however, that notwith

standing the beauty and regularity of the system, the permanency To 31st DECEMBER.

1865,

of teachers situations is not thereby secured, particularly in country

districts. But this arisos principally from the fact, that persons Population of Upper Ca.

without any aptitude or regular training for the profession, engage nada between 5 and 16 183,589 259,258 297,623 873,589 424,565 440,800 in teaching for a season or two, without any intention to follow it Total Common Schools in operation....

as a means of livelihood. This is not, however the case in the 2,610 3,059 3,325 3,969

+4,350

4,224 Total Common School

towns. There, teachers are as permanently situated as they are pupils

96,756 151,891 227,854 315,812 371,095 +385,800 anywhere in the world. We believe, however, that if the system Total Salaries of Com

mon School teachers., $ 206,856 $ 353,716 $ 680,108 $ 895,691 $ 896,956861,008,066 proposed by the Chief Superintendent were introduced into this Total amount expended

Province, a great deal of positive good would ensue. There is no for C. S. purposes $+295,897 $ 410,472 899,272 $1,159,774 $1,295,318 $+1,330,608 doubt but that it would render the position of the teacher more setTotal amount expended

for Educa'al purposes $ 1382,518 S+591,765 $1,155,992 $1,448,448 $1,636,979 $t1,680,609 tled than it is at present, inasmuch as his salary, which now comes Total Common School

directly from the pockets of the farmers by so direct a taxation, that Teachers in U.O. 12,890 3,476 3,565 4,281 4,625 14,813 Gross number of Library

it may be called a species of partition, would in the event of the Books sent out up to...

117,292 186,761 208,483 212,423 above mentioned system being introduced, be paid by a township Gross number of Prize Books sent out up to...

42,885 165,847 211,655

treasurer, through an order of the “Commissioner" upon him, some*Total amount expended

what like the order given by the Local Superintendent to teachers for Libraries, Prizes,

upon the functionary here. The farmers not directly feeling the Maps and Apparatus, including 100 per cent. $ 65,973 $ 177,052 $ 251,352 $ +285,716 tax, would be more content to keep the teacher, or at least could

not get rid of him as easily as they do at present, should he by any II. Amendments to Apper Canada School Law. unpleasant duties. The nomadic character of the great bulk of

means displease them through the irksome exercise of some of his

Canadian teachers would thus be somewhat checked by the intro1. THE CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT'S CONVENTION. duction of this system and a corresponding boon to education would

naturally follow by the schools being better conducted, by the imThe Rev. Dr. Ryerson's speech at Brantford on Friday evening, the partment of sounder and more extensive instruction, the teacher 19th ult., whilst it does honor to his own head and heart, has inspired being allowed time through the comparative permanency of his enall those who heard him with an enthusiasm in the cause of educa- gagement, to study the temper, the talents and the bias of his pupils. tion which will not be soon forgotten. Judging from this, his tour No fouler blot could exist in any system than that which mars the through Canada West must, it is obvious, be attended by many ad- face of our much lauded school law; and it savors somewhat of vantages in an educational, as well as a moral point of view. It fatuity to be eternally shouting loud pæans in its favor as long as will have the effect of rousing the dormant energies of an otherwise the law permits the teachers of Canada, like Bedouins of the desert, very active and very clever people, and of directing them into a or like the Tartars of the central plateau of Asia to migrate from one channel vitally important to their best interests, and consequently locality to another at certain seasons of the year. This disgrace to to their lasting happiness. Among the other advantages arising from the law, as well as to the country at large, may be easily prevented Dr. Ryerson's tour through Canada West, besides eliciting the by means within the reach of even the present existing statute. opinions of the people, respecting the working of the school law, Would it not be easy for the legislature to insist that none of the there will arise earnest and anxious discussions as to the best mode money granted for school purposes should reach that section in of dealing with questions intimately connected with the usefulness which the same teacher was not engaged for at least one year. and efficacy of said law when applied to the growing emergencies Something like this is adopted in England, in practice at least. No that spring from a state of society rapidly tending to opulence and teacher there would be granted the salary arising from his certificate artificiality. Those discussions will at length concentrate into two of merit, unless he spent at least a year in the same school ; but on or three leading theories, which will be usefully applied either in the contrary, no aid would be granted to the school itself unless it framing a new school law, or in materially pruning from the present was in a satisfactory state, and that the efficiency of the pupils were its deforming excrescences, or in adding to it prominent features up to the standard marked out by the law, as the result of a year's which have been eminently successful when tried elsewhere.

