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7. JAIL LIBRARIES IN UPPER CANADA. to go on in their good work. I think that the results of such At the suggestion of the Chief Superintendent of Education, the meetings as this cannot fail to be highly beneficial. We cannot be Municipal Council of the County of Oxford have sent to the Educa- too diligent in these matters, and I am pleased to observe that the tional Department the sum of Fifty dollars, to be applied towards people of this Township appear to understand their duty. Great or the purchase of an addition

to the county jail'library. Lists selected highly beneficial results cannot in any case be looked for without by various ministers in Woodstock have been transmitted to the diligence--without zealous application, but with perseverance and Department, with a "request that the Chief Superintendent may be well directed effort is almost sure of success. To the children I will pleased to make such a selection of books (to the amount of the remark that when they see their parents here, they cannot fail to appropriation) from the list sent to the County Council committee, understand that a great interest is taken in their welfare ; and I as he may consider to be most suitable."

will ask of them to remember the many kindnesses which they Steps are being taken at the suggestion of the Chief Superin- receive from them. The object of education is simply to fit us for tendent of Education for Upper Canada to procure a library for the the duties of this life and to prepare us for that which is to follow, Wentworth jail. The Hamilton T'imes thinks the locality inguspi- and

with that explanation of the object it seems to me that the cious for the reception of moral influences. But a proper selec- parents

of children

here are doing their duty well. I have observed tion of books might be instrumental, under the Divine blessing, in with some little surprise that the girls have taken most of the accomplishing, unspeakable good even among the most abandoned prizes to-day, I do not know how this happens. I am not sorry to and degraded inmates of a prison, whilst those who are not far gone been better pleased to see that the boys were not so far behind. To

see the girls ahead, as it has been a fair contest, but I would have in crime, would unquestionably be benefitted. It is for man to use the girls I would say, you have a duty before you for which you the means and leave the result with God.

The Standing Committee on Education reported, that they have are now preparing. The promise is good and we all hope that the taken into their consideration the communication from the Chief happiest benefits will be realized. To the boys I would say do not Superintendent of Education in reference to the establishment of be discouraged, but let your present defeat prompt you to greater libraries in prisons and gaols, your

Committee have made inquiries exertions in the preparations for another examination. I think of some of the prison officials of the county, and find that a few that you have good cause to feel proud of your advancement, books furnished by the Sheriff are about the only means of mental although it is not quite as great as it might hava been, and I would improvement now available for prisoners confined in the County observe how I could make myself useful to you all—how I could

simply say exert yourselves for further success. I came here to Gaol. Your Committee are of opinion that the well-being of Society as well as the moral improvement of persons who may be confined advance education among you. As I take deep interest in educain prison, would be beneficially advanced were a library of proper further these interests. It is a pleasure to me, also, to meet here

tional matters you may always rely upon my doing what I can to books furnished for that purpose. - Your Committee would therefore recommend that the sum of fifty dollars be appropriated from the so many clergymen who are taking a zealous and active part in profunds of the County, on condition that the city of Hamilton furnish moting the interests of education. Mr. Robertson was next called the like sum—which said sums would, with the addition of the per

for.

This gentleman was formerly engaged as a teacher in the centage offered by the Chief Superintendent of Education, furnish township of Osgoode. He was of opinion that the exhibition on a suitable library for the prisoners confined in the County Gaol, and the whole was very creditable, but in some branches they were not that the Clerk of this Council furnish a copy of this Report to the up to the mark-as for instance in Canadian History. A few days Municipal authorities of the City of Hamilton. *-Spectator.

ago he had attended a similar examination in the Township of Gloucester and the proficiency there when compared to the profi

ciency shown here to-day was much higher. He was sorry to have 8. TOWNSHIP COMPETITIVE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS. to say this. He looked upon Canadian History as one of the most

We have already given an interesting account of various muni- important of School studies. He should be pleased to see some cipal competition examinations (among the schools of the township) improvement next year in this matter. These examinations

, in his which were instituted last year through the liberalty of the Hon! opinion, were good for both teacher and scholar, if they had a Billa Flint, (see Journal for November, page 174.) The names of tendency to raise the standard of education both in teacher and the municipalities in which Mr. Flint's examinations were held, Clergy and upon members of the Legislature who witnessed them

scholar. They would have a good effect upon the parents, upon the (with the new townships of Wollaston and Limerick) North Fredand saw the general ability with which the questions were answered. ricksburgh, South Fredricksburgh, Belmont and Methuen, North Rev. Mr. Whyte remarked that this was a proud day for Osgoode. Monaghan, Smith, Asphodel, Thurlow, Marmora, Adolphustown He believed that thanks were due to Mr. Dow to the Committee and Dummer. During 1865–6 the following individual munici- who had labored night and day in making arrangements—to the palities instituted competitive examinations among the various gentlemen who had come so far to conduct the examination, and schools of the township, viz. : Nassagaweya, East Oxford, Gosfield, to the seven

