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B. C. cir. 1905.

one people shall be stronger than the other peo 28 And Isaac loved Esau, because he did ple; and “ the elder shall serve the younger.

i eat of his venison : k but Rebekah loved Jacob. 24 | And when her days to be delivered were 29 | And Jacob sod pottage: and A. d. cr fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. Esau came from the field, and he was

25 And the first came out red, ball over like faint: an hairy garment; and they called his name 30 And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray Esau.

thee, 'with that same red pottage; for I am 26 And after that came his brother out, and faint: therefore was his name called m Edom. chis hand took hold on Esau's heel and d his 31 And Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birthname was called Jacob: and Isaac was three-right. score years old when she bare them.

32 And Esau said, Behold, I am "at the point 27 | And the boys grew: and Esau was e a to die; and what profit shall this birth-right do cunning hunter, a man of the field: and Jacob to me? was ' a plain man, 5 dwelling in tents.

33 And Jacob said, Swear to me this day ;

a Ch. 27. 29. Mal. 1. 3. Rom. 9. 12.-b Ch. 27. 11, 16, 23.- Hos 12 3. Ch. 27.

36. Ch. 27. 3,5.- Job 1.1, 8. & 2. 3. Psa. 37. 37.-g Hebr. 11. 9.

b Heb. renison was in his mouth-i Ch. 27, 19, 35, 31.-k Ch. 27.6.- Heb. with

that red, with that red pottage ----m That is, red. --n Heb going to die.


xxv. 12. And Azariah took Elath. a commodious harbour one who supported himself and family by hunting and by on the Red sea, from them, 2 Kings xiv. 22. 2 Chron. agriculture. xxvi. 2. Judas Maccabeus also attacked and defeated Jacob was a plain man] on my Ish tam, a perfect or them with the loss of more than twenty thousand at two upright man-dielling in tents, subsisting by breeding different times, and took their chief city Hebron, 1 Macc. and tending cattle, which was considered in those early v. 2. 2 Macc. x. At last, Hyrcanus, his nephew, took times, the most perfect employment; and in this sense, other cities from them, and reduced them to the necessity the word on tam, should be here understood ; as in its of leaving their country or embracing the Jewish religion : moral meaning it certainly could not be applied to Jacob on which they submitted to be circumcised, and became till after his name was changed, after which time only his proselytes to the Jewish religion, and were ever after character stands fair and unblemished. See chap. xxxii. incorporated into the Jewish church and nation."

26-30. The elder shall serve the younger.) "This passage, Verse 28. Isaac lored Esau-but Rebekah lored says Dr. Dodd, serves for a key to explain the ninth Jacob}This is an early proof of unwarrantable parental chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, where the words attachment to one child in preference to another. Isaac are quoted; for it proves to a demonstration, that this loved Esau, and Rebekah loved Jacob, and in consequence cannot be meant of God's arbitrary predestination of par- of this, the interests of the family were divided, and the ticular persons to eternal happiness or misery, without | house set in opposition to itself.' The fruits of this unany regard to their merit or demerit; a doctrine which reasonable and foolish attachment were afterward seen, in some have most impiously fathered on God, who is the a long catalogue of both natural and moral evils among best of Beings, and who cannot possibly hate, far less, the descendants of both families. absolutely doom to misery, any creature that he has made; Verse 29. Sod pottage 79377 Yazed nazid, he boiled a but that it means only, his bestowing greater external boiling; and this, we are informed, ver. 34. was of dry favours, or if you please, higher opportunities for knowing âdashim, what the Septuagint render &xxo$ ; and we, and doing their duty, upon some men, than he does upon following them and the Vulgate lens, translate lentiles, á others; and that merely according to his own wise pur sort of pulse. Dr. Shaw casts some light on this passage, pose, without any regard to their merits or demerits, as speaking of the inhabitants of Barbary. “Beans, lentiles, having a right to confer greater or smaller degrees of per- kidney-beans, and garrancos, says he, "are the chiefest fection on whom he pleases.