instruction. This plan mutually renders it the interest of the teachThe Chief Superintendent, both in his circular and in his several er to remain in the same school for at least a year, while it places a Convention speeches, directs the attention of the country to two or pressure upon the local committee to have as little change as possible, three leading points of great importance, and worthy of deep and or they would be otherwise very probably deprived of the Govern serious consideration, before they should, even greatly modified, be ment aid from the Committee of Council on Education. The result ingrafted upon our present system of education. The fact is, would is that changes occur very seldom in the English schools. True, the it not be better to centralize, and therefore greatly extend our present certificated master holds a very respectable position. Virulence, school sections, by constituting the township Council the Board of spite and revenge can never reach him, provided he performs his School Trustees for the whole township, with power to appoint duty honestly and honorably. What a contrast between the Engvisitors for each school in the township? The second is, “Whether lish school law, with its almost complete machinery of inspectors, each municipal Council should not be invested with power to bring teachers, pupils, certificated teachers, &c., of which you scarcely to account or punish by fine or requiring to work on the roads, parents ever hear one word of praise, and our school law in Canada, belauded who do not send their children, between seven and fifteen years of as it is to the clouds. We are confident that Dr. Ryerson's plan age, to some school, at least four months in the year.” The third is, would bring about one good result at least ; and this result would that in consequence of the irregularity which the Chief Superin- more than counterbalance any evils of less importance that may foltendent states are to be found in connection with the County board low in its train. We have again reference to the comparatively of public instruction in their examination of candidates for certifi- permanent location of the teachers—and for this object alone it is cates, he proposes to have a central board appointed for framing a worth an honest trial. The township board not being connected uniform set of questions for all the County Boards of Public Instruc- with any school section in particular, might render its influence over tion, and that these questions would be all sent to them against a the schools under its jurisdiction as complete and as perfect as poscertain day, upon which there would be a general examination sible, not through the instrumentality of “visitors," as Dr. Ryerthroughout the Province of candidates seeking for County Board son suggests

, but through a still more powerful influence, namely: certificates to empower them to teach, not within each County res- the appointment of an executive officer, somewhat similar in characpectively, but generally throughout the Province.

ter to a sub-inspector, whose duty it would be to report to the townWith regard to the first important point, as briefly stated above, ship board all matters affecting the schools under its jurisdiction, to the Chief Superintendent would, it seems, favor the idea there in- assist with advice, &c., the teachers engaged in said schools ; to orculcated, namely : that the present school sections should be abolishganize new schools ; to be constantly engaged in examining, teached, and the present township Council invested with the powers of a ing, or introducing new systems of education into each and all of school board over all the schools in the township. The plan is the schools within said jurisdiction. It is obvious that the person adopted in several states in the Union.

It is uniform in its working, known to be skilful, successful, and perfectly au-fait in his profes

so appointed should be a practical common school teacher, well • This does not include maps, apparatus or books purchased elsewhere than at sion. His whole time should be employed in the work, and where the Educational Depository.

it would come too expensive (we deny that it would) for one town† An approximate estimate.

ship board to employ such a person, two could unito, and not more.

The County Council, to render the County inspectorial system per- to make all needful provisions and arrangements concerning habitual fect, would be called upon, as it has even the power by law now to tenants, and children not attending school without any regular or do, to appoint a County inspector with duties in connection with the lawful occupation, growing up in ignorance, between the ages of six County Council similar to those of the sub-inspector in connection and fifteen years : and also, all such ordinances and by-laws respectwith the township boards, but with more extensive powers, super- ing such children as shall be deemed most conducive to their welvising over one superintending the whole. He should also be a com- fare and the good order of such city or town ; and there shall be anmon school teacher, of high celebrity in the County as one, and of nexed to such ordinances suitable penalties, not exceeding for any at least fifteen years' experience in his profession.

one breach a fine of twenty dollars." And in order to carry out this The Department of Education in Toronto should be empowered provision, it is made the duty of the authorities to appoint annually to create four head inspectors at least to represent the legislative three or more persons, who alone are authorized to make complaints school fund, with duties in connection with the department similar for any violation of the law, and carry out the decisions of Justices to those of the County inspectors, but of course with powers more of the Peace in cases of the imposition of penalties. And the Jusextensive. They alone should be empowered to grant Provincial tices before whom an offender is brought are vested with authority, certificates, holding examinations for this purpose in central situa- instead of imposing a fine upon the parent, “to order children proved tions twice every year. The County inspector and sub-inspectors before them to be growing up in truancy, and without the benefit of each County would of course form a county Board of public in- of education provided for them by law, to be placed for such period struction, with power to grant County Board certificates. Or a of time as they may judge expedient, in such institution of instrucplan might at once be adopted for granting Provincial certificates to tion, or house of reformation, or other suitable situation, as may be all competent teachers, and obliterate for evermore the distinction assigned or provided for the purpose in each city or town” availing between Provincial and County Board certificates. It is this : let itself of the provisions of the Act. And this power has been taken the Province for this and inspectorial purposes be divided into as advantage of by many of the municipalities, and incorporated into many districts as there are head-inspectors ; let each head-inspector, their municipal codes. In Boston, for instance, children whose accompanied by the County inspector of said district, meet at some parents are dead, or if living, neglect to send them to school, may central place within the district, and there hold an examination for be sent by the Court to the House of Reformation. In addition to the purpose of granting certificates good for the whole Province. this House of Reformation, there has been established under a reThose who would be unable to obtain certificates in this way should cent Act, a State Reform School where children whose parents igattend the Norman School ; and in every case the latter would be nore their duty towards them are "instructed in piety and morality, the most preferable method, if it would suit the convenience of all. and in such branches of useful knowledge as shall be adapted to Should this or some similar inspectorial system be adduced, there is their age and capacity," and from which they may be borne out to no doubt but that the educational interests of the country would some trade. receive an impetus that would soon place the country, in point of Analogous to these institutions are the House of Reformation for intelligence and virtue, in a position that would compare favourably juvenile delinquents in New York, and the House of Refuge in with any other at present in existence.-Brantford Courier. Philadelphia. In both of these are excellent schools, where those