schools whose pupils had competed for the prizes. Bruce, Nelson, Kincardine, Wallace, (new township)Whitby, interesting meeting we

would congratulate the parents, the Clergy, Minden, (new township), Derby, North Elmsley, Gloucester, Moore, men, the Reeve and Committee of management upon the great Otonabee, Finch, Puslinch and Osgoode. In regard to the Puslinch examination the Editor of the Guelph

success which has attended their efforts to advance the standard of Herald remarks :-"Before closing we beg

to express our unquali- education, and we trust that they may still labor with zeal to perfect fied approval of the action of the township Council, and the several what they have so nobly begun. Boards of Trustees in this matter. It evinces a liberal and progressive spirit-in keeping with the age. The interest manifested 9. RULES FOR THE GRANTING OF SCHOOL PRIZES. by the whole community, people, parents, teachers and pupils, proves it was also a popular measure.

The Hamilton Board of School Trustees have adopted the follow

Competition, we are told, ing in carrying out the Resolution of the Board in reference to is the life of trade. We believe, too, it is the life of education. Prizes in our Public Schools : Teachers and pupils will both work harder, and be more in earnest, when they know there will be an opportunity given of showing the the preparation of lessons, punctuality and regularity

in attendance,

The basis on which they shall be awarded shall embrace, care in result of their labor. The effect is magical, and we hope, therefore, correctness in deportment in school, and proficiency in all the stuthat the other townships will copy the good example set them by dies prescribed in the course. Puslinch, and have their competitive examinations. We also hope that Puslinch will repeat the experiment the next year, and that it has attended school at least one-half the session then closing. The

No pupil shall be eligible to compete for a prize unless he or she will be even more successful than the last one." At the Osgoode examination not less than six hundred people attained the greatest number of honor cards during the session then

competitors in each Division shall be the twelve pupils who have attended, and the interest and enthusiam manifested was very closing ; but the Principal may select four additional

, whom he may great. The success of the examination was chiefly due to the Rev. consider otherwise worthy. The candidates shall be examined viva Mr. Whyte, local superintendent, Mr. Dow, and R. Bell, Esq., voce, or otherwise, by examiners appointed by the Board, who, ex-M.P.8. In the course of his remarks in delivering the prizes, with the the Principal, shall make all awards. The books to be Mr. Bell said "I am very glad to see that so great an interest used by the examiners shall be those in use in the Public Schools. has been taken by a very large audience ; but there are more com. The pupils shall be admitted to the competitive examinations on petitors from school than in previous years ; and this will show presenting their honor cards to the Principal

, and in case any of that inside the schools the interest in the examinations is increasing them have been lost, the Teacher's roll-book' in which the honor This fact should encourage those who have these meetings in charge, cards given are regularly recorded will be the authority in deciding

the number obtained by each pupil. • No remittance for this library has as yet been received by the Educa- No prize shall be awarded unless the minimum number of marks tional Department.

one-half the number possible in that Division-will be exceeded.

.

The prizes will be extended to all the Divisions in the Public School ries and not necessaries, yet those engaged in it have reason to conand there shall be five prizes for each Division, one prize for each class gratulate themselves on its appearance and prospects, for they have in French, two prizes for each sub-section of the First Division, and rarely been better. With diligence and caution they may look to a two prizes for each Form in Classical Department or Grammar prosperous future.—Leader Trade Review of 1864. School.

The Members of the Board will take charge of the Examinations of the Primary Schools in the respective Wards.

11. CANADIAN BOOKS FOR FOREIGN COUNTRIES. The Board shall appoint the time, place for distribution and

A large collection of Canadian books has been sent to England to amount to be expended for prizes, at the meeting in December or the Trade Commissioners for presentation to the different Governsooner should they prefer it.

ments they will negotiate with. The Principal shall make all the arrangements necessary in connoction with the Examinations.

12. LOVELL'S SERIES OF CANADIAN SCHOOL BOOKS.

The very comprehensive list of school books published in this 10. THE BOOK TRADE OF TORONTO.

country to which we call attention in another column-is one of The tendency of those in the book trade, during the past few which Canada may well be proud. They have already received the years, to deal more extensively in the English market, has been highest commendation in England and Ireland ; and at the Interdeveloped in a large degree during the year just closed. The im- national Exhibition held in both countries they have received the portations have been unusually heavy ; it is difficult to make a rewards appropriate to that class of articles. At the late Dublin comparison with previous years by the customs returns at this port, Exhibition a silver medal was awarded to them as a cheap and exmany invoices being entered at Montreal ; but they have undoubt cellent series of books. Their practical adaptation to the wants of edly been considerably in excess of 1864, and the great bulk, we the schools in Canada, is best shown by their almost universal should judge from the date in our hands, nearly 80 per cent. has use in both grammar and common schools and in our higher acabeen from England. The publishers there have found out at length demies.

