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Monthly Meteorological Observa- Military Training in our Public
Meteorological Station, Lake Win-
Barrie Grammar School Scholar-
Physical Exercises, 151.
Palmerston, Lord, as an Example, Ocean Telegraphy, 158.
The Coronation of Winter, 31. Winter, 31.
Liberty of the Press in Russia, 31. Along the line, 46.
British Periodical Literature, 32. The Bird's Petition, 61.
TEACHING, Papers on the Profession of:
Is Teaching a desirable Profession,
Composition of the Pyramide, 166, Spirited Charge of the Chief Jus- Dies Iræ, 103,
Township Boards and School Sec-
Italian Capital, Periodicals in the, 73. The Queen as a Catechiser, 76. Christmas, 187.
The National Readers in our
The Guelph School Children, 94. Discoveries of Ancient Art, 86. Public School Library in Belleville,
Keble, Rev. John, M.A., 74.
The Queen and Mr. Peabody, 105. Waters of the St. Lawrence, 119. Township 'ompetitive School Ex-
Legislative School Grant for 1866, 81
Coming from School, 141. Prussian Military System and Can- mar Schools, 187.
Model School for Upper Canada, 107. Queensland, Progress of, 72. University College, 12.
100, 126, 139, 159, 170, 179, 181. in Capada, u19.
Microscope, Anecdutes of the, 166.
Compulsory Education in Upper Worcester, Joseph, LL.D., 45.
School Drill an aid to Volunteer-Ontario College, 95.
McNab's Magistrates Manual, 20.
member of C. P. I., 107.
Greenwich Observatory, 99.
satisfactory. And although prejudice was excited against it at of School Trustees. Experience in the working of the present
its rich oil wells.
2. COUNTY SCHOOL CONVENTIONS.
tained, the examination as a test of merit, and a basis for the disThe Chief Superintendent has issued a Circular calling the atten- tribution of the prizes, might not with advantage be dispensed with tion of all interested in educational affairs and who is not ?-to his altogether. This subject, we are glad to know, has occupied the proposed visit to the different Counties of Upper Canada. These earnest thought of the indefatigable head of the Educational Departvisits of the Superintendent are of the greatest importance, and ment; and the suggestion which is contained in a recent circular, should not be overlooked or neglected by any intelligent voter, more that the use of merit cards would accomplish this object, is well especially those directly interested in the management of school worthy the attention of School Trustees. These cards are divided matters. —Canada Christian Advocate.
into four classes, one, ten, fifty and one hundred merit cards, and
the mode of distribution is as follows :-" The one merit cards The Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada, Dr. should be given daily or weekly, at the discretion of the teacher, to Ryerson, has issued a circular intimating his
intention to hold County pupils who excel in punctuality, good conduct, diligence, or perfect School Conventions, in each County in the Province, during the pre- recitation. Ten of the single merit cards entitle the holder to a sent and following months. There is much in his circular for serious ten merit card ; five of the ten merit cards to a fifty merit card ; thought and reflection on the part of those who have had any exper- and two of the fifty merit cards to a hundred merit card. If given jenoe in school matters or in the management of our public schools, daily no pupil should be entitled to a certificate or prize at the and we hope to see a large attendance. -- Belleville Intelligencer. quarterly examination who had not received at least fifty merits of
all classes ; if given weekly, from fifteen to twenty should be the
minimum number of merits of all classes, which would entitle the 3. PRIZES IN SCHOOLS.
holder to a certificate or prize at the end of the quarter. The value The first subject suggested by Dr. Ryerson, in his circular an- of the prize should in all cases be proportioned to the number or nouncing the holding of conventions throughout Upper Canada, on class of merit cards of all kinds received during the quarter." the subject of the School system and its improvement, is “To con- We learn that this system is practically that which is adopted in sider any suggestions which may be made for the amendment of the the schools of this city. These merit cards are distributed, someSchool law, for the improvement of the schools, for the diffusion of what upon the principle laid down in the above extract, and at the education, and for the extension and usefulness of prize-books and end of the term, twelve scholars from each division, who have atpublic libraries.". This subject takes a very wide range, and may, tained the greatest number of them, and by that fact may be prein fact, be said in its terms to include all the other topics suggested. sumed to be the most deserving, are selected for examination. On Under'it, almost all subjects connected in any way with the School the result of that examination depends the distribution of prizes. system of the country might be introduced, and we doubt not that But we would suggest to the Trustees that on this an improvement the discussions upon it will prove of very general interest.
