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to have the water conveyed through the leaden pipes up through The company of One Hundred Associates was formed in 1827. To it the many stories of the houses, and then asks—' Is it so all over was entrusted the Viceroyalty of Canada. Afterwards, the fur trade was London ♡ "Yes.' Do the plumbers do all this work? How much transferred to the West India Company, in 1664. Their charter was rohard labor of carrying water it must save,' and raising her hands, as if in astonishment, exclaims, "What a useful man your father must voked, ten years after, because it did not perform its engagements. In be.' Maggie's little bosom now swells with pride for the first time 1659, a royal government was established at Quebec. DeMesy was the with the thought that her father was somebody, and that God had first royal governor; be came out in 1663. The establishment of a royal something for him to do. The other children are treated in a government induced those in power to make many reforms. A sovereign similar manner. The father of one is a tailor, of the next a baker, council was invested with the administrative and judicatory powers. The of the next a carman ; and thus she goes on showing that God has a right of taxation was alone withheld ; that was rescrved for the King of very important work for them all, and we could not do without
France. them. They had never heard so much of God before as in this lesson. She now brings the subject still nearer home to them by sim
The Marquis de Tracy came out as resident Viceroy, in 1665, accompaplifying and repeating. "Simplify and repeat is the greatest max nied by DeCourcelles, as Governor; and Talon, as Intendant. DeTracy im of one of the greatest teachers in the world. "Now, Maggie concluded a treaty with the Indians, which lasted for 18 years. The fur Ryan, what has God for you to do?' 'Nothing.' 'What? when trade was the cause of continual quarrelling between the English and your mother rolls up her sleeves and goes to washing, what do you French, as they both wished to have the exclusive right of traffic with tho do ? 'Nothing but mind the baby.' But is not that a great help Ingians. to your mother? How could she do without you ? After repeating the lesson, she concludes by telling them the story of the Tyro
Frontenac was sent out as governor, in 1672 ; but he was not invested with lese mother, and her poor crippled son, Hans, who was ever com- royal powers until 1674, when the charter of the West India Company was plaining that he was of no use in the world, and was wishing that revoked. Frontenac was sent home in 1682, on account of quarrels with the he might be taken away. The mother's reply was "God has a plan members of his council. He was succeeded by De la Barre, a nap totally for every man, and he gives every man something to do.' But poor unfit to govern. He was followed by DeDenonville, in 1685. The new Hans could not see that there was anything for him to do. One day governor arrived at a critical juncture, as the Iroquois and their allies, tho he had gone out a short distance, and sitting down to rest, he fell asleep and did not wake till after dark. The peaceful inhabitants English were encroaching more and more on the French territory, ho took of the valley were daily expecting an invasion from the French, and steps to protect the trading monopoly of the people. In order to overawe had built piles of combustible material on various mountains, sta- the Iroquois he determined to strengthen lis forts and inake active retioning a watchman at each pile to give the alarm to the inhabitants prisals both on the English and Iroquois. At one time they made war by setting it on fire, and thus allow them time to escape. Hans upon the Indians, desolated their villages, made treaties with them, but discovered a French soldier on an opposite cliff, and then another, everything was powerless. The English, with the Iroquois, kept steadily and another. The watchman had left the pile that was nearest to where Hans lay ; could he olimb to it and give the alarm | He made advancing northward and westward towards the great lakes until they nt the effort and succeeded. The flame rose; the other beacons were length threw up a fort at Oswego. The hatred of the Iroquois to the instantly lighted, and the intelligence was conveyed through the French colody was increased by the treacherous seizure of some of their whole valley, by which the inhabitants were saved. Poor Hans was chiefs, who were sent to man the French galleys; although they were after. discovered by å French soldier as he was trying to make good his wards sent back it was never forgotten, and eventually led to the massacre escape, and was shot in the back, but he lived long enough to know of Lachine. Negociations for a peace was at length opened with the Iro. that God had made him the saviour of his country, and that through quois, but through their dislike to the French, the dispute was prolongedl; his patriotic efforts a pension was settled on his mother for life.'
and through the treachery of the Hurons bostilities were again renewed.
Louis 14th, in order to aid James 2nd in recovering the throne from Wil. VI. Lrize Sketelt of the History of Canada. liam 3rd, the Prince of Orange, declared war against Great Britain and
her colonies, and thus increased the peril of the French colony very much.
At this time the Iroquois appeared suddenly near Montreal, and in August BY MISS NELLIE ROSS, OF THE BARRIE COMMON SCHOOLS.