The list to which we call attention comprises no less than that the Canadian trade is worth cultivating, and they have been thirty-four excellent works relating to geography, history, grammar, willing to make such terms with our buyers as enable them to offer arithmetic, algebra, elementary philosophy and chemistry, &c.; of books at, and in some cases below, English published prices. This the thirty-four no less than about thirty are written and prepared course, combined with the great increase in the cost of producing in Canada. The spirited enterprise of Mr. John Lovell of Montreal American books, has brought about the result just noted, and we (who has given so strong an impulse to book publishing in Canada) have no doubt that the experience of the past year will lead to a in thus creating and developing native talent and industry, for the continuation and extension of the arrangements at home. This benefit of our schools, deserves the highest commendation and the and the yearly increasing number of books published here will cer- strongest encouragement. See page 48.Toronto Leader. tainly keep down the importation of American books for many years to come ; it is likely to continue to consist, chiefly, now, of medical and educational books, and cheap reprints of English first-class III. Papers on Education in Canada. novels and standard works. We are glad to see that we are gradually being supplied with an educational literature of our own. Canadian school books are displacing American in public institu

1. EDUCATION IN LOWER CANADA. tions, and we hope soon that the pupils in all our schools may be The last report of the Superintendent of Education for Lower taught from books freer from remarks derogatory to the character Canada gives us some figures which may be profitably considered, and institutions of Canada and England.

as they mark so clearly the advancement of that section of the The trade has been in a healthy condition during the past year, Province. The school-rates raised by assessment for the municithose engaged in it are for the most part men who know their busi- palities increased from $165,843 in 1853 to $593,264 last year. ness ; credit has been shortened with advantage to buyer and seller, When it is considered that the Government grant remains at a and if the same care continue to be exercised, on both sides, the fixed figure, not increasing in proportion to the increased assessheavy losses of previous years will not be repeated.

ment, this must be considered quite satisfactory. It is doubtful if The periodical trade has experienced a marked change of late. the plan of keeping the Government grant at a certain fixed sum A few years ago, all the English magazines brought into Toronto, is a good one. As the municipalities increase in number the grant each month, would not have filled a good-sized case; now the aggre- has to be re-divided, and each necessarily comes in for a smaller gate is very large. Messrs. Chewett alone tell us that they import share than before. The same amount has to be distributed over a about ten thousand a month of the various kinds. Messrs. Irving larger field. This necessarily acts as a damper upon the old muniand Thomson also import largely. It is gratifying to know that cipalities. The Superintendent suggests, as a means of getting not only has the quantity increased so greatly, but the character of over this difficulty, the increase of the grant. Whether or not this the literature is much higher ; not only have Sunday Magazine, would be the best way to deal with what is evidently a cause of Good Words, Cornhill, &c., attained an immense circulation, but complaint, the difficulty should be met in some way. One that the older magazines of the same stamp, Leisure Hour, Sunday at would act as a spur to the municipalities instead of a drawback Home, Chambers Journal, &c., have increased also. It is to be re- would, no doubt, produce the best results. gretted that the various attempts to establish a Canadian magazine

The amount of education imparted—or we should more correctly have been uniformly unsuscessful, and have each entailed heavy pe- say, the number of pupils instructed—bears nothing like an equalcuniary loss on their projectors. The competition of the cheap ized proportion to the assessment. In 1853, when only $165,843 English magazines which circulated by the hundred thousand, and were spent 108,284 children received instruction. Last year there can therefore be afforded very cheap, is the explanation of this. were 196,739 pupils in the schools, while the amount raised by the

In the Stationery trade, the importations have been almost exclu- municipalities, and of course spent, was $593,964. That is to say, sively European, the prices of American goods shutting them out with an increase of 90 per cent in the number of pupils in attend of this market, and with the heavy taxes upon manufacturers on ance at the schools, the expense-taking the assessment alone into the other side of the lakes, we expect that this will be the experience the account--increased about 250 per cent in the course of eleven of the trade for some years to come. For the staple and best book years. But the discrepancy may not indicate as much as appears and writing papers pone satisfy so well as the English or Scotch at first sight; for the proportion between the rate of attendance mills ; for fancy and light papers the German or French makes are and the expenditure has been somewhat uniform since 1856. It preferred, while for ordinary purposes, especially for printing, the was between '53 and '56 that the great increase in the assessment demand for Canada-made papers is quite equal to the supply. The took place, which perhaps may be accounted for by the erection of immense trade in envelopes (the whole of which were formerly im- substantial buildings during that period. It is satisfactory, at all ported from the States) is now transferred to our own makers, with events, to find that the number of pupils is every succeeding year the exception of the finer qualities, which are still supplied from more than it was the year before. As regards the different branches England, and with increased experience and enlarged resources, we of education, there is continued progress in all but English gramhave no doubt that soon the great bulk of the paper consumed here mar, which shows a falling off in the last two years. Most of the will be made in this country. Another result of the high price in children being French, this is not hard to account for. In history, the States alike of material and labor, has been that the large trade geography, parsing and French grammar 'there has been considerain diaries has for the past time been completed by ourselves. To ble progress made. Messrs. Brown Brothers, is due the credit of having provided for

