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61 And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and 65 For she had said unto the servant, What they rode upon the camels, and followed the man: man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? and the servant took Rebekah, and went his way. And the servant had said, It is my master:
62 1 And Isaac came from the way of the therefore she took a veil, and covered herself. * well Lahairoi; for he dwelt in the south country. 66 And the servant told Isaac all things that
63 And Isaac went out bto meditate in the he had done. field at the eventide : cand he lifted up his igersSarah's tent, and took Rebekah, and she be
67 And Isaac brought her into his mother and saw, and behold, the camels were coming.
64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when came his wife; and he loved her: and Isaac she saw Isaac, d she lighted off' the camel. & was comforted after his mother's death.
* Ch. 16. 14 & 25. 11.- Or, to pray. Josh. 1.8. Pra. 1. 2 & 77. 12. & 119. 15.
& 143 5.- Josh. 15. 18.
e Ch. 20. 16. 1 Cor. 11. 1, 6, 10.-- Ch. 18. 6, 9, 10.-8 Ch. 38. 12 1 Thess. 4. 15.
was a measure dictated by good sense and prudence. own kindred, among whom the knowledge of the true Rebekah had other female attendants.-See ver. 61. God was best preserved. Others had different rays of the
Verse 60. Be thou the mother of thousands of mil- light of truth; but Abraham's family alone had the truth; lions] 2227 DSN le-alphey rababah, "for thousands ten and to the descendants of this family were the promises thousand,” or for myriads of thousands—a large family made. being ever considered, in ancient times, as a proof of the How careful should parents be to procure alliances for peculiar blessing and favour of God.
their children with those who fear God, as so much of the Verse 62. And Isaac came] Concerning this well, see peace and comfort of the children, and the happiness of chap. xvi. 13, &c. As it appears from chap. xxv. 11. that their posterity, depends on this circumstance. But, alas ! Isaac dwelt at the well Lachai-roi, it has been conjectured how many sacrifice the comfort and salvation of their offthat he had now come on a visit to his aged father at spring at the shrine of Mammon! If they can procure Beersheba, where he waited in expectation of his bride. rich husbands and wires for their daughters and sons,
For he dwet in the south country. The southern part then all, in their apprehension, is well. Marriages of this of the land of Canaan.-See chap. xii. 9.
kind may be considered as mere bargain and sale; for Verse 63. Isaac went out to meditate) mos la-suach, there is scarcely ever any reference to God or eternity in to bend down the body, or the mind, or both. He was them. The divine institution of marriage is left out of probably in deep thought, with his eyes fixed upon the sight; and the persons are united, not properly to each ground. What the subject of his meditation was, it is other, in the love, fear, and according to the ordinance of useless to inquire: he was a pious man, and he could not God, but they are wedded to so many thousand pounds be triflingly employed.
sterling, and to so many houses, fields, &c. Thus, like Verse 65. She took a veil] pysn ha-tsaâif. This is goes to like, metal to metal, and earth to earth. Marthe first time this word occurs, and it is of doubtful signifi-riages formed on such principles, are mere licensed adultcation; but most agree to render it a deil or a cloak. The eries. Let such contractors hear these awful words of former is the most likely, as it was generally used by God—“Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that women in the east, as a sign of chastity, modesty, and the friendship of the world is enmity to God ?" James iv. subjection.
4. See on ver. 36. Verse 67. Sarah's tent] Sarah being dead, her tent Though, under the patriarchal dispensation, parents had became now appropriated to the use of Rebekah.
a kind of absolute authority over their children, and might And he took Rebekah, &c. After what form this
was dispose of them as they pleased in general cases ; yet it done, we are not told; or whether there was any form appears, that in matrimonial connexions they were under used on the occasion, more than solemnly receiving her as no compulsion. The suitable person was pointed out and the person whom God had chosen to be his wife; for it recommended; but it does not appear that children were appears from ver. 66. that the servant told him all the forced against the whole tide of their affections, to take especial providential circumstances which had marked his those persons who were the objects of the parents' choice. journey. The primitive form of marriage we have Wilt thou go with this man? was, in all likelihood, deemalready seen, chap. ii. 23, 24. which, it is likely, as far as ed essential to the completion of the contract; and by the form was attended to, or judged necessary, was that answer, I will go, was the contract fully ratified. Thus which was commonly used in all the patriarchal times. the persons were ultimately left to their own choice, though
In this chapter we have an affecting and edifying display the most prudent and proper means were no doubt used in of that providence
, by which God disposes and governs the order to direct and fix it. Whether this was precisely the affairs of the universe, descending to the minutest particu- plan followed in primitive times, we cannot absolutely lars, and managing the great whole by directing and say; they were times of great simplicity; and, probably, influencing all its parts. This particular or especial connexions on the mere principle of affection, independprovidence, we see, is not confined to work by general ently of all other considerations, seldom existed. And it laws-it is wise and intelligent; for it is the mind, the will, must be allowed that matches formed on the sole principle and energy of God. It steps out of common ways, and of conveniency, might as well be formed by the parents as takes particular directions, as endlessly varied human by any others; and in Asiatic countries it was generally necessities may need, or the establishment and maintenance 80; for there the female seldom presumes to have a choice of godliness in the earth may require. What a history of of her own. providential occurrences, coming, all in answer to the In all cases of this kind, the child should invariably prayer and faith of a simple, humble individual, does this consult the experience and wisdom of the parents; and chapter exhibit!