might perhaps be made. The value of a prize does not consist so We purpose, however, to-day to notice that particular suggestion much in the mere money worth of it, as in the distinction which it which has relation to the distribution of prizes in the schools—a confers. The danger of the examination as a test is, that even with subject which has excited a good deal of attention among education the care taken to select only such as during the previous months ists, and upon which the weight of evidence is pretty equally divi: have shown the greatest proficiency, is that still the scholars of ded. There is no question that those who oppose the giving of really greatest merit may be omitted altogether, simply from conprizes to those scholars who, in a competitive examination exhibit stitutional inability to acquit himself well at a competitive examithe greatest proficiency, are not without solid argument by which nation. It seems to us that the boys who have, by their general to maintain their views. It is contended that very often the lads good conduct and industry, entitled themselves to the privilege of who are really the hardest workers, and who make the best figure appearing before the examiners, should all receive some practical in the world in the long run, are not the most successful at those recognition ; and the certificates prepared by the department, which examinations ; and that mere smartness often takes the prize from are exceedingly neat, afford a good mode of granting such recognithe more industrious and meritorious ; and that, in such cases, the tion. These certificates would be prized as highly by the recipient tendency is to discourage that spirit of plodding industry which at of them as if they were of far greater intrinsic value. They would school, as in the sterner duties of after-life, are the most to be en. be to them the mark of distinction, showing that their labour had couraged. Where the prize is awarded solely to the most success- not been in vain, and spurring them on to renewed diligence for ful at the competitive examination there is no question that this is the future. Altogether, the subject is one of very great importoo often the case. At school, as in life, mere self-possession, we tance ; and is well worthy the consideration of such conventions as might perhaps say the force of impudence, often carries off the those proposed to be held. — Hamilton Spectator. prize against merit and modest worth. The reports of local superintendents of schools, published in the annual reports from the Educational Department, bear evidence that this fact has often mi- 4. TOWNSHIP BOARDS vs. SCHOOL SECTIONS. litated against the usefulness and fairness of the prize system. The second subject which the Chief Superintendent of Education
But these arguments, after all, apply rather to the mode of dis- suggests for the consideration of the approaching school Convention tributing prizes than to the system of prizes itself. The great dan- in this city, is "whether or not it would be desirable to have one ger to be avoided is in ignoring the general conduct of scholars dur- Board of School Trustees for each Township as there is one Board of ing the entire term, and leaving to the accident of the examination Trustees for each city, town, and incorporated village ; and whether the determination of the question of merit. Distributed upon a the Township Council should not be such Board of School Truswell-considered principle, which would recognise fully the steady tees.” every day industry and attention of the pupil, they are undoubtedly We think there can be very little question that the change from of great advantage. It is simply carrying out in the school the half a dozen to one Board of School Trustees in a Township would principle which obtains through life. We all work for prizes. It be a very great advantage. The plan of school sections was perhaps may be that the particular prize which is sought after and daily advantageous in the earlier history of the school system. — It brought struggled for may differ, in the case of different men. But all who the system more immediately home to each ratepayer, and by limitare not mere useless drones have a prize which they keep steadily ing the area of each separate little school principality, tended to in view, and to which, with plodding labour, they daily aspire to. excite in the system a more general interest But with the progress It furnishes the incentive to exertion, and when attained consti- of the system, the school sections have we fear developed in very tutes its sweetest reward. And as the great object of any educa- many instances into a nuisance. Quarrels between different school tional system must be to fit boys and girls for the duties of men sections have arisen ; and in many instances real hardship has been and women, the earlier this spirit of emulation is implanted in their inflicted upon parents in compelling them to send their children to minds the better. The prize at school furnishes the incentive in the section school, perhaps a inile or two distant, when the school of many cases to that exertion which ultimately becomes a part of the the adjoining section was almost at their door. In some cases this scholar's very nature, the habit of his every-day life, and fits him inconvenience has been found so great, that union between sections all the more for the performance of the more practical and severer has been formed with a view to avoiding it. duties of life's great battle. Many a lad has been impelled to exer- And perhaps the most important object to be attained by means tion by the prospect of the distinction which the prize confers, who of the abolition of the school sections and the creation of a Township would, without that motive, remain inert and careless in his studies ; Board, will be the greater permanency which it will give to the and the habit acquired in the hard work of the term will become to situation of teacher. There is nothing more to be desired in conhim the capital for future usefulness and proficiency.