This will be enough to indicate the progress made in common the wants of the trade and the public in this respect, and they have school education. The only drawback is that which arises from done it in a way which entitles them to great praise.

diversity of religious belief. Sectarianism has done much to hinder While, therefore, the Book and Stationery Trade is one of the the cause of education in Lower Canada, and even now there is no last to feel the "good times," as books are often regarded as luxu- satisfactory plan for the distribution of the taxes of non-residents,

and those of corporations and incorporated companies. Mr. Galt, depression from the failure of crops, and the derangement of trade it will be remembered, made some promises to the people of the and finance of account of the civil war in the United States, now Eastern Townships upon these subjects, which were easier made happily terminated, there has been a larger increase in the receipts than performed. At all events, the proposed changes have not and expenditure for the support of schools than during any of the taken place, and there is good ground for the belief that the Pro- preceding four years, and a corresponding progress in other retestant portion of the community is not fairly dealt with in the spects." It is but a few days since we gave a summaried sketch of distribution of the Government grant. Protestant and Catholic the progress of common school education in Lower Canada, where alike have dissentient schools ; the former number 134, with an considerable progress had to be noted. This progress is small comattendance of 4,629 pupils ; the latter 48, with an attendance of pared with that which has been made in the richer Province of the 1,830. The superintendent says nothing as to the amount of money West. The interest taken in common school education in Upper expended upon each kind of school. On the financial question Canada is perhaps best measured by the disparity, so to speak, begenerally he remarks :-“The most urgent want of the department tween the amount raised by municipal assessment and the grant is that which I have constantly

represented-the regulation, namely, provided by the Legislature. Last year the legislative grant for of its financial difficulties. These difficulties existed previous to the common schools was $177,052,95, whilst the total expenditure 1855, before my appointment to office and the passing of the law of upon these schools was $1,285, 318, an increase in the latter amount superior schools. The Legislature voted an annual grant for supe over the previous year of $30,871. The legislative grant is paid to rior education, but with a proviso that only a certain portion of the each municipality upon the condition that it provides at least an amount should be receivable from the consolidated revenue of the equal sum by local assessment. Last year the municipalities and Province, while the residue should be a special charge upon the school trustees provided in all a sum of $963,762, an increase of Jesuits' estates and on the balance of the grant for common schools. $44,238. In school sections the ratepayers have the power of Now, the sums voted every year being always in excess of the two determining whether their schools shall be free or supported by a last mentioned sources of supply, a considerable deficit was the school rate; in cities, towns and incorporated villages, the trustees result. The passing of the law for superior education continued decide this point. The Superintendent notices with satisfaction the same state of things. The portion of Lower Canada in that the rate bill system is decreasing. The amount raised by the annual supplementary grant for common schools is exhausted, rates—a tax of not more than 25. a month for each pupil—last year without the possibility of increasing the allowance to these schools was $59,636–decrease, $13,043. The receipts from other sources, nay, a deficit remains, which now nearly equals the capital of the besides those already named, were as follows :-Clergy Reserves, fund for superior education. It follows that it is very difficult to $105, 296 a slight decrease ; balances from 1863 $178,438. increase the different grants which I have, in this as in many pre- There is an increase in every item of expenditure, amounting in vious reports, represented as insufficient.”

all to $30,871. The different items are :-salaries of teachers, Passing from the teachers and the common school fund we come $996,956 ; maps, apparatus, prizes and libraries, $23,149; school to an interesting portion of the report—that which refers to the sites and buildings $116,056; rents and repairs of school houses establishment of normal schools some six or seven years ago. In $37,003 ; school books, stationery, fuel, &c., $112, 151. Upper Canada one central normal school is sufficient, but Lower The school population of Upper Canada—that is children between Canada has three. "In establishing these schools,” says M, Chau- the ages of 5 and 16-number 424,565. Of this number 350,925 veau, “the same principle that obtained in the establishment of attended the common schools last year, of which 198,024 were dissentient schools led to the granting of separate normal schools boys.