the parents should ever pay much respect to the feelings As Abraham's servant has God's glory only in view in of child, nor oppose an alliance which may be in all the errand on which he is going, he may well expect the other respects suitable, because there may be a lack of divine direction. See with what simplicity and confidence property on one side of the intended match. If parents he prays to God! He even prescribes the way in which would proceed in this way, God would pour his blessing the divine choice and approbation shall be made known: on their seed, and his Spirit upon their offspring. and God honours the purity of his motives, and his pious
NOTES ON CHAPTER XXV. faith, by giving him precisely the answer he wished. How Verse 1. Then again Abraham took a wife] When honourable in the sight of God is simplicity of heart! It Abraham took Keturah, we are not informed: it might has nothing to fear, and all good to hope for: whereas a have been in the lifetime of Sarah; and the original 909 spirit, warped by self-interest and worldly views, is always taiyoseph, and he added, &c. seems to give some coununcertain and agitated; as it is ever seeking that from tenance to this opinion. Indeed it is not very likely that its own counsels, projects, and schemes, which should be he had the children mentioned here after the death of sought in God alone. In every place the upright man Sarah; and from the circumstances of his
age, feebleness, meets with his God, his heart acknowledges his Maker, &c. at the birth of Isaac, it is still more improbable. and his Maker acknowledges him; for such an one, the Even at that age, forty years before the marriage of Isaac, whole economy of providence and grace is ever at work. the birth of his son is considered as not less miraculous on Abraham's solicitude to get a suitable wife for his son his part
, than on the part of Sarah; for the apostle ex. is worthy of the most serious regard. He was well aware, pressly says, Rom. iv. 19. that Abraham considered not that if Isaac formed a matrimonial alliance with the Ca | his own body NOW DEAD, when he was about a hundred naanites, it might be ruinous to his piety, and prevent the years old, nor the DEADNESS of Sarah's womb : hence we dissemination of the true religion : therefore he binds his learn, that they were both past the procreation of children; most trusty servant by a solemn oath, not to take a wife insomuch that the birth of Isaac is ever represented as for his son from the daughters of Canaan, but from his supernatural. It is therefore very improbable that he had
. 1504 Abraham marries Keturah. I. Their isare, 34. Makes Isaac lis heir, 5. But gives Dedan. And the song of Dedan 'were portions to the sons of his concubines, and sents then eastwar) from Isaac, to find Rettlements, 6. Abraham saze, ?, an death, s, Bened by his show Imac and it! | Ashurim, Letushim, and Leummim. moi, in the cave of Machrelah, 9, 10 Gr's blessing upon Isanc, II. The gen 4. And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, erations of Ishul, 12-16. His nge and death, 19 of the generations of Isaac, 19, who was married in his forticih year, 2). Rebekah his wife being barren, on and Hanoch, and Abidah, and Eldaah. Ali his prayer to Gol, conceives, 21 She inquires of the Lord concerning her state these were the children of Keturah. 22'The Lone answer, 33. She is delivered of twins, 21. Peculiarities in the birth of her sous Esu and Jacob, from which they had their names, 25, 26. Their 5 And d Abraham gave all that he A M.cir 2175
B. C. cir. 1829. frorn tus brother, 29, 30. Jacob refuses to grant him any, but on coation of his had unto Isaac. selling him his birthright, 31. Esau, ready to die, parts with the birthright to save his lie, 32 Jacob catisee him to confirm the sole with an oath, 33. He receives
6 But unto the sons of the concubines, which bread and postage of lenules, and departs, 31.
Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent name was Keturah.