nection with our school system than this. If we would encourage But how to distribute the prizes so as to secure this object is the really clever men to take the office of teacher, and make of it a propractical question for discussion in connection with this subject. fession, we must attach to it some greater degree of permanency than To be useful, it must, as we have said, have reference not merely has hitherto obtained. With reference to the female teachers the to what may be the accidental success on examination day, but to difficulty does not perhaps exist to the same extent, for with them the entire every-day conduct and studious proficiency of the term ; teaching is a mere convenience until marriage comes to give them and it may even be questioned whether, with that object well at the more congenial and lasting duties of home life. But it is a fact
which is deeply to be regretted that the want of permanency, the of improving and adapting it to the institutions and wants of the fact that teachers are at the mercy of Boards, often composed of ig- country.” norant and unsympathetic men, drives out of the ranks of the pro- It is now six years since Mr. Ryerson passed through the country fession into other callings many of those who possess in an nnusual on a similar tour. He proposed at first to visit foreign enlightened degree the practical common sense, as well as the mere scholastic countries once in five years, to acquire as much information as poslearning necessary to ensure success. The change which is proposed sible concerning the nature and progress of their systems of educawould obviate this to a great extent. Instead of six or eight Boards tion. It was also the intention of the Chief Superintendent to visit in a Township there would be but one ; and that one would have the the various Counties of the Province every five years; but he was oversight of all the schools of the Township. Often local difficulties, prevented from doing so last year owing to feebleness of health and perhaps with some of the parents, compels the removal of teachers, the excited state of public feeling on the Confederation question. and under the present system, there is no means of preventing this
. This he thinks will be his last tour, as the effects of age are very If but one Board existed, having the management of all the schools, much impairing the vigor of his constitution. an exchange of teachers would meet the difficulty and secure the The objects of the Convention are most decidedly important. It great object of permanency, which should, above all other things, be has long been felt to be a sad evil that many parents do not send made to attach to the office.
their children to School, when, in many instances, there is no posiThen in the matter of expense the saving would be something, not tive advantage in keeping them at honie ; but whether compulsion perhaps sufficient in itself to justify any change in a system which will effect anything remains to be seen. When Mr. Ryerson was had worked well, but an important consideration as an incident to a on the Continent, he must certainly have had an opportunity of change which on other grounds commends itself. All corporate witnessing the effects of such a measure in some of the European bodies, however small in themselves, are a sonrce of expense. It is nations. As to the change in the Board of Trustees, there are arone of the prerogatives of corporations to spend money, the more so guments both in favour of and against it. It would require quite as it is other people's money they are charged with the duty of spend a number of years to have it thoroughly introduced in the Province ; ing; and sometimes they exercise the prerogative rather too freely. and the only question to decide is, whether the change will effect And it is impossible that half a dozen of these soulless bodies can be a sufficient amount of good to justify the necessary expense and rolled into one without the expense being materially lessened. So trouble of introducing it. We sincerely hope these Conventions that on all these grounds we are inclined to think that Doctor Ryer- will be numerously attended by all interested in the educational son will find the conventions quite ready to accept his suggestion institutions of our country.- Woodstock Times. that the school sections should be abolished and the principle of township boards substituted in their place. The other suggestion which he makes will perhaps not be so readily
II. Lapers on Grammar Schools. acquiesced in. We cannot say that we think it would be an improvement to entrust to the Municipal Councils the duties of the boards of school trustees. We greatly fear that the effect of this
1. GRAMMAR SCHOOLS IN UPPER CANADA. change would be to lessen the character and efficiency of the schools An act for the further improvement of Grammar Schools in by subjecting them to the control of these bodies. There are two Upper Canada was passed last session, and received the Royal assent objects which Municipal Councils will be found, by those who have on the 18th of last September. * * Such are the chief pro. studied closely their peculiarities, to keep very carefully in view. visions of the new Grammar School improvement act. For the The one is to spend as much money as possible in ordinary local im- information of mayors of cities, wardens of counties, mayors of provements, so that they can use the fact as an argument to secure towns, and reeves of incorporated villages in Upper Canada, the their re-election ; and the other to make the aggregate expenditures Chief Superintendent of Education in Upper Canada has despatched of the body appear as light as possible.