The number of children reported as not attending any for the two great religious divisions of the population, the Catholics school was 40,483—a decrease of 4,492 ; these figures are not the and the Protestants." But, why, working upon this basis, should result of careful inquiry ; but with regard to them the Chief Superthere be more than one normal school ? The Superintendent ex- intendent remarks .- Making all reasonable allowance on this plains :-"An almost necessary consequence of this division was ground, yet judging from reports of Local Superintendents themthe establishment of two Catholic normal schools, and one Protes- selves, the number not attending any school must be considerable, tant normal school ; the great mass of the Protestant population of such as to contribute a public blot, disgrace and danger, which Lower Conada being located in the western section, it followed that every friend of the country and of humanity should endeavor, by the Protestant normal school must be established at Montreal. But all possible means to remove.” Out of 4,225 schools reported as as the Catholic population of the Montreal section is numerically, open, 3,459, or more than four-fifths, are free. The number if not relatively, more considerable than that of the Quebec section, partly free is 711 and in which monthly rate-bills are imposed 55. it was difficult to avoid placing a Catholic normal school at Mon- Farther on his in report, Dr. Ryerson makes some remarks upon treal ; while on the other hand it was evident that the geographical this subject, which may call for consideration at another time. position of that city, by no means a central one as regards the rest The table referring to the number of teachers employed shows an of Lower Canada, did not entitle it to enjoy alone the advantage of average of one for about every 70 pupils. There were, in all possessing these institutions.” This arrangement may have been 4,625 teachers employed last year, of which 3,011 were males. necessary, but it is unfortunate that three normal schools should There is no explanation of the somewhat striking fact that whilst be required to do what one would have done as well but for the there was a decrease of 83 male there was an increase of 204 female irreconcilable differences which religious distinctions create. M. teachers. They are reported to be of the following religious Chauveau, however, defends the system by its results. “There denominations Church of England, 854, church of Rome, 544, is no doubt, whatever,” he says, “but that the three normal schools Presbyterians, 1,397, Methodists, 1,286, Baptists, 227, Congregahave attracted a far larger number of pupils and popularized the tionalists, 80, Lutherans 17, Quakers 16, Disciples or Christians, new systems of teaching much more effectually than a single school |32, reported as Protestants 76, Unitarian 2, other persuasions 17, would have done." Last year there were 213 pupil teachers attend- not reported 77. As to the proficiency of the teachers we must ing the three schools,-97 males and 116 females. The Superin- take for a standard the certificates they held which were as follows: tendent goes pretty largely into details to show that these schools First class Normal school 216, second class 358 ; First class County have answered the fullest expectations, and that the great majority Board 1,396, second class 2,054 ; third class 475 ; unclassified 124. of those who have received diplomas from them have continued The salaries range from $84 to $1,300; the average being, for teaching Altogether something like 840 teachers have been turned males $436-females $224. out of the three schools, of whom over 600 were teaching at the Of the whole number of school houses reported—4,246–529 are date of the last reports. - Leader.

brick, 366 stone, and 1,671 log. There is a gratifying increase of substantial structures ; the total number of schools built last year

was 126, of which 47 were brick and 13 stone. 2. EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA.

The average time of keeping open the schools is reported to be, In the last report of the Chief Superintendent of Education for in counties, 11 months; in cities, 12 months; in towns, 11 months, Upper Canada, we have an abstract of the work done by the Nor- 29 days ; in villages, 11 months, 25 days. mal, Model, Grammar and Common Schools of the Western Pro- In former reports it used to be an argument in favor of pervince during the year 1864. It is full of figures, which, though mitting the Separate School system to run its course into disuedry reading generally, are in this case of so much general interest tude, that the number of schools of this class was yearly diminishthat we shall be excused if we give more of them than ordinarily ing. This year we find an increase of 27, the total number reported take up much space in these columns. The Chief Superintendent's being 147. The amount of the legislative grant appropriated to report, too, is suggestive upon many topics ; and if we do not these schools was $8,892. The amount towards the support of touch upon them to-day, it is because the figures which form the these schools obtained from self-imposed rates and subscriptions basis of the report are so extensive that it would be impossible to was $42, 150; increase, $7,341. The number of pupils attending go over the whole ground in one article of reasonable length. these schools last year was 17,365, an increase of 1,506. The

Dr. Ryerson remarks that the satisfaction with which he presents number of teachers employed was 190, of which 107 were females. this report to the Governor General, exceeds that of any previous With these figures, we leave the common schools. Of grammar year, inasmuch as “ though the last year has been one of a series of schools there are 95 in operation. The amount received by these

Haldimand.

DIAN SCHOOLS.

schools out of the legislative grant was $45,604. From local There was also during a portion of the year 1847, a school kept open sources there was obtained as follows : municipal grant $15,913 ; at Beamsville by the Rev. Mr. Close, in which English, Latin and fees $19,353. The number of pupils attending theso schools was Greek were taught and one at Dunnville by Mr. Jukes, in which the 5,589. With regard to this class of schools we quote the following same branches were taught, and which is reported as having been remarks from the report :-“The increase of the grant and fund well conducted. has only contributed to afford additional aid to existing schools for In 1863 the school account for the different Counties shewed the one year, as the several County Councils have been induced by local following; influences to establish additional feeble and next to useless gram

Lincoln. Welland. mar schools the moment it was perceived that the increased grant

Teachers Salaries.......

$2116 2255 2355

68 The result is, that increased aid obtained For Apparatus....

75

169 enabled them to do so.