of their pulse kind; beans, when boiled and stewed with The doctrine of unconditional predestination to eternal oil and garlic, are the principal food of persons of all dislife and eternal death cannot be supported by the example tinctions : lentiles are dressed in the same manner with of God's dealings with Esau and Jacob; or with the beans, dissolving easily into a mass, and making a pottage Edomites and Israelites. After long reprobation, the of a chocolate colour. This we find was the red pottage Edomites were incorporated among the Jews, and have which Esau, from thence called Edom, exchanged for his ever since been undistinguishable members in the Jewish birthright.. Shaw's Travels, p. 140. 4to. Edit. church. The Jews, on the contrary, the elect of God, Verse 30. I am fai It appears from the whole of have been cut off and reprobated, and continue so to this this transaction, that Esau was so completely exhausted day. If a time should ever come when the Jeres shall all by fatigue, that he must have perished had he not obtained believe in Christ Jesus (which is a general opinion,) then some immediate refreshment. 'He had been either hunting the Edomites, which are now absorbed among them, shall or labouring in the field, and was now returning for the also become the elect. And even now, Isaac finds both his

purpose of getting some food; but had been so exhausted, children within the pale of the Jewish church, equally that his strength utterly failed, before he had time to make entitled to the promises of salvation by Christ Jesus, of the necessary preparations, whom he was the most expressive and the most illustrious Verse 31. Sel 'me this day thy birthright] What the type ; see the account of Abraham's offering, chap. xxii. moga becorath, or birthright was, has greatly divided both

Verse 24. There were twins) opin thomim, from which ancient and modern commentators. It is generally supcomes the name Thomas, properly interpreted, John xi. posed that the following rights were attached to the primo16. by the word Aiduos, Didymus, which in Greek signi- geniture:-1. Authority and superiority over the rest of fies a twin: so the first person who was called Thomas, or the family; 2. A double portion of the parental inheritance; Didymus, we may take for granted, had this name from 3. The peculiar benediction of the father; 4. The priestthe circumstance of his being a tiin.

hood previous to its establishment in the family of Aaron. Verse 25. Red all over like an hairy garment] This Calmet controverts most of these rights, and with apparent simpiy means, that he was covered all over with red hair reason, and seems to think that the double portion of the or down; and that this must be intended here is sufficiently paternal inheritance was the only incontestable right which evident from another part of his history, where Rebekah, in the first-born possessed; the others were such as were order to make her favourite son Jacob pass for his brother rather conceded to the first-born, than fixed by auy law in Esau, was obliged to take the skins of kids and put them the family. However this may be, it appears 1. That the upon his hands, and on the smooth part of his neck. first-born were peculiarly consecraied io God, Exod. xxii.

They called his name Esau.] It is difficult to assign the 29. ;—2. Were next in honour to their parents, Gen. xlix. proper meaning of the original 1wy ésau or ĉsav; if we 3. ;--3. Had a double portion of their faiber's goods, Deut. derive it from nay âsah, it must signify made, performed, xxi. 17.;-4. Succeeded them in the government of the and according to some, perfected; huc esa, in Arabic, family or kingdom, 2 Chron. xxi. 3. ;--5. Had the sole signifies to make firm, or hard ; and also to come to man's right of conducting the service of God, both at the taberestate, to grow old. Probably he had this name from his nacle and temple; and hence the tribe of Levi, which was appearing to be more perfect, robust, &c. than his brother. taken in lieu of the first-born, had the sole right of admin

Verse 26. His name was called Jacob) apya Yaacob, istration in the service of God, Num. vii. 14—17. And from spy akab, to defraud, deceive, to supplant, i. e. to hence, we may presume, had originally a right to the overthrow a person by tripping up his heels. Hence this priesthood, previous to the giving of the law; but