circulars, in which he points out the advantages of the new act, and In some cases, if we mistake not, the duty of collecting the school the mode in which these advantages can best be attained. With rate has been cast upon the trustees, and the additional regard to the cities to be effected by the act, he suggests to the expense of a separate collector, separate Rolls, &c., incurred simply county council that, as it, jointly with the city council, appoints because of the unwillingness of the Municipal Council to present so the trustees, each conncil should provide one-half of the amount large a bill to those whose suffrages they must soon ask. And the required to be raised from local sources. This, he points out, may general unwillingness evinced by municipal bodies to do anything be done by making an appropriation from the clergy reserves for the schools which involves outlay, is but another evidence which moneys, or from the general funds of the municipality. The Gramgoes to show how dangerous it would be to entrust the entire school mar School, he contends, under this act and the recently revised system to their keeping. Rely upon it, when the estimates of the programme of studies, ought to become the High School of the year came to be made up, the expenses of the school would afford a city--the intermediate school between the Common Schools and tempting item for retrenchment, especially if some teacher should by the University. Notwithstanding that our citizens are largely any chance be offering his services at a lower figure than that paid taxed to provide for the accommodation and support of Common to the master employed.
Schools, many of them never send their children to those schools. The change from school section Boards to Township Boards is In justice to this class, it is urged that a portion of the future school undoubtedly a good one, but it would be unwise to go any further. assessments in cities should go to provide for the support of public The interests of education are sufficiently important to be entrusted Grammar Schools. With such cogent arguments, Dr. Ryerson lays to a body elected with special reference to them. To make the care the new act before the public. Relying upon the co-operation of of the school system a mere incident of the duties of Municipal the corporation and councils he has addressed, he concludes by Councillors, would be most seriously to jeopardise its success and announcing that he will pay the apportionment to the Grammar efficiency. And we therefore sincerely hope that the chief superin- Schools in 1866, without waiting for the proportionate sum required tendent will not urge this change upon the attention and support of by law to be provided from local sources. -London Prototype. the approaching conventions. - Hamilton Spectator.
2. THE GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 5. EDUCATION AND THE CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT.
The Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada has just Whatever opinions may be entertained as to the value of some issued circulars embodying the new Grammar School Act, to the of the features introduced into our School system by the Rev. E. various Municipal Councils of this section of the Province, urging Ryerson, Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada, all upon them the importance of extending to these Schools a portion who are familiar with the confused state of the Common School of that support which has been so liberally and intelligently extendsystem when he entered upon the duties of his office, with the vari-ed to the Common Schools of the country. No one who has had ous conflicting interests of the Province, and with the many real any experience in the working of our School system, can have failed and imaginary difficulties to be removed, will readily grant that to to be strnck with the want of success of this most important branch him is due the gratitude of the whole people, for the perfection of of the system. The Common Schools have met with a success bethe system introduced under his supervision, for the vitality yond what could have been anticipated by the most earnest and enbreathed into our Common Schools, and for the untiring energy thusiastic promoter of the School laws. The people having full conand zeal which has been ever manifest in his operations. He has trol over their own School matters, a control extending even to the recently issued a circular announcing that, in accordance with a right of refusing to avail themselves of the system altogether, have part of his plan when, in 1844, he began to apply himself to estab- yet with singular unanimity orgauized Schools under the law, taxed lish and mature the present system of public elementary instruc-themselves, sometimes very heavily for the erection of school houses, tion, he will visit each County in Upper Canada, “in order to ac the employment of competent teachers, the providing of maps and quire local information as to the circumstances and wishes of the apparatus, the establishment of school section libraries, in a word, people, to hold free consultations as to the working, progress and for all the minutiæ of the system, until to-day the country presents, defects of our own system of public instruction, and the best means as to its educational facilities and progress, a spectacle in the highest
degree gratifying to the patriotic Canadian, and the result pot of described by Dr. Ryerson, and which we fear are but too common legislative coercion, but of purely voluntary and patriotic effort on in this country, that will hardly come up to this standard. The the part of the people themselves. As to the Coinmon Schools, it locality which cannot sustain a school with the qualifications of the may fairly be accomplished within a very short time.