2450 2595 3120 for grammar schools will not advance, as was intended, the “char- Municipal Assistant.

9710 9847 9106 acter and efficiency of the grammar schools ; but will only multiply Trustees do........

2032 1706 1130 the number of feeble schools-grammar schools only in name, but Rate Bill

2242 4253 2339 little more than common schools (and some poor ones too) in Clergy Reserve Fund

Balance.

3505 4979 2996 reality. It is to be hoped the law will be amended so as to prevent the increase of this evil.” Among the head masters of grammar

Totals.

$22722 $25710 $21215 schools are found the names of 16 who have graduated at the University of Toronto.

The entire receipts, including the different town and village munOf the Normal School here there is little to be said. The ro-icipalities, for the three counties having been over $87337, an inport is that it continues to do its work of training teachers satis- crease over 1847 of $74137, and this was for Common Schools alone. factorily. Last year 316 persons were admitted to this school. The total expenditure for Common School purposes in 1863 was Since the school was established 4,297 persons have been trained in $77,511 in the counties, an increase of $68,011. it for the work of educating in Upper Canada. Each of the Model The school population of the counties in 1865 was 21,219, the Schools is limited to 150 pupils, who pay 25 cents a week each number at school 18,621, and the average attendance 7,173, or pupil.

one-third of the population. In that year there were seven Separate It is not the duty of the Chief Superintendent to collect facts Schools in the three counties, and nine Grammar Schools. with regard to a higher education ; but as we are singularly defi- It will thus be seen that great progress has been made in the facient in statistical information regarding our colleges and private cilities for acquiring education, but unfortunately the same authoracademies, the few brief, and no doubt, imperfect statistics which ity from which we gather the information shows also that only one are given in the report are worth reproducing here. The number child in every three received the benefit of the munificent provision of colleges reported is 16, they are attended by 1,820 pupils, and made for supporting schools, demonstrating beyond boubt that a their income from legislative aid $150,000, from fees $44,000. law making it compulsory in all children of school age to attend The number of academies and private schools is set down at 225, school was called for then, and is more necessary now. which are attended by 25,818 pupils, whose fees are $48,771.Leader.

IV. Papers on Agriculture in the Schools. 3. EDUCATION IN THE OLD NIAGARA DISTRICT. It is occassionally interesting to refer to the early history of our 1. NATURAL HISTORY AND AGRICULTURE IN CANAcountry, and more especially to that section of it lying between Lakes-Erie and Ontario, known as the Niagara Peninsula. This part of Canada was one of the earliest settled portions of the count-partment, as follows :

An energetic local superintendent writes to the Educational Dery, and possessing great natural facilities for the prosecution of trade “ I find several of the schools of this township very destitute of and commerce it is somewhat wonderful that the progress in wealth proper apparatus, and the people generally sadly in need of encoupopulation and educational institutions did not keep pace with other ragement to spend more time, and find more delight, in reading. sections of the country. The reason, we imagine, may be discover- “I am offering a number of prizes, to be competed for by all the ed in the fact that its proximity to the frontier made capitalists schools in the township, in order to encourage the teachers to emudonbtful of the desirability of investing here, and then there was a late one another in faithfulness and energy ; and am, at the same large Western portion of the Peninsula covered by a marsh, which time, endeavouring to induce trustees to furnish prizes for compewas unavailable until within a few years. The Peninsula has, how-tition in their several schools.

advanced, and the foolish idea that the Americans would come “Will the department give anything, to supplement what I may over some fine morning and “ gobble” us up before breakfast has give, and what may be raised by local effort, for a scholarship in given place to one more rational.

We purpose at present showing the County Grammar School, to be competed for by candidates the advancement in educational facilities, and for that purpose in- from the several Common Schools in this township ? This, it aptend contrasting the years 1847 and 1863. In the former Scholfield, Esq. of Pelham, was Assistant Superintendent of Schools pears to me, is one of the simplest and best ways of stimulating

, , . for the Niagara District, composed of the present Counties of Lin

I Are Natural History collections legitimate subjects of compecoln, Welland and Haldimand, and visited every school section in tition for prizes, 100 per cent. of which are furnished by the Dethe three counties, presenting his report to the District Council.partment of Public Instruction ?+ I am offering a number of NaFrom this report we learn that there were 181 school sections in the tural History prizes, to be competed for by the several schools, 3 counties. 36 of which were unions. The school houses numbered with a view to promote intelligent and accurate observation of the 180, of which 14 were brick, 5 stone, 128 frame, and 36 log erections objects in nature, and a more enlightened study of agriculture. 73 were held in fee simple, 46 under lease and 62 no title at all