1680, massacred the entire population at Lachine. The following sketch of the History of Canada received the first prize at the recent examinations of the Barrie Common Schools. It was adjudged by
DeDenonville and the inhabitants were so panic-stricken that the Indiane, the Rev. Mr. Checkley, Master of the Barrie Grammar School, and late Rec. for ten weeks, passed through the country, leaving death and ruin behind tor of the Model Grammar School, Toronto. We publish it as a praiseworthy them. It was at this critical period that Frontenac was again sent out. effort to promote the study of the history of our own country in our public He resolved, at once, to carry war into the English colonies. The Hudson schools. The competitors were all girls. The second-best essay was writ- Bay and New England settlements were successfully attacked. The French ten by Miss Jane Saunders.
and Hurons penetrated to Schedactady in 1690, burned the town and massa.
cred the inhabitants. He worked with such vigour that little harm was The number of expeditions undertaken by Spain aroused the ambition done by the Iroquois to the French settlements. The English fitted out of the French admiral, who represented to Francis I., of France, the pro- two expeditions ngainst the French colonies, but neither accomplished anypriety of sending out a French expedition, to establish a colony in the thing. In 1693, Frontenac compelled the Iroquois to desist and compara. New World that bad been discovered in 1492. He recommended to the tive peace was restored to the settlements. In 1694 he determined to king, Jacques Cartier, to take the command of the enterprise. The send- humble them by invading their territory-he was partly successful. In ing out of a French expedition was objected to by the Kings of Portugal | 1697, the treaty of Kyswick brought this war to a cloge. France agreed and Spain, as they had been first in the field; but, Francis, on bearing of to give up all the places taken by her during the war, and commissioners their objections, replied: “I should like to see the clause in father Adam's were appointed to set the boundaries. The following year Frontenac died will which bequeathed-to my royal brothers alone so vast a heritage." at Quebec, much regretted by the people. Frontenac was succeeded by
Cartier discovered Canada on his second voyage, iu 1535. In 1540, Ro- DeCallieres in 1698; he imitated Frontenac in his zeal to protect the best berval was appointed Viceroy of Canada, and came out in 1542. On his interests of the colony. During his administration Detroit and Louisanna secoud voyage, in 1549, he and his brother, together with the crew, were lost. were settled; he died in 1703, and was succeeded by Vaudreuil, when the This put an end to all endeavours, by the French, for more than fifty years. contests between the colonies were renewed. A large force was collected
The merchants of Rouen, Dieppe, St. Malo, and Rochelle formed a ccm. by the English to take Quebec; the scheme was abandoned, but on receive pany, and sent out Champlain as their agent, in 1603, to prosecute the ing reinforcements from England, they took Acadia. In 1710, the follow. traffic with the Indians, for furs. In 1608, Quebec, the capital of Canada, ing year, they again attacked Quebec unsuccessfully, when the forces was founded by Champlain. It was the first French settlement in Canada. were distributed along the frontier. This war was brought to a close by It was taken by the Ecglich under Kerct, in 1629, but restored in 1632. the Peace of Utrecht in 1713; by it Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hud. He also founded Montreal, in 1611 ; it was first settled in 1642, and finally son's Bay Territory were ceded to the English crown. DeVaud. ceded to a religious order, in Paris, in 1644. Champlain was highly re- reuil was succeeded by Beauharnois, who, in 1728, dispatched an spected by the French authorities, and was appointed first Governor of expedition to Chicago to punish the Western Indians. In 1744 King Canada in 1633. He died in 1635, deeply regretted by the colonists, and George's war broke out and lasted till 1748. In 1745 Cape Breton was was buried in Quebec. He was a man of unusual energy and decision, and taken by the British, but it was restored to the French, which gave offence did much to further the interests of the colony.
to the New Englanders, and disputes arose as to the exact boundaries.
The British claimed that the Acadian frontier extended to the St. Law. General Carlton was appointed Governor. Many of the inhabitants left rence, while the French maintained that it only reached to the Bay of the Province because the administration of justice and civil affairs was only Fundy. These disputes were ended by the trealy of Aix la Chapelle in given to military men. Complaints were sent to England, but nothing was 1748. In 1799 Bigot was appointed Intendant of all the French settle- done but to direct the Governor General to issue a commission to inquire ments in North America. As he bad the distribution of public money for into the truth of these complaints. The evidence taken before this commilitary service he managed to accumulate from delent wealth to the mission was referred to three crown lawyers,—who did not report till 1773 amount of £400,000 sterling. He was punished by being imprisoned on The Quebec Act of 1774 put an end to these complaints, and gave great his return to France. DeCallieres was followed by Vaudreuil, who was satiefaction to the Canadians who were wavering in their allegiance to the succeeded by Beauharnois; during his administration the Rocky Mountains British crown. The first American Congress met at Philadelphia, Sept. 1774 were discovered. Jonquiere was appointed his successor; but he was taken to memorialize British Government; and among other addresses one was prisoner on his outward passage by the English, under General Anson. directed to the people of Canada, inviting their assistance. The proposal When his capture became known in France, Galissoniere was appointed was unsuccessful, and the American insurgents resolved to invade Canada to fill the vacancy thus made. Jonquiere was released in 1749; on bis by way of Champlain and the Kenebec River. Quebec was attacked for arrival, Galissoniere resigned his trust and returned to France. The the fifth time by the Americans, December, 1775. But the British were Governor monopolized the sale of brandy to the Indians, and thus realised prepared; the Americans were defeated, and one hundred of their men enormous profits, his avarice called forth the complaints of the colorists, killed and wounded, while the British only lost twenty. This war was and fearing an investigation he requested his recall, but before a new Gov. brought to a close by the peace of Versailles, Jan, 20th, 1783, hy which the ernor could be appointed, he died at Quebec, and was buried beside his independence of the United States was acknowledged, when pot less than predecessors, Frontenac and Vaudreuil,