) unto the east . A M. cir. 2155.
2 And b she bare him Zimran, and B. C. cir. 1849.
7 | And these are the days of the A M. 218?
BC 1821. Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, years of Abraham's life which he lived, and Ishbak, and Shuah.
a hundred, threescore and fifteen years.
THEN againk Abraham took a wife, and her them away from heaac thèsesore (while he yet
a Ch. 23 1, 2 -- 1 Chron. I. 32, 33.-e Ch. 37. . Exod. 2 15, 16. & 18. 1-4.
Num. 22. 4. Judges 6. & 7. & 8.-- Ch. 21. 36.- Ch. 21. 14.-Judges 6 3
any child after the birth of Isaac; and therefore we may law which has prevailed in almost all countries, of giring well suppose, that Moses has related this transaction out the estates to the eldest son by a lawful wife: for though of its chronological order, which is not infrequent in the concubines, or wives of the second rank, were perfectly Sacred Writings, when a variety of important facts rela- legitimate in those ancient times, yet their children did not tive to the accomplishment of some grand design are inherit, except in case of the failure of legal issue, and thought necessary to be produced in a connected series. with the consent of the lawful wife; and it is very properly On this account, interrening matters of a different com observed by Calmet, that it was in consequence of the plexion are referred to a future time. Perhaps we may be consent of Leah and Rachel that the children of their justified in reading the verse—“And Abraham had added, slaves by Jacob had a common and equal lot with the rest. and had taken a wife, (besides Hagar) whose name was By a law of Solon, all natural children were excluded Keturah," &c. Jonathan ben Uzziel, and the Jerusalem from the paternal inheritance : but their fathers were per.
Targum, both assert, that Keturah was the same as mitted to give them any sum not beyond a thousand Hagar. Some rabbins, and with them Dr. Hammond, drachma, by way of present. are of the same opinion; but both Hagar and Keturah are Eastward, unto the east country] Arabia Deserta, which so distinguished in the Scriptures, that the opinion seems was eastward of Beer-sheba, where Abraham lived. destitute of probability.
Verse 7. The days of the years, &c.] There is a beauty Verse 2. Zimran) Stephanus Byzantinus mentions a in this mode of expression, which is not sufficiently recity in Arabia Felict called Zadram, which some sup- garded. Good men do not live by centuries, though many pose to have taken its name from this son of Keturah; such have lived several hundred years; nor do they count but it is more likely, as Calmet observes, that all these their lives even by years, but by days, living as if they sons of Abraham had their residence in Arabia Deserta ; were the creatures only of a day, having no more time and Pliny, Hist. Nat. l. vi. c. 28. mentions a people in that that they can with any propriety call their own; and living country called Zamarenians, who were probably the de that day in reference to eternity. scendants of this person.
Verse 8. Then Abraham gare up the Ghost) Highly Jokshan) Several learned men have been of opinion as I value our translation for general accuracy, fidelity and that this Jokshan was the same as Kachtan, the father of elegance, I must beg leave to dissent from this version. The the Arabs. The testimonies in favour of this opinion see original word yu yigerâh, from the root yu gavâ, signifies in Dr. Hunt's Oration, De Antiquitate, &c. Linguæ to pant for breath, to expire, to cease from breathing, or Arabica, p. 4. Calmet supposes that the Cataneans, who to breathe one's last ; and here, and wherever the original inhabited a part of Arabia Deserta, sprang from this word is used, the simple term expired, would be the proper Jokshan.
expression. In our translation this expression occurs Gen. Medan and Midian) Probably those who peopled that xxv. 8, 17. xxxv. 29. xlix. 33. Job iii. 11. x. 18. xi. 20. part of Arabia Petræa, contiguous to the land of Moab, xii. 19. xiv. 10. Lam. i. 19. in all of which places the eastward of the Dead sea. St. Jerom terms the people original is yu garâ. It occurs also in our translation, of this country. Madiancans; and Ptolemy mentions a Jerem. xv. 9. but there the original is nuD AND: naphepeople called Madianites, who dwelt in the same place. chah naphshah-she breathed out her soul; the verb 7u
Ishbak] From this person, Calmet supposes, the brook garah, not being used. Now as our English word ghost, Jabok, which has its source in the mountains of Gilead, from the Anglo Saxon Isard, gast, an inmate, inhabitant, and falls into the sea of Tiberias, took its name.