Act, is better without one. It can hardly be of a character to adThe Grammar Schools have not met with equal success. The mode vantage greatly the locality where it has been established, and it adopted in the apportionment of the Grammar School grant, and lessens the efficiency of other schools by withdrawing from them a the almost unchecked right of schools to demand it without condi- portion of their resources. tions, has tended very greatly to lessen the character and efficiency The Chief Superiutendent appeals to the Municipal Councils to of the schools themselves. Unfortunately there existed no provis- aid in giving practical effect to the provisions and intentions of this ions by which the Municipal Councils were required to grant any Bill. After enumerating some of its more salient points, he adds : assistance to these schools. They were required to depend for their “Considering, therefore, the objects and importance of your support upon the government grant, and such sums as could be Grammar School, and that it is to be henceforth under the manageraised by way of fees from pupils, and the provisions of the law ment of a Board of Trustees appointed by your Council, I confiwhich gave to the Municipal Councils the right to create an addi- dently trust that nothing will be wanting on the part of your Coun. tional county Grammar school, so soon as the government grant cil to provide as liberally for the accomodation and support of your exceeded a certain sum, three hundred dollars, if we remember Grammar School as you have for the accommodation and support of rightly, has tended greatly to lessen the character and efficiency of your Common Schools. Many of your citizens have never sent the schools. The testimony of the Chief Superintendent of Educa- their children to the Common Schools, though their property has tion-and indeed it is the testimony of all who have watched the been largely taxed to provide for the accommodation and support of working of our school system-is to the effect that these schools in those Schools. It is but just, therefore, to such citizens, apart from many instances, while drawing a portion of the Grammar School other higher and more public considerations, that a portion of grant, and thus lessening the means of support to the other and your future School assessments should go to provide for the accom older schools, are actually inferior to some of the Common Schools modation and support of your public Grammar School.” of the country. After stating the fact that out of 131 Grammar We are certain that the appeal wlll not be made in vain. There Schools in existence last year, only 49 received any assistance what is no subject upon which the Canadian people, as a body, feel more ever from the Municipal Council. Dr. Ryerson, in his circular, sensitive than upon that of their school system. They have, by their says: "It is not, therefore, surprising that so many of the Gram- own voluntary exertions, brougbt it up to the high standard which
mar Schools are little better than Common Schools, and some it has attained, and they are justly proud of the result of their them, both in accommodation and efficiency, inferior to the Common efforts. They will not stop short now when asked to place that “Schools in the same town or village.' A system which has pro- feature of the system which looks to the higher education of the duced these results, which has frittered away a fine endowment, youths of the country in a state of efficiency. Dr. Ryerson promises without even inadequately fulfilling the objects which it was designed that, trusting to their liberality and patriotisın, he will apportion to promote, unquestionably called for amendment. Ever since 1862 the grant for 1866 without reference to the grant from local sources Dr. Ryerson has sought to secure that amendment, but the party required by the Act. The confidence will not be misplaced. On trouble which harassed the country, precluding as they did all the contrary, we are certain that under the authority of this Act, useful legislation, prevented this Bill from passing ; and it was not the Council will, as they have done in the case of the Common until the August session that it became law. It is not the least of Schools, limit their money grants, not by the limitations of the the advantages for which we have to thank the Coalition Govern- statute, but by the necessities and the efficiency of the schools. ment, and the cessation of party strife which has resulted from its Hamilton Spectator. formation, that a measure so imperatively demanded in the interests of the higher education of the country has been placed, by it, upon 3. MUNICIPAL LIBERALITY TO A GRAMMAR SCHOOL. the Statuto Book.