25,000 loyalists were compelled to seck the protection of the British flag. Jonquiere was followed by Duquesne, who seemed to have annoyed In 1784 Lord Dorchester returned as Governor General, when political the English more than any of the former Governors. Vaudreuil succeeded discussions with a view to introduce representative government were now Duquesne in 1755, he was the last French Governor of Canada. In 1756 revived, and various schemes for the settlement of the question were subthe seven years war commenced, when Loudon was appointed Commauder- mitted to the British ministry; and in 1789 the draft of a new constitution in-Chief of the English forces and Montcalm was appointed leader of the was sent to Dorchester. This Bill was, after much opposition, passed in French forces; as Loudon was found to be inefficient, he was replaced by 1791, and was called the Constitutional Act of 1791. It divided the provAbercrombie, who, in his turn, was replaced by Amherst. In 1769 the ince into Upper and Lower Canada, introduced the representative system final campaign opened, and Wolfe, who bad assisted in the taking of Cape of government, and set apart the Clergy Reserve land; and the English Breton in 1758, was entrusted with the command. He attacked Montcalm's criminal law, and trial by jury were introduced 1792. In 1792 the first position at Beauport, but was defeated. At length he called a council of elections were beld. The first parliament for Lower Canada was held at war when it was decided that they should try and ascend the heights; but |Quebeo, and for Upper Canada at Newark. The order of the Jesuits had upon landing Wolfe said that he did not think they would be able to been abolished in 1762, and in 1788 their goods were declared to be at the accomplish what they bad undertaken. The Highlanders, who, being King's disposal. When Canada was divided into provinces, the population of accustomed to a mountainous country first ascended, and then drew up the L. Canada was 130,000, that of U. Canada 60,000. Dorchester's names of rest with ropes. They dislodged a small troop that defended the patby the four Upper Canadian districts were changed to Eastern, Midland, Home and before morning Wolfe had his entire army arranged in battle array on and Western ; and a gaol and court house were to be erected in each of the Heights of Abraham. Montcalm immediately resolved to meet Wolfe these districts. The introduction of slaves was prohibited in Upper in the field, and proceeded to attack him without waiting for Bourgain- Canada in 1793, and in Lower Canada in 1803. In 1796 the seat of gov. ville's arrival. During the battle Wolfe was wounded in the wrist, but be ernment was removed from Newark to York in order to be as far as possible wrapped a handkerchief around his arm and still headed his men, but here- from the frontier. In 1807 Craig came out as Governor, and continued in ceived a wound in the breast and sank, it is supposed he was shot by one of office until 1816, when Sir George Prevost arrived. On the 16th of May, his own men. Hearing that the French were defeated, he said, “I die happy 1812 an American frigate captured a British sloop; and an Act was passed and immediately breathed his last. When the news of his victory reached empowering the Governor to embody the whole militia force. War was England joy was felt, but also sorrow for Wolfe's death. His body was proclaimed by the Americans against England on the 18th of June. taken to England and buried beside his father's. He was 30 years of age 1812. An Episcopal Cathedral was erected on the ruins of the when he died; and is described as being a very bandsome man. Montcalm Recollet Church in 1804. The first Canadian steamboat was was also wounded, and on being told that his wounds were mortal, said he built by Joba Molson and named the Accommodation ; the second was glad that he would die before Quebec surrendered; and that as it was was also built by him and called the Swiftsure ; she made her first his misfortune to be defeated ho was glad it was by so brave an enemy. passage from Montreal to Quebec during the war. The commander-inHis last act was to write a letter recommending the French prisoners to chief, General Brock, fell at the commencement of the war. Peace was the generosity of their conquerors. Montcalm died at five o'clock in the declared by the Treaty of Ghent, December 1814, by which the contending morning on the 13th September, and was buried within the precincts of parties were placed in the same position that they occupied before the come the Ursulino Convent. Quebec capitulated 18th Sept. 1769. In 1760 Vau- mencement of the war; the news of the termination of war did not reach dreuil proposed to capitulate, which was agreed to by Amherst ; and on the Quebec until March, 1815, when Governor Prevost officially proclaimed 8th Sept. the document was signed by which Canada was transformed peace. Common Schools were first established in 1816, and £6000 set from French to British rule. After the surrender of Quebec several at apart for their use by Parliament. In 1817 the Bank of Montreal was tempts were made by the French and their allies to recover it. Pontiac, an established; it was the first in Canada. The Welland Capal, between Lake Indian Chief, who had ever adhered to the French, formed a very compre- Erie and Ontario, was commenced in 1824; the Rideau Canal, between hensive scheme for the recovery of Canadla in 1768. He attacked ten of Kingston and the River Ottawa, in 1827. McGill College, at Montreal, was the principal strongholds between the Niagara and Lake Michigan, was founded and endowed by the Hon. James McGill in 1826 ; the judges were succeesful in taking seven, but Niagara, Pittsburgh, and Detroit success- made independent of the crown in 1834. In June, 1839, Lord Johd Russell fully resisted him. When he found he could not re-conquer Capada he fled brought forward a bill in the House of Commons relating to the opion of to the States and was afterwards assassinated. In 1763 the treaty of Paris the Canadas. Chief Justice Robinson, of Quebec, then in England, protestwas signed, by which