guest, (a casual visitant,) also a spirit, is now restricted Shuah, or Shuach) From this man the Sacceans, near among us to the latter meaning, always signifying the im. to Batania, at the extremity of Arabia Deserta, towards mortal spirit or soul of man, the guest of the body; and Syria, are supposed to have sprung. Bildad, the Shuhite, as giving up the spirit, ghost, or soul, is an act not proper one of Job's friends, is supposed to have descended from to man, though commending it to God, in our last mothis son of Abraham.
ments, is both an act of faith and piety; and as giving up Verse 3. Sheba] From whom sprang the Sabeans, who the ghost, i. e. dismissing his spirit from his body, is robbed Job of his cattle.-See Bochari and Calmet. attributed to Jesus Christ, to whom alone it is proper, I
Ashurim, Letushim, and Leummim! We know not therefore object against its use in every other case. who these were; but as each name is plural, they must Every man, since the fall, has not only been liable to have been tribes, or families, and not individuals. On-death, but has deserved it; as all have forfeited their lives kelos interprets these words of persons dwelling in camps,
hecause of sin. Jesus Christ, as born immaculate, and tents, and islands; and Jonathan ben Uzziel calls them having never sinned, had not forfeited his life; and theremerchants, artificers, and heads, or chiefs of people. fore may be considered as naturally and properly immortal.
Verse 4. Ephah, and Epher, &c.] Of these we know No man, says he, taketh it, my life, from me, but I lay it no more than of the preceding; and it is useless to multiply dowon of myself: I have power to lay it down, and I hate conjectures : an abundance is already furnished by the power to take it again ; therefore doth the Father love commentators.
me because I lay dovon my life ihat I might take it again, Verse 5. Gave all that he had unto Isaac) His princi- John x. 17, 18. Hence we rightly translate Matt. xxvii. pal flocks, and especially his right to the land of Canaan, 50. xenxo të tysuun, he gate up the ghost
, i. e. he dismissed including a confirmation to him and his posterity of what- his spirit, that he might die for the sin of the world. ever was contained in the promises of God.
The evangelist St. John (xix. 30.) makes use of an exVerse 6. Unto the sons of the concubines] Viz. Hagar pression to the same import, which we translate in the and Keturah, Abraham gave gifts. Catile for breed, seed same way: napolax® To Troupes, he delivered up his spirit. to sow the land, and implements for husbandry, may be We translate Mark xv. 37. and Luke xxiii. 46. he gave up what is here intended.
the ghost, but not correctly, because the word in both these And sent them away-while he yet lived] Lest, after his places is very different-eureurs, he breathed his last, or death, they should dispute a settlement in the land of expired; though in the latter place, Luke xxiii. 46. there is promise with Isaac; iherefore he very prudently sent an equivalent expression-0 Father, into thy hands, ihem to procure settlements during his lifetime, that they arqzti se pozeo to AVIOPspou, I commit my spirit; i. e. I place might be under no temptation to dispute the settlement my soul in thy hand: proving that the act was his oron ; with Isaac in Cannan. From this circumstance arose that I that no man could take his life away from him; that he
8 Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and ( Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, died in a good old age, an old man, and full Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham: of years, and was gaihered to his people. 13 And h these are the names of the sons of
9 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in Ishmael, by their names, according to their genethe cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the rations: the first born of Ishmael, Nebajoth; son of Zoar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam.
10 « The field which Abraham purchased of 14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and A. M. cir: 214a the sons of Heth: 'there was Abraham buried, Massa, and Sarah his wife.
15 i Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and 11 | And it came to pass after the death of Kedemah: Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and 16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these Isaac dwelt by the 'well Lahai-roi.
are their names, by their towns, and by their cas12 | Now these are the generations of Ishmael, tles; ktwelve princes according to their nations. + Ch 15. 5.& 49. 9.– Ch. 35. 29. & 49. – Ch. 35 29. & 50, 13–1 Ch. 3 16.
[ Ch. 16. 14. & 24. 62.-g Ch. 16. 15.--I Chron. 1. 29. --- Or, Hadad. I Chron.