The great feature of this Bill, the one feature.which, in importance We are pleased to learn from a letter received at the Educational overtops all others, is that it provides for the assistance of the Gram- Department, that in accordance with a suggestion, made by the mar Schools by the Municipalities, and makes it a condition prece-Chief Superintendent in his recent circular, the Council of the dent to the receiving of any portion of that grant that this aid shall be United Counties of Auron and Bruce, at their session held early voted. Dr. Ryerson forcibly says, in his circular, that "The pro- last month, granted the sum of two hundred dollars towards the gress, institutions, professions, and employments of our country, salary of the teacher of a Grammar School in Clinton, on condition together with the influx of many well educated persons from other that the Council of the Village of Clinton would grant a like sum, countries, render these intermediate schools an indispensable neces- which the council by a unanimous vote pledged itself to do. sity if our native youth are to maintain their proper position in society, and if our country is to maintain its rank in comparison with other educating and progressive countries. But the Grammar Schools cannot accomplish the object of their establishment
4. VAGRANT CHILDREN IN OUR CITIES. without further aid in addition to that of the small Fund provided We commend to the attentive perusal of our readers the following by the Legislature. No such schools ever did fulfil their mission by extract from a charge lately delivered by Judge Hagarty in Toronto mere fees of pupils and a small Legislative grant, without liberal to the Grand Jury. It shows that although a country may have all local support, unless they had a large independent endowment the privileges of a secular education it will not prevent crime, but, -which is not the case with the Grammar Schools of Upper Ca- if unaccompanied by religious training, rather increase it :nada. The county Councils have, of late years, created a large “Criminal statistics have, until the last few years, been almost number of Grammar Schools; and the authors of any offspring wholly neglected amongst us, but the various reports of the Board ought not to leave it to languish and starve for want of support.” of Prison Inspectors, who periodically examine and report on all
And that the County Councils, and City Councils as well—for the the prisons and asylums in Upper and Lower Canada, present us purpose of this act cities are made counties—will gladly contribute with much valuable information. to the maintenance of these schools, and thus maintain the hlgh It appears that in the year 1864 a grand total of 6,361 prisoners reputation which they have heretofore earned for intelligencc and had been confined in the Upper Canada common jails, of whom liberality in all matters affecting the educational interests of the 1,595 were in the Toronto jail
. The greatest number imprisoned at country.
any one time was 763, of whom 217 were in Toronto jail. Of the The amount which the Municipal Council will be required to whole number for Upper Canada, 2,268 were for other than first contribute, although as to each one of them a comparatively small offences. sum, will in the aygregate make a most important addition to the The whole expense of the Upper Canada common jails for 1864 Grammar school endowment fund of the Province. It is provided was $81, 134, the Toronto jail's share being $14,755. by the sixth section of the Act, that "no Grammar School shall be It is stated that both in the penitentiary and common jails there entitled to share in the Grammar School fund, unless a sum shall be was a considerable diminution in the number of prisoners in 1864, provided from local sources, exclusive of fees, equal at least to half which is attributed to the large emigration of a certain loose class the sum apportioned to such school, and expended for the same pur- of our population to the United States, attracted either by war pose as said fund,” that is for the payment of teachers salaries, and bounties or high rates of wages. This diminution, it is feared, can another provision of the Bill, will in all probability thus further only be regarded as temporary. increase, not the aggregate endowment, but the practical usefulness. Únder the head of “Produce of labor of prisoners,” the report It is provided that no Grammar School shall be entitled to share in gives for Upper Canada, in six counties, $693. No portion of this the Grammar School fund which has not proper accomodation pro- trifling sum comes from Toronto jail. vided for it, and an average attendance of at least ten pupils in one, The darkest item in this black catalogue is that relating to young of the language, for teaching which, that fund was originally created prisoners. In Upper Canada, in 1864, there were committed to jail We have our mind now on some grammar schools, of the character 311 boys and 103 girls, under the age of sixteen years,