the whole of the French possessions in North Ameri- ed against the union, but it was popular in Upper Canada. By appealca were ceded to the the English except Louisapda and two islands off ing to the loyalty of the Family Compact, Russell succeeded in getting the Newfoundland. General Marray was appointed first Governor General Union Bill passed as a government measure; before the end of January, for the new British province of Quebec. General Murray governed the 1840, it passed both houses. There was to be an equal representation of Quebec district ; General Gage the Montreal, and Colonel Burton the Three both provinces in the legislature—it received the sanction of the Queen in Rivers. Justice was administered by the military chief. This system was July, 1840, but owing to some suspending clauses it did not come into force not popular, and only continued in operation a short time until a Court of until Feby. 10th, 1841. The first principal feature in the Union Bill was King's Bench and a court of Common Pleas were instituted, and Euglish the institution of Responsible Government; the second that the control of Criminal laws were introduced by Royal Proclamation. In 1765 a great all public affairs was given to the Executive. The first Parliament met at fire broke out in Montreal, and in three years another occurred. In 1766 Kingston, June 1841. Lord Sydenham was succeeded by Sir Charles Bagot; be did not remain long, as ill health induced him to request bis parents to this country at a tender age. He studied law with the recall, and was succeeded by Lord Metcalfe. Earl of Elgin was appointed late Judge Campbell, of Niagara. After practising in the latter Governor in 1847; the seat of government was removed to Montreal in town for some years, he returned to this city, and entered into part1844. The famine and fever in Ireland and Scotland induced many to emi nership with the late Judge Connor, the firm enjoyed a liberal prac
tice. On the death of Mr. Gurnett, he succeeded to his office, grate to Canada where a Relief Fund was opened for them. In 1841 the having previously performed the duties during Mr. Gurnett's last Post Office Department was transferred to the Canadian Government. The illness. He was repeatedly elected to the position of Alderman in Great Western, Grand Truuk, and Northern lines were now erected; and our City Council. He was also bencher of the Law Society, and numerous ligbt houses were erected in the Gulf and Bay of St. Lawrence. enjoyed the confidence of his brother lawyers. He was born in An act was passed, in 1858, providing for the better regulation of the fish- 1818, and was, consequently, forty-seven years of age. eries. Sir Edmund Head was appointed Governor in 1854 ; during bis administration the Clergy Reserves question was settled, and the Victoria
No. 11.--MR. DAVID WILSON. Bridge across the St. Lawrence at Montreal was also finished
David Wilson, leader of the religious sect known as the “ChilAbout this time decimal currency came iato use. Canada contributed dren of Peace,” 'died at Sharon, in East Gwillimbury, on tho 19th $80,000 towards the Crimean fund. The Prince of Wales visited Canada ult., at the advanced age of 89' years and 7 months. He was born in 1860, and laid the corner-stone of the Parliament House at Oltawa, as of Irish parents in Duchess county, N.Y., in 1778 and marrying it was chosen by the Queen as the Seat of Government. Sir Edmund Head early emigrated to Canada in 1801. He was almost the first settler was followed by Lord Monck in 1861.
in the township, suffered all the privations incident to the life of a
pioneer, but surviving all his early companions lived to see the NELLIE Ross.
country developed to great fruitfulness. The “Children of Peace” Barrie, Dec., 20th, 1865.
which sect he formed, differ from the Quakers in several peculiarities. They are fond of music, and musical instruments are made
use of in their devotional exercises, are not obliged to conform to VII. Biograplıical Sketches.
any particular form of dress, and no religious tests are required, as
a standard of faith or godliness. The buildings in which the body No. 9.-ADMIRAL BALDWIN, R. N.
worships at Sharon were built by Mr. Wilson, to whom, tradition
says, the place of construction was revealed in a dream or vision. This gallant old naval officer breathed his last, on the 5th ulto., The deceased was a man of great energy and perseverance. in his residence, Russell Hill, on the Davenport road, near Toronto. Augustus Warren Baldwin, Rear Admiral of the White, was born in the County of Cork, on the 1st of October, 1776. He entered
No. 12._REV. FATHER TELLIER. the mercantile navy as a boy, and the change in his pursuits, from Yesterday morning, the Rev. Father Tellier, Superior-General commerce to arms, was accidental and involuntary. He and one of of the American mission of the Jesuits, died here in St. Mary's his brothers had received cruel treatment in a merchant ship, and College at the age of 70. He was well-known both in Canada and while making their escape from that vessel in Dunkin Harbor, were the United States, and his death will be deeply regretted by his met by a party of sailors, who pressed them into the service of His co-religionists. He was a native of France, came to Montreal in Majesty George III., on board the sloop of war Trompeuse. The 1842, being one of the first band of Jesuits that was invited to captain of this vessel, J. Erskine Douglass, soon discovered whɔ his Canada by the present Bishop. He resided for a time at Laprairie ; young sailor was, and at once obtained a commission for him. He he ministered at the emigrant sheds during the ship fover of 1847. for several years sailed under this commander in different parts of In 1849 he was ministering to the Irish of Montreal in St. Patrick's the world, and in the frigate Garland, 28, and Boston, 32. He was Church. In 1850 he administered to the Catholic College of Kingthen appointed a lieutenant of the latter ship, 28th June, 1800 ; ston ; for ten years afterwards he was assistant to Bishop Charand it was his good fortune, three years afterwards, to accompany bonnel in Toronto, at which time he was appointed rector of tho Tom Moore, the poet, home from his American tour in the same celebrated Jesuit College of St. Francois Xavier, in New York and vessel. Indeed the Boston has become classical from Moore's lines, Fordham. In 1859 he was appointed Superior General of the "To the Boston frigate, on leaving Halifax for England, October, American Mission. He is the principal originator of the new Jesuit 1804."