1. 30.--- Ch. 17. 20.
e Ch. 49. 31.
did not die by the perfidy of his disciple, or the malice of widely different spirit from that recommended by the above the Jews, but by his oron free act. Thus HE LAID DOWN his writers---HE left life with a hope full of immortality, which life for the sheep. Of Ananias and Sapphira, Acts v. 5, they could never boåst ; for he saw the day of Christ, and 10. and of Herod, Acts xii. 23. our translation says they was glad--and his hope was crowned; for here it is exgave up the ghost: but the word in both places is egevuge, pressly said, He was gathered to his fathers-surely not to which simply means to breathe out, to expire, or die: but the bodies of his sleeping ancestors, who were buried in in no case, either by the Septuagint in the Old, or any of Chaldea, and not in Canaan; nor with his fathers in any the sacred writers in the New Testament, is xomx6 TO AVO.de, sense, for he was deposited in the cave where his WIFE or nxgidwxs to sveux, he dismissed his spirit
, or delivered alone slept; but he was gathered to the spirits of just men up his spirit, spoken of any person but Christ. Abraham, made perfect, and to the church of the firstborn, whose Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, &c breathed their last; Ananias, names are written in heaven. Heb. xii. 23. Sapphira, and Herod, expired; but none, Jesus Christ Verse 9. His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him] excepted, gave up the ghost, dismissed, or delivered up, his Though Ishmael and his mother had been expelled from on spirit, and was consequently free among the dead. Abraham's family on the account of Isaac, yet as he was Of the patriarchs, &c. the Septuagint use the word 6x2567wv, under the same obligations to a most loving, affectionate failing; or 24Titæuose, he ceased, or rested.
father, as his brother Isaac, if any personal feuds remained An old man, yiz. one hundred and seventy-five, the they agreed to bury them on this occasion, that both might youngest of all the patriarchs, and full of years] The dutifully join in doing the last offices to a parent who was word years is not in the text; but as our translators saw an honour to them and to human nature : and considering that some word was necessary to fill up the text, they the rejection of Ishmael from the inheritance, this transacadded this in italics. It is prohable that the true word is tion shows his character in an amiable point of view. For opy yamim, days, as in Gen. xxxv. 29. and this reading is though he was a wild man, (see ch. xvi. 12.) yet this apfound in several of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS. in pears to be more characteristic of his habits of life, than the Samaritan text, Septuagint, Vulgate, Syraic, Ara- of his disposition. bic, Persic, and Chaldee. On these authorities it might For the character of Abraham, see the conclusion of this be safely admitted into the text.
chapter. Being full of days, or full of life] To be satiated Verse 11. God blessed his son Isaac] The peculiar with days, or life, has been in use among different nations, blessings and influences by which Abraham had been disto express the termination of life, and especially life ended tinguished, now rested upon Isaac: but how little do we without reluctance. It seems to be a metaphor taken from hear in him of the work of faith, the patience of hope, and a guest regaled by a plentiful banquet, and is thus used by the labour of love! Only one Abraham, and one Christ, the Roman poets.
ever appeared among men: there have been some successLucretius, ridiculing those who were unreasonably at- ful imitators ; there should have been many. tached to life, and grievously afflicted at the prospect of Verse 12. These are the generations of Ishmael] The death, addresses them in the following manner :
object of the inspired writer seems to be, to show how the -Quid mortem congemis ac Rea ?
promises of God were fulfilled to both branches of AbraNam á grata fuit tibi rita anteacta, priorque,
ham's family. Isaac has been already referred to: God Et non omnia pertusum congesta quasi in vas
blessed him according to the promise. He had also promCornmoda per utere, atque ingrata interiere: Cur non, ut pleuus vitae conviva, recedis ?
ised to multiply Ishmael; and an account of his genera
tions is introduced, to show how exactly the promise had Food mortal, what's the matter thou dost sigh?
also been fulfilled to him. Why all these feats, becanse thou once must die 1 For if the race thou hast already run
Verse 13. Nebajoth) From whom came the Nabatheans, Was plensant; it with joy thou sew'st the sup: If all thy pleasures did not pass thy mind
whose capital was Petra, or, according to Strabo, NabaAs throa sieve, but left sone sweets behind,
thea. They dwelled in Arabia Petræa, and extended Why dost thou not then, like a thankful guest, Rime cheerfally from life's abundant feast?
themselves on the east toward Arabia Deserta. Creech
Kedar) The founder of the Cedreans, who dwelled near Et nec opinanti mora od caput astitit ante
to the Nabatheans. The descendants of Kedar form a Quam satur, ac plenus poesie discedere rerum.
part of the Saracens. And unexpectel hasty death destroya,
Adbeel, and Mibsam] Where these were situated is Before thy greedy mind is full of joye.
not known. Horace makes use of the same figure:
Verse 14. Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa) Where Inde At, ut rero, grad se viriase beatrem
the first and last of these settled is not known; but it is Dhcat, d eracto contentus lempore vitæ Cedat uti conviva satur, reperire queamus.