who would otherwise grow up in crime, are instructed in such know

ledge as should tend to make them useful citizens. But all these 2. SCHOOL CONVENTIONS IN UPPER CANADA. institutions imply that in cities at least some similar machinery is At the School Conventions Rev. Dr. Ryerson proposes doing We believe that, as a matter of economy, it would be much cheaper

necessary before a system of compulsory education can be enforced. away with the school sections altogether, and leaving the manage to erect them than to permit the children of the vicious and ment of matters with some Board having jurisdiction over a whole depraved to grow up in ignorance and in association with crime. Township. As an argument in favor of this, he contends that it As we have said, the subject is one of immense importance in our would do away with much of the petty, quarreling and prejudice school system ; and we have no doubt that in the convention which now prevalent. As far as this proposal is concerned, we must say is to be held to-day it will secure that consideration to which it is so that we most decidedly favor it, since it will be apt to secure one fully entitled.-Hamilton Spectator. great boon, the permanency of a teacher's position. That unfortuDate individual is now subject to the caprices and

whims of every parent whose children are under his tuition. With the power 4. LOCAL SUPERINTENDENT'S AN IMPORTANT OFFICE. centralized, these whims will have to have more than a shadowy foundation before they can be exercised in such a way as to injure and doubtless also the recurrence of the period of the year when

The letter of the Hon. Billa Flint in a recent issue of the Review, the teacher. Another advantage that would arise from this is that the salaries would be equalized, and more system established in the the public mind for a re-opening of the question as to the propriety

county and township appointments to office are made, have prepared manner of payment. - Picton North American.

or otherwise of appointing a Local Superintendent of Schools for

the county, or one for each section of the county, instead of for the 3. COMPULSORY EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA.

municipalities singly, as has heretofore been the rule. The idea is

rapidly gaining ground that such a change would be highly benefiWe promised to-day to notice the methods adopted in some of the cial, and the experience of neighboring connties who have adopted States of the neighboring republic, to secure the attendance, for at the plan of County Superintendents would seem to be in its favor.-least a portion of every year, of all the children of the State.' May. There are two leading causes to the growing dissatisfaction with the hew, in his interesting work on popular education, gives a resume present system. The first is the difficulty, in many municipalities, of these, and to it we are indebted for the facts which we to-day of finding a suitable man, although aspirants for the office may be present to our readers. In some of the States of Europe the laws numerous ; and the second is owing to the fact that the supervision in this respect are exceedingly stringent. In Prussia, for instance, of the schools of a single township is not enough to occupy more when a parent refuses without satisfactory excuse, to send his than a passing share of attention, and being only a secondary duty, child to school, for the time required by law, he is called before to be attended to in the intervals of some leading and more enthe Court, tried, and if he refuses compliance, the child is taken grossing pursuit, it can hardly be expected to be entered into with from him and sent to school, and the parent to prison. This is the zeal and pursued with the devotion which its importance reprobably the extreme limit to which the power of the State could quires. go, and it is very doubtful if the spirit of the people of this country Two visits in the year to each school is the number which the would submit to a law of this kind. It is similar to the laws which law requires ; and as usually only two schools, and in many cases but prevailed a couple of centuries ago in the New England colonies. one, can be visited, and the pupils examined, in a single day, inThe following curious passage occurs in the Massachusetts Colony volving probably many miles of travel, the sum of four dollars for Laws of 1642 :-"Forasmuch as the good education of children is each school per year—the highest paid in this county--can by no “of singupar behoof and benefit to any commonwealth, and whereas means be regarded as munificent remuneration, especially when it is “many parents and masters are indolent and negligent in their remembered that many additional days are spent in receiving and

duty in that kind, it is ordered that the selectmen of every town examining reports, apportioning moneys, and annually preparing

in the several precincts and quarters, where they dwell, shall have from very inaccurate data a full report to the Educational Depart"a vigilant eye over their brethren and neighbors, to see, first, that ment; to say nothing of a lecture anticipated at least once a year in “none of them shall suffer so much barbarism in any of their fami- every school section, for all of which the aforementioned sum is “ lies as not to teach by themselves or others, their children and presumed to be an adequate equivalent. Can it be wondered at that “ apprentices so much learning as may enable them perfectly to read public duties thus brought into competition, and sometimes into “the English tongue, and knowledge of the capital laws, upon pen-collision, with private interests and a man's main pursuit in life, “alty of twenty shillings for each neglect therein."

should under these circumstances be pushed into the shade, and in According to the statutes of Massachusetts of 1850, each of the time come to be treated as secondary instead as of paramount imseveral cities and towns in that State is "authorised and empowered portance ?

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