church here, the Gesu. He had recently come here on a visit to In December, 1804, Mr. Baldwin joined the Prince of Wales, the restore his shattered health.-Montreal Witness. flag ship, in succession of Sir Robert Calder, Sir James Saumarez, Sir Edward Thornborough, and Lord Gambier. While in this ship he was engaged in the action off Copenhagen, Sept. 1807. In the No. 13. CHIEF JUSTICE PARKER OF NEW BRUNSWICK. following year he became first lieutenant of the Implacable 74, and saw severe fighting, and did good and brave service in the Baltic The departed Judge was born in June, 1796, and was at the time under Admiral Byain Martin. For his gallant conduct in capturing of his death in his seventieth year. He matriculated at King's the Russian frigate Scwolod, on the 26th August, 1808, when in College in 1811, and took his degrees in 1814. During
his College command of his own ship, he received a gold medal.
He was ap
career he was both school and room mate with the lately deceased pointed to command the brig Tyrian, in 1812, and was made post and now celebrated Judge Haliburton, better known by the cognocaptain January 1st, 1817.
men of his inimitable Clockmaker, “Sam Slick," from which period Robert Baldwin, father of the admiral, emigrated to Canada in their friendly relations continued without a jar till cut by the sud1749. The subject of this sketch did not come here until about the den death of the Clockmaker a few months ago. Their ages, like year 1820. He was a brother to Dr. Wm. Warren Baldwin, the the congeniality of their friendship, were nearly parallel, as the father of the late Hon. Robert Baldwin.
Nova Scotia Judge was only six months the senior of him whose loss Upon his arrival in Canada, Admiral Baldwin took no very active we now
mourn. After taking his degree he studied in the office of part in public affairs, and, unlike his distinguished nephew, was Judge Chipman, and was admitted to the Bar in 1817. Upon Mr. conservative in politics. He held, however, a position in the Exe-Ward Chipman, Jr., vacating his seat in the Assembly and being cutive Council during the latter part of Sir F. B. Head's Adminis- appointed a Judge in place of his father, Mr. Parker, was, in 1824, tration, and the early part of his successors, but does not seem to elected without opposition for the County of St. John.' He was have taken any very active or leading part in the Government, also in the same year, and from the same cause, --- the resignation of although he was one of its members during the stormy times of the Mr. Chipman,-appointed Recorder for the City, which office he rebellion. For many of his latter years he was a Director in the continued to fill till 1828, when he was appointed Solicitor General Bank of Upper Canada,
and Judge of the Court of Vice Admiralty, in the place of C. L. In social qualities he excelled, keeping his frank, sailor bearing to Peters, who was elevated to the Attorney Generalship. From the last, with a smile and a pleasant word for every one. To the March 27th till September 28th, in that year, Mr. Parker acted as day he died his faculties were almost unimpaired, for although deaf Attorney General after the death of Attorney General Wetmore. he never knew the use of spectacles, and occupied himself in the He remained in the House of Assembly till the year 1834, when, active superintendence of his house and grounds. --Globe.
upon the death of Judge John Murray Bliss, he was appointed to fill the vacancy on the Bench. In that year occurred the death of
Chief Justice Saunders, when Judge Chipman was appointed Chief No. 10.-GEORGE BOOMER, ESQ.
Justice, and James Carter, Esq., from the English Bar, was ap
pointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the promotion of Judge On the — ulto., Mr. George Boomer, Police Magistrate of this Chipman. On the resignation of Sir James Carter, a few months city, expired at his residence, Windsor Place, after a long illness. ago, the deceased was appointed to the high, honorable and enviaMr. Boomer was an Irishman by birth, but emigrated with his ble position of Chief Justice, so well merited by a long life of in
tegrity which was spent in arduous and responsible public labors, its loyalty to the mother conntry, and he assured them there was no which he passed through with a character as nearly immaculate as part of that Island in which the feeling of loyalty towards the Queen frail human nature can attain. His death has occasioned universal or the affection for British institutions stronger than it was in Canaregret among all classes in this the city of his nativity.-St. John da. (Cheers.) He might also add, that in his visit to that Province News.
not only was he delighted with the great public hospitals, especially in Toronto, but with the general spread of education as manifested
by the number of excellent schools in which education was offered No. 14.-THE KING OF BELGIUM.