probable that Dumah gave his name to a place called
Dumah, in Arabia. See a prophecy concerning this place, From bence, bow few, like sated guests depart
Isai. xxi. 11. from which we find that it was in the vicinity From life's full banquet with a cheerful heart 7
of mount Seir. The same image is expressed with strong ridicule in his
These three names have passed into a proverb among the last EPISTLE :
Hebrews, because of their signification. ypeo mishmå
Epist. L ii. v. 216. signifies HEARING; nondumah SILENCE; and nuo massa, Thou hast enten, drumk, and playd enough: then why
PATIENCE. Hence, “Hear much, say little, and bear So stark reluctant to leave off, and die?
much: tantamount to the famous maxim of the StoicsThe poet Statius uses abire paratum, PLENUM vitâ, *vizou zzi antyou--Sustain and abstain, is supposed to be prepared to depart, being Full Of Life-in exactly the the spirit of the original words. same sense. Sylv. 1. ii.
Verse 15. Hadar) This name should be read Hadad, as -Dubio quern non in turbine rerum
in 1 Chron. i. 30. This reading is supported by more than Deprendet suprana dica; set abire paratum,
three hundred MSS. versions, and printed editions.-See Ac plenam vita Sylvar. I ii Villa Surrentina, F. 123.
the note on ver. 18. The man whose mighty soul is not immen'd
Tema) Supposed to be a place in Arabia Deserta, the Hun final hour ne'er takes him by karprise;
same of which Job speaks, ch. vi. 19. But, full of aife, he clande prepard to die.
Jetur] From whom came the Iturcans, who occupied It was the opinion of Aristotle, that a man should depart a small tract of country beyond Jordan, which was afterfrom life, as he should rise from a banquet. Thus Abra- ward possessed by the hall tribe of Manasseh. ham died, FULL of days, and SATISFIED with life: but in a Naphish] These are evidently the same people menVOL. I.-14
Lucr. lib. lii. v. 917.
Ib. s. 972
Sat 1 i. Sat i v. 117.
In dations whirl of secular concerns,
17 And these are the years of the life of Ish 18 And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, mael, a hundred and thirty and seven years: that is before Egypt, as thou goest towards and he gave up the ghost, and died; and was Assyria: and he died din the presence of all gathered unto his people:
A Ver. 8.
b 1 Sam. 15. 7.--c Heb. fel. Psa. 78. 6. Ch. 16. 12.
tioned 1 Chron. v. 19. who, with the Itureans and the who wish to enter into discussions of this nature, must people of Nadah, assisted the Hagarines against the Israel, consult Bocharts Geographia Sacra, Calmet, &c. ites, but were overcome by the two tribes of Reuben and On the subject of writing the same proper name variGad, and the half tribe of Manasseh.
ously in our common Bibles, the following tables and obKedemah] Probably the descendants of this person servations will not be unacceptable to the reader. dwelt at Kedemoth, a place mentioned Deut. ii. 26. I wish I shall add here from the Pentateuch, some proper the reader to observe, that concerning those ancient tribes names, which are strangely varied : first twenty-three mentioned here, or elsewhere in the Pentateuch, little is names expressed differently in the Hebrew text itself, and known; nor of their places of settlement have we more seventeen of them in our English translation; and then certain information. On this subject many learned men thirty-one names expressed uniformly in the Hebreu, yes have toiled hard, with but little fruit of their labour. Those differently in the English.
x. 4. X. 23. X. 28.
SAME NAMES DIFFERING IN THE HEBREW. 1 Gen. iv. 18.
Mehujael Mehijael In the same verse.
Riphath Diphath 1 Chron. i. 6.
In the next verse.
1 Chron. i. 36.
Nemuel Num. xxvi. 12.
1 Chron. iv. 24.
Num. xxvi. 13. and
1 Chron. iv. 24. 15 xlvi. 11.
Gershon Gershom 1 Chron. vi. 1. 16.
Num. xxvi. 24.
Huppim Huram 1 Chron. viii. 5.
Hushim Shuham Num. xxvi. 42.
In the same verse.
Num. ii. 14.
Deut. xxxiv. 9.
v. 15. v. 18. v. 21. X. 6.
NAMES, THE SAME IN HEBREW YET DIFFERENT IN ENGLISH.
1 Chron. i. 1.
Gen. xv. 16, 21.
Deut. ii. 23. and
Jer. xxv. 20.
1 Chron. i. 17.
Deut. xxix. 23.
ii. 20. ii. 11, 13.
I Chron. v. 19.