. For example : (1.) A township prize for the largest and best collecThe children of school age numbered 12,963, of which 8,948 attend- tion of specimens of rocks and soils, found in the township, with ed school, showing an increase over 1846 of 1885. The number of list, named, described, locality, plants grown on or near, character qualified teachers was 252-103 males and 69 females. There were of land around, large or small quantity where found,

of what use is in the schools 51 maps 45 black-boards, 2 clocks and one set mathe- it, to what use applied in the township, in what part of the townmatical blocks. The government grant for all educational purposes ship does it exist in largest quantities ? I (2.) Insects, found in then amounted to $13,200, and about $9,500 was paid to teachers, township, named and classified ; especially those injurious to agri-The average attendance at school was 4,519, there being 1,043 culture. (3.) Cereals, grown in township, properly preserved, etc., studying, Grammar, 977 geography ; 183 history ; 3,336 writing ; soils and manures best adapted for each, situations most suitable, 60 book-keeping ;29 mensuration, and 29 algebra.

most common uses of each, other uses, the value per acre and per The only Grammar Schools in the Counties were one at Niagara, bushel, cost of raising per acre and per bushel, profit (average) per the late Mr. John Whitelaw being Principal, and Mr. George Mal- acre and bushel, date of sowing and harvesting, probable number of colmson, now of the propeller Magnet, Assistant. There was no public school house 40 scholars were on the register, and Latin and * The department already applies the whole of the Grammar School Greek were taught. "Grantham Academy," at St. Catharines, fund in aid of the Grammar Schools, and has nothing left for scholarships. Mr. Wm. Hubbard, Principal, and the Rev. Wm. Hewson, Assist- + These collections are not only legitimate objects for prizes, but the ant In this school 25 were in the classics, and 55 in the primary department will be happy to supply them to the cabinets for that purpose. department.

See pages 26-28 of the new prize catalogue. The Rev. J. Russell had a small school at Stamford where six

| The department has also, in the columns of this Journal, tried to sti. pupils were taught classics and mathematics.

mulate parties to collect these interesting specimens, and has inserted a During this year the Rev. Dr. Lundy started a school at Niagara, column in the trustees' return for a report of any school collections or muin which Latin, Greek, French and other branches were taught. seums of them.

ever,

OF EDUCATION

acres of each sowed in the township per annum. (4.) Grasses. of St. Sulpice, Montreal, breathed his last, having been sick for (5.) General collection of native plants, found in township, properly several months. He was born on the 24th of August, 1810, in prepared.

France, at Espalem, in the diocese of Puy, came to this country in "I consider that an early love of the study of nature is of inesti- 1843, and was professor of Theology in the Seminary until in 1856, mable benefit to children, even though their general knowledge is he succeeded the Rev. Mr. Billaudelle as Superior the Seminary. otherwise very defective."

Another local superintendent writes as follows :-
“I have been endeavouring, during the last year, to get some

No. 18.-F. X, GARNEAU, ESQ. classes formed of young men in our schools, for the study of agri- The death of Mr. F. X. Garneau, an historian of Canada, which culture, and have been recommending Dr. Dawson's “ First Lessons has been expected for some time, took place at Quebec, on the 3rd in Scientific Agriculture,” published by John Lovell, as a text-book. ult. The deceased, who was, without exception, one of the most But some in this enlightened age tell me that it is an unlawful remarkable literary men British North America has ever produced, study. That the Council of Public Instruction has not authorized was born in this city, in 1809, and was, therefore, in the thirty this study in our schools of Upper Canada. You will please inform seventh year of his age at the time of his death. He was educated me whether this study may be lawfully introduced into the schools in the Seminary of Quebec, and adopted the notarial profession, of an almost entirely agricultural population, and oblige.” but never practised. He was for some time employed as clerk of The following reply was sent to this communication :

the Legislative Assembly; but afterwards received the appointment “ Agriculture is not only a lawful, but a praiseworthy study in our of City Clerk, which he held up to May, 1864, when he retired, in Common Schools. The fourth and fifth Books treat of subjects consequence of ill-health, receiving, at the same time, a handsome akin to it, and the Department has provided an extensive list of retiring pension from the Corporation. He commenced his labors Books on the subject for school libraries including Dawson's Work in the field of literature at a very early age, and his contributions It was not formally directed that the subject should be taught; to the periodicals of the day gave evidence of great ability. In that has however arisen from the difficulty experienced in finding 1831, '32, and '33, he was in Europe, and his talents soon obtained persons proporly qualified to teach it, but where such persons can him admission into the literary society of France and England. be found, the Department will in all cases sanction the teaching of While in Paris, he was made a member of the "Society of Friends Agriculture in the schools."*

of Poland”—which was organized immediately after the Polish out

break of 1830—and enjoyed the friendship of Prince Adam Czarto2. CARLYLE ON NATURAL HISTORY AS A BRANCH ryski and other distinguished men. The narrative of his travels