indiscriminately to all classes of the community. That showed the The news of the death of the King of the Belgians has been for advance which was making in the intelligence of that province, and sometime anticipated, and will therefore not cause surprise. One the growth of education would but keep pace with the progress of of the foremost of European Sovereigns, for sagacity and
industry. hensive statemanship has thus passed away. George Chretin Frederick Leopold was uncle to our gracious Sovereign, Queen Vic- 2. STATISTICS OF THE BRITISH COLONIES, 1861–1863. toria-her mother, the Duchess of Kent, being his sister. He was born in Cobourg on the 16th Dec., 1780, and was consequently
From recent parliamentary papers we select the following interabout 85 years of age at the time of his death. In early life he was esting statistics relating to the various Colonies of the British in the military service, Russia. Compelled by the influence of empire : Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1810, to relinquish his position of General in the army of the Czar, he three years later re-joined the Emperor Alexander and took an active part in the battles of Lutzen, Leip
NAME. in squ'e sic and Culm. In 1814 he accompanied the allied Sovereigns to
1863. England, where he made the acquaintance of the Princess Charlotto, whom he married a couple of years later. On the occasion of this
£ Stg. £ Stg. marriage, Leopold was raised to the rank of British Field Marshal, Asia. became a member of the Privy Councel, was created duke of Ken- India
1,004,616 187,694,323 10,449,235 47,593,582 42,568,395 3,471.333
24,700 1,892,510 350,000 3,587,234 4,433,807 1,068,314 dal, and a pension of £50,000 was conferred upon him. In 1830 Labuan
22,822 71,365 14,039 ho refused the offer of the Crown of Greece, and the following year
1,806,881 he was elected King of the Belgians. His first wife died the year New South Wales
323,437 358,278 5,802,980 6,936,839 8,319,576 991,200 after marriage, and he, in 1832, married the Princess Louisa, Victoria
86,831 541,800 8,237,520 13,566,296 14,118,727 1,242,113 daughter of Louis Phillippe, by whom he had three children. King Western Australia
383,328 126,8301 866,850 2,358,8171 2,028,280 255,433 978,000
15,691 1,750 143, 106 157,137 94,277 Leopold has displayed much ability as a constitutional sovereign, Queensland
888,381 1,713,263 203,265 and his keen sagacity was often called into requisition outside of his Tasmania
999,515 own kingdom. On the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, he
106,259 98,971 1,299,750 3,455,405 7,024,674 814,600
Africa. offered to retire, if such was the wish of his people-a declaration Natal.
14,397 152,704 100,000 158,565 473,333 46,409 which greatly enhanced his popularity. He has shown much tact Cape of Good Hope... 104,931 267,096 716,050! 2,224,446 2,275,833 501,858
24,107 110,537] 121,113 in his relations with the French Emperor, while his conciliatory Mauritius
600,000 2,720,098 2,540,605 611,270 disposition and his comprehensive statesmanship, as well as his Gold Coast.
Sierra Leone (including fainily connections, have enabled him, on several occasions, to act
Buhst Quiah but not as mediator in times of political complication. His death under all Sberbro, Isles de Loss the circumstances is a real European event.
or Bulama ........
41,497 1,799 295,8531 209.106 98.438 Gambia
4,817 137,240 175,965 83,349 America. Canada
331,280 2,507,657 12,325,557 8,595,520 9,444,759 2,133,204 No. 15.-REV. DR. WAYLAND.
27.087 252,047 1,206,562 1,029,329 1,595,513 1,386,984 Nova Scotia.
330,857 971,711/ 1,309,297 2,040,278 1,432,858
2,173 Rev. Dr. Francis Wayland, one of the best known of American Prince Edward Island.
209,472 293,431 184,534
40,200 122,638) 172,795 1,233,353 1,077,272 305,180 philosophical writers, died recently, at Providence, Rhode Island. British Columbia.. 200,000 11,816 He was born in New York city, on the 11th of March, 1790, of Vancouver Island 13,000 23,000 40,000 39,579 797,296 341,984
63,144 English parents. He graduated at Union College, and at first Bermuda..............
321,227) 195,887 studied medicine, but in 1816 entered the Andover theological Honduras
13,500 25,635 5,625
390,644 265,752 58,915 seminary. In 1817 he was appointed a tutor in Union College, Purks Island.
2,921 35,487 34,917! 4,295,316 3,368,567 362,583 4,372
45,183 34,096 105,333 and in 1821 was called to the pastorate of the First Baptist Church Jamaica.
6,400 441,255 786,552 1,087,529 1,007,925 249,583 in Boston. In December, 1836, when but 30 years of age, he was
6,051 4,129 8,876 11,677 8,657 St. Christopher..
175,686 59,078 chosen president of Brown University, in Providence, Rhode Is- Nevis.
9,822 1,000 36,022 49,992 18,760 land; and this position he held till 1855, having, by his careful and Antigua
36,412 25,320 173,912 239,631
Monserrat energetic administration, brought the college from an embarrassed
7,645 5,059 20,090 15,136 12,109 Dominica .
25,065 6,416 47,755 72,726 14,470 condition to a state of high prosperity. He insisted, among other St. Lucia..
26,705 18,000 69,584 83,712 things, that the study of the classics should be optional, thus giving Barbadoes
4,400 108,489 142,337 32,913
152,727 10,809 878,209 981,142 238,427 a just, but unusual, prominence to such courses of instruction as Grenada
31,900 9,000 90,073
30,470 fitted young men for commercial, mechanical, and agricultural Tobago..........
15,410 4,000 46,869 48,961 10,498 pursuits. Dr. Wayland's list of published works is quite large, British Guiana.