Jer. xxxi. 15.
The Temanites 1 Chron. i. 45.
Exod. xii. 37.
Num. iii. 19.
1 Chron. vi. 4, 19.
Amos v. 26.
Deut. xxxii. 44.
Num. xiv. 6.
Deut. ii. 13.
Num. xxxii. 35.
Deut. x. 6.
Jaakan 31 Deut. iii. 17.
- iv. 49.
Verse 16. These are their names) By which their de rocks, and fastnesses of various kinds in woods and hilly scendants were called. Their towns-Places of encamp- countries. ment in the wilderness, such as have been used by the Verse 18. They dwelt from Havilah unto Shur] The Arabs from the remotest times. Their castles, ont descendants of Ishmael possessed all that country which tirotam, their towers, probably mountais tops, fortified extends from east to west, from Havilah on the Euphrates,
19 | And these are the generations of Isaac, and the LORD was intreated of him, and · ReAbraham's son: a Abraham begat Isaac; bekah his wife conceived.
20 And Isaac was forty years old when 22. And the children struggled together A. M. 21.30
he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter within her; and she said, Ifitbeso, why am of Bethuel the Syrian, of Padanaram, the I thus? And she went to inquire of the LORD. sister to Laban the Syrian.
23 And the Lord said unto her, & Two nations 21 | And Isaac intreated the LORD are in thy womb, and two manner of people for his wife, because she was barren: shall be separated from thy bowels: and h ihe
A. M. cir. 2167
a Matt. 1.2--- Ch. 22 - Ch. 24. 29.-d 1 Chron. 5. 20. 2 Chron. 33. 13. Ezra 8.
2 - Rom. 9. 10. ---f 1 Sam. 9. 9. & 10. 22. -- Ch. 17. 16. & 21. 60.--h 2 Sam. 8. 14.
near its junction with the Tigris, to the desert of Shur, directly, purposely, especially for his wife. Mr. Ainsworth eastward of Egypt; and which extends along the Isthmus thinks the words imply their praying together, for this of Suez which separates the Red Sea from the Medi-thing: and the rabbins carry it farther, for they say thai, terranean.
“ Isaac and Rebekah went on purpose to mount Moriah, As thou gocst towards Assyria] These words, says where he had been bound, and prayed together there, that Calme, may refer either to Egypt, to Shur, or to Havi- they might have a son.” “God was pleased to exercise the lah. The desert of Shur is on the road from Egypt to faith of Isaac, previous to the birth of Jacob; as he had Assyria in traversing Arabia Petræa, and in passing by exercised that of Abraham previous to his own birth. the country of Havilah. I know not, adds he, whether Verse 22. The children struggled together) 1991 Ashurah, in the text, may not mark out rather the Assu- yithrotsatsu, they dashed against, or bruised each otherrim descended from Keturah, than the Assyrians, who there was a violent agitation, so that the mother was were the descendants of Ashur, the son of Shem. apprehensive both of her own and her children's safety ;
He died in the presence of all his brethren] The original and supposing that this was an uncommon case, she went will not well bear this translation. In ver. 17. it is said, to inquire of the Lord, as the good women in the present He gave up the ghost and died, and was gathered to his day would go to consult a surgeon or physician ; for interpeople. Then follows the account of the district occupied course with God is not so common nou, as it was in those by the Ishmaelites, at the conclasion of which it is added, times of great primitive simplicity. There are different SDU YON SS 1D by al peney col achaiv naphal, “It (the lot opinions concerning the manner in which Rebekah or district) FELL (or was divided to him) in the presence inquired of the Lord. Some think it was by faith and of all his brethren:" and this was exactly agreeable to the prayer simply: others, that she went to Shem or Milpromise of God, chap. xvi. 12. He shall dwell in the chesedek; but Shem is supposed to have been dead ten presence of all his brethren ; and to show that this promise years before this time; but as Abraham was yet alive, she had been strictly fulfilled, it is here remarked, that his lot might have gone to him, and consulted the Lord through or inheritance was assigned him by the Divine Provi- his means. It is most likely that a prophet or pricst was dence, contiguous to that of the other branches of the applied to on this occasion. It appears she was in confamily. The same word SD2 naphal, is used, Josh. xxiii. siderable perplexity, hence that imperfect speech-If so, 4. for to divide by lot.