and residence in Europe was afterwards published in the form of a Mr. Adam White, of Edinburgh, for many years in the natural his- series of letters. His poetic productions, many of which are to be tory department of the British Museum, proposes to introduce the found in Hudson's Repertoire National, are characterized by great teaching of natusal history into boarding-school and private fam- beanty and vigor. His fame, however, as a writer, rests entirely ilies. On his project, and on the general introduction of that upon his history of Canada, which cost him many years of toil and delightful science into the curriculum of ordinary education; Mr. research. The first volume was published, we believe, in 1845. White has been favored by Mr. Thomas Carlyle with

a characteris- The work rap through several editions ; and an English translation tic letter, from which the following is an extract:-" For many by Mr. Bell was afterwards published by Mr. Lovell. It immediyears it has been one of my constant regrets, that no school-master ately directed the attention of American literary men to the author, of mine had a knowledge of natural history, so far at least as to and Mr. Garneau was looked upon as an authority in all matters have taught me the grasses that grow by the wayside, and the little connected with the early history of the continent. He was made winged and wingless neighbours that are continually meeting ine, an honorary member of all the leading literary societies of the Rewith a salutation which I cannot answer, as things are! Why didn't public, and enjoyed the personal esteem of many of its most distinsomebody teach me the constellations, too, and make me at home in guished men. Naturally of a delicate constitution, the labors of the starry heavens, which are always over head and which I don't writing his greatest work told considerably upon his health, which above half know to this day ? I love to prophesy that there will had been feeble for many years. Personally, Mr. Garueau was a come a time, when not in Edinburgh only, but in all Scottish and most estimable man. Mild an unassuming in the highest degree, European towns, and villages, the school-master will be strictly re- he was in every respect a thorough gentleman. His death will not quired to possess these two capabilities (neither Greek nor Latin be regretted by his wide circle of friends alone. It will be looked inore strict!), and that no ingenuous little denizen of this universe upon throughout the country as a national loss. —Quebec Chronicle. be henceforth debared from his right of liberty in these two departments

and doomed to look on them as if across grated fences all his life. For the rest. I cannot doubt but, one way or other, you

No. 18. JAMES SCOTT HOWARD, ESQ. will by and by make your valuable indubitable gift available in

We regret to learn that Mr. James Scott Howard, died suddenly Edinburgh, either to the young or the older, on such conditions as of apoplexy, on the 1st inst., at the advanced age of 68 years. It there are, and I much recommend a zealous and judicious persist- was remarked that he never was in better health or spirits than when ence till you do succeed. —Believe me yours very sincerly, T. he left home for his office in the morning. He was a native of IreCarlyle."

land and emigrated to Canada many years ago. He was formerly Postmaster of this city, but was removed by Sir Francis Bond

Head during the crisis of 1837–8. He afterwards, for many years, V. Biographical Sketches.

was treasurer of the Home District, upon the abolishment of which

he was appointed treasurer of the United Counties of York and No. 16.—THE REV. DR. ATKINSON.

Peel, which office he held till his death, and all the duties of which On Monday morning the sad news reached here from Toronto of of the Council of Public Instruction for Upper Canada since 1846.

he most satisfactorily filled. Mr. Howard was an active member the death of this highly esteemed clergyman, throwing a gloom over For many years he was Senior Secretary of the U. O. Bible Society. society generally. For the space of nearly twenty-five years he had Both of these bodies have passed resolutions of sympathy with his filled the position of Rector of St. George's Church, and every year bereaved family. His loss is deeply deplored. as it passed away seemed to bind him more closely—with stronger cords of affection to the hearts of his people. When, through a sense of his failing strength, he determined, two years since, to re

No. 19.-JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. tire from St. Catharine's, his congregation sought by every means It is with deep regret that we have to announce the death of in their power to induce him to remain. But he felt that his John Bruce, Esq., Inspector of Schools

, who expired suddenly strength was departing, and a high, conscientious sense of duty while addressing the pupils at the College of Lachute, on the 19th compelled him to retire. Since his removal to Toronto, his health January. At the time of the painful occurrence he appeared to be gradually failed, until at length, on Saturday evening last, he fell in excellent health and spirits, and only a few moments before had asleep in Jesus. His death, like his life, was very beautiful. He been jesting with the children. He was 65 years of age. died full of hope in the merits of his Redeemer, looking forward Mr. Bruce was born in Scotland and was very respectably conjoyfully to a glorious resurrection. --St. Catharines Constitutional. nected. While still a young man he came to Canada, adopted the

vocation of teacher, and opened a school in Montreal, where his No. 17.-REV. MR. GRANET.

ability and success soon made him known. Many years of his On Friday evening the Rev. Mr. Granet, Superior of the House active life were devoted to the exercise of his profession, during

which he rendered important services to the cause of education. * See the article on the “necessity for educated farmers in Canada " and When the law creating the office of School Inspector was put in the recommendation of the North Oxford Agricultural Society on this sub force, he was one of those first appointed, and continued to disject, in the Journal for last month, page 22.

charge the duties of his official position until death removed him

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