1,754 84,438 264,673 710,972 796,498! 253,947
76,000 148,026 591, 454 1,121,979 1,679,386 284,931 including “Elements of Moral Science,” (1835); “Elements of Europe, Political Economy,” (1837); “Salvation by Christ,” a series of Gibraltar
2,622,495 2,232,596 2,047,960
136,339 175,333l 3,087,593 2,120,131 university sermons, (1858); “Limitations of Human Responsibility,” (1840); “Life of Rev. Adoniram Judson,” (1853); “Intel. lectual Philosophy,” (1854); and several volumes of sermons.
From the United States to Canada. From Canada to the United States. $17,250,000 1860
.................. $18,500,000 21,000,000 1861
..................................... 14,500,000 VIII. Papers on Colonial Subjects.
17,000,000 23,000,000 1863
.............. 29,500,000 8,000,000 1864
7,000,000 1865 ...... 15,000,000 1865
24,000,000 1. SIR MORTON PETO ON CANADA.
.$103,500,000 Sir Morton Peto with a large party of English capitalists paid a visit to the Educational Department during his stay in Canada, recently returned to England. On the 13th ult. he was present at
3. CANADIAN STATISTICS. what is called “the Colston anniversary" in Bristol, the object of The number of acres assessed in Upper Canada is 18,144,000, and which is to perpetuate the fame of Edward Colston, the philanthro- in Lower Canada 13,663,000. The number of ratepayers assessed pist, whose name is associated with many of the educational and in Upper Canada is 585,000, and in Lower Canada 211,000. The other charities of the city.
assessed value of real estate in Upper Canada is $240,000,000, and Sir Morton Peto was among the speakers at the dinner which took in Lower Canada $169,000,000. The assessed value of personal place, and in a long address referred to his recent visit to America. property in Upper Canada, $25,000,000, and in Lower Canada, After a short retrospect of affairs that had transpired in England $1,400,000. This statement includes cities, towns, and counties. -during his absence, he asked, before he spoke of the United States, Canadian Churchman. to say one word on Canada. He had gone through the whole of that Province, and he had had the most ample opportunity of witnessing • In 1856. + In 1850. In 1857.
57 103 50 183
47 291 250 131 166 133 97
4. ART IN THE BACK-WOODS.
fortunate enough to secure as his companion in this attempt, his Mr. Edmonds, school-teacher at the village of Burnstown, County
friend Dr. Cheadle, of Cain's College, Cambridge, to whose energy of Renfrew, has just finished a large etching to be sent to England. and enterprise, Viscount Milton says, “the success of the enterIt is said to be the most faithfully executed sketch of a lumber- prise is mainly to be attributed.” After recording the circumstanshanty in the province. Mr. Edmonds used only in its production ces that preceded their arrival at Edmonton, the paper continues :a pen and ink. His drawings are familiar to many in Ottawa. - must allude very briefly to the magnificent country which extends
Before proceding further with the account of our journey, I Ottawa Citizen.
from Red River almost to the base of the Rocky Mountains. It
has been well described by Captain Palliser and Dr. Hector, and I 5. THE FRENCH ACADIANS.
would add my testimony to the fertility of its soil, and to the exThe publication of Mr. Faillon's excellent work on the “French tent of its resources. It is peculiarly well adapted for settlement ; Colony in Canada” will, we trust, have the effect, among other rich prairies, which are ready for the plough, being interspersed things, of awakening public attention to another branch of the with woods which would furnish timber for building and fencing. French race in America, who are, we fear fast dying out, we The climate is the climate of Canada ; the spring, however, accordallude to the Acadians of the Lower Provinces. Of this primitive ing to Dr. Hector, setting in a month earlier than it does on the and virtuous people, very little is known beyond the limits of the shores of Lake Superior. Grain of all kinds grows here with the Colonies in which they have lived for the last two hundred and greatest luxuriance, and the root-crops are certainly finer than any fifty years, and, with the exception of Haliburton's "History of I have ever seen in England. The pasturage is almost endless in Nova Scotia," it may safely be said that Longfellow's “Evangeline” extent, and so nourishing that the horses turned out in the snow at has contributed more to make this people known to the rest of the the commencement of winter, and then thin and in wretched conAmerican Continent, than anything
which has been done since they dition, when brought up in the following spring were exceedingly became subjects of the British Empire. And yet this should not fat, and fit to set out at once on the journey before them. Coalbe so. The Acadians of the Maritime Provinces would, if the truth beds of large size exist on the Saskatchewan, Battle, and Pembina were but known, compare favourably with many of those proud Rivers. Clay iron-stone in large quantities was discovered by Dr. communities which boast of their abundant wealth and superior in. Hector, and miners were engaged in washing gold in the river telligence. Contented and happy, with only few desires and those above Edmonton during our stay there. Yet this glorious country, few easily gratified, the simple-minded Acadians have been perfectly estimated, I believe, by Dr. Hector at forty millions of acres of the satisfied with their lot; and, notwithstanding the severe ordeal richest soil
, is, from its isolated position, and from the obstructhrough which they had to pass while Great Britian and France tions put in the way of settlement by the governing power, left contended for the possession of these Provinces, -an ordeal which utterly neglected and useless, except for the support of a few Inthrough a very mistaken policy, was continued for
some time even dians, and the employés of the Hudson Bay Company. Could comafter the restoration of peace, they have remained true to their faith munication be established with Canada and British Columbia, this and firm in their allegiance to the British Crown.