why am Ithus-the simple meaning of which is probably Men, who have read their Bible with care, says Dr. this: If I must suffer such things, why did I ever wish Kennicott
, must have remarked, that the name of the to have a child? A speech not uncommon to mothers in same person is often expressed differently in different their first pregnancy. places. Indeed the variation is sometimes so great, that Verse 23. Theo nations are in thy womb] “We have,” we can scarcely persuade ourselves, that one and the says Bishop Newton, " in the prophecies delivered respectsame person is really meant. An uniform expression of ing the sons of Isaac, ample proof that these prophecies proper names is diligently attended to, in other books: were not meant so much of single persons, as of whole perhaps in every other book, except the Old Testament, nations descended from them; for what was predicted But, here we find strange variety in the expression, and concerning Esau and Jacob, was not verified in themconsequently great confusion: and, indeed, there is scarcely selves, but in their posterity. The Edomites were the any one general source of error which calls for more care- offspring of Esau, as the Israelites were of Jacob. And fuí correction than the same proper names now wrongly who but the Author and Giver of life could foresee that expressed.
two children in the womb, would multiply into two Nothing can be clearer, than that the above fifty-four nations ? Jacob had twelve sons, and their descendants proper names (at least, the far greater part of them) should were all united and incorporated into one nation ; and he expressed with the very same letters, in the places what an overruling providence was it that two nations where they are now different. In the second list, instances should arise from the two sons only of Isaac ? And that 6, 10, and 13, have been corrected, and expressed uniformly, they should be two such different nations. The Edomites in the English Bible printed at Oxford in 1769. And and Israelites have been from the beginning two such surely the same justice in the translation should be done different people in their manners, customs, and religion, to the rest of these proper names,
and to all
others through as to be at perpetual variance among themselves. The the Bible; at least, where the original words are now children struggled together in the womb, which was an properly the same. Who would not wonder, at seeing the omen of their future disagreement : and when they grew same persons named both Simon and Shimon, Richard up to manhood, they manifested very different inclinations. and Ricard? And can we then admit here both Seth and Esau was a cunning hunter, and delighted in the sports Sheth, Rachel and Rahel? Again; who ever could admit of the field : Jacob was a plain man dwelling in tents(as above) both Gaza and Azzah, with Rameses and minding his sheep and his cattle, ver. 27. The religion Raamses, should not object to London and Ondon, with of the Jews is well known; but whatever the Edomites Amsterdam and Amstrudam. In short : in a history far were at first, in process of time they became idolaters. more interesting than any other, the names of persons when Amaziah king of Judah overthrew them, he brought and places should be distinguished accurately, and defined their gods, and set them up to be his gods ; see 2 Chron. with exact uniformity. And no true critic will think xxv. 14, 15. The king of Edom having refused a passage lightly of this advice of Origen-Contemnenda non est to the Israelites through his territories on their return accurata circa NOMINA diligentia ci, qui roluerit probe from Egypt, the history of the Edomites afterward, is intelligere sanctas literas ? No person who desires thor- little more than the history of their wars with the Jews.". oughly to understand the sacred writings, should under The one people shall be stronger than the other people) value a scrupulous attention to the proper names.-Ken- The same author continues to observe, that for some time, nicott's Remarks.
the family of Esau was the more powerful of the two; Verse 19. These are the generations of Isaar) This is there having been dukes and kings in Edom before there the history of Isaac and his family. Here the sixth section was any king in Israel, Gen, xxxvi. 31. but David and of the law begins, called pas nosin toledoth yitschak; as his captains made an entire conquest of the Edomites, the fifth called ina na chayé Sarah, which begins with slew several thousands of them, 1 Kings xi. 16. 1 Chron. chap. xxiii. ends at the preceding verse.
xviii. 12. and compelled the rest to become tributaries, erse 21. Isaac entreated the Lord for his wife] Isaac and planted garrisons among them to secure their obediand Rebekah had now lived nineteen years together with-ence, 2 Sam. viii. 14. In this state of servilude they out having a child; for he was fortij years old when he continued about one hundred and fifty years, without a married Rebekah, ver. 20. and he was ihreescore years of king of their own; being governed by deputies or viceroys age when Jacob and Esau were born, ver. 26. Hence it appointed by the kings of Judah, 1 Kings xxii
. 42. but in is evident they had lived nineteen years together without the days of Jehoram, they revolted, recovered their liberhaving a child.
ties and set up a king of their own, 1 Kings xxii. 47. The form of the original in this place is worthy of Afterward Amaziah king of Judah gave them a total notice; Isaac entreated Jehovah vun 1935 lenocach ishto, I overthrow in the valley of Salt, 2 Kings xiv. 7. 2 Chron.