Before these district would, I imagine, become one of the most valuable of the bloody wars had devastated their possessions, "real misery" says
British possessions. After remaining three weeks at Fort Edmonton Haliburton, “was wholly unknown, and benevolence anticipated for rest and preparation, the travellers and their party set out on the demands of poverty. Every misfortune was relieved as it were
their journey across the inountains, following the trail between before it could be felt, without ostentation on the one hand, and Lake St. Anns and Jasper House ; a day's journey on the road without meanness on the other. It was, in short, a society of generally consisting of continual foundering through bogs, varied brethren ; every individual of which was equally ready to give, and by plunges and jumps over the timber lying strewn, crossed, and receive, what he thought the common right of mankind. so perfect interlaced over the path, and on every side. Between Lake St. a harmony naturally prevented all those connections of gallantry Anns and the foot of the mountains the forest is almost unbroken which are so often fatal to the peace of families. This evil was pre--a distance of nearly three hundred miles. After the lapse of vented by early marriages, for no one passed his youth in a state of twenty six days from leaving Fort Edmonton, the travellers found celibacy. As soon as a young man arrived at the proper age, the themselves fairly in the Rocky Mountains. They followed the community built him a house, broke up the lands about it, and sup- course of the Athabasca for some time, but afterwards followed plied him with all the necessaries of life for a twelvemonth. There the valley of the Myette, and eventually reached the height of land he received the partner whom he had chosen and who brought him so gradually that they would hardly believe they had gained the her portion in flocks. This new family grew and prospered like the water-shed of the Pacific. A few days after, they struck the Fraser others. In 1755, all together, made a population of eighteen thou- River, already a stream of considerable size. From this point up sand souls. Such is the picture of these people, as drawn by the to the almost perpendicular sides of the narrow valley in which we Abbé Raynal. By many it is thought to represent a state of social were shut in, this portion of our journey was the most harassing happiness, totally inconsistent with the frailties and passions of we had yet experienced. The path lay almost entirely through human nature ; and that it is worthy the poet rather than the his- water up to the horse's girths, the only change being to swamps, turian. In describing a scene of rural felicity like this, it is not embarrassed with fallen timber of very large size. improbable that his narrative has partaken of the warmth of feeling reached Moose Lake, an expansion of the Fraser, about fifteen for which he was remarkable ; but it comes much nearer the truth miles long, and two or three wide, our difficulties increased. The than is generally imagined. Tradition is fresh and positive in trail along the beach was now under water, and we were frequently various parts of the United States, where they were located, re- obliged to ascend the steep mountain side, when the accumulations specting their guileless, peaceable, and scrupulous character; and of drift-wood barted the passage along the shore. Numerous misthe descendants of those whose long cherished and endearing local haps occurred, the horses perversely going out into deep water, and attachment induced them to return to the land of their nativity floating about, to the great detriment of flour and pemmican. Two still deserve the name of a inild, frugal, and pious people.”—Mon- rolled down the mountain side, and had to be unpacked, and their treal True Witness.
loads carried up to enable them to re-ascend. We found no place to rest during the day; and when night came on we had not reached
the end of the lake, and were obliged to camp in a bare sandpit, IX. Papers on Physical Geography.
without any feeding-ground for our weary animals, who ranged restlessly to and fro until the morning. The road continued almost
as difficult all along the valley of the Fraser, and at one point was 1. ACROSS THE RED RIVER AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS. a narrow ledge of a few inches along the face of a cliff of crumbling
Mr. Markham recently read a paper before the British Associa- alate, rising perpendicularly a tremendous height above us, and a tion, by Viscount Milton and Dr. Cheadle, entitled, “ An Expedi- the fourteenth we crossed a great number of small streams, many
steep descent of above two hundred feet to the river below. On tion Across the Rocky Mountains into British Columbia, by the Yellow Head or Leather Pass." In the Spring of 1852, Viscount Fraser flowing from the north. This grand fork of the Fraser is at
probably mouths of the Moose River, an important tributary of the Milton resolved to investigate for himself the nature of the country the foot of a very high mountain, which has received the name of between the Red River Settlement and the Rocky Mountains ; and Robsốn's Peak (and is the original Tête Jaune Cache), so named to penetrate, if possible, by the shortest route, direct to the gold. from being the spot chosen by us. regions of Cariboo; an enterprise hitherto unattempted.* He was
After journeying thus, meeting
greater difficulties still, the travellers left the Cache and kept the • Excepting
of course by the employés of the Hudson's Bay Company. emigrants trail, which they followed into the dense forests until it Also by a party of young men from Upper Canada, headed by a Mr: came to an end at a place where there had been two large camps, Jessup of Orillia, U.C., who crossed the continent in 1859: they fol- and where, from all they saw about them, they concluded that the lowed the canoe-track to Red River, thence to Tête Jaune Cache by whole band of emigrants had given up in despair the idea of cutting the plains, descending Fraser River as best they could to British Columbia through forests so dense and encumbered, and had built large rafts, A book, giving an account of the exploration, has been published. -Ed.I in order to drop down the river to Kamloops. This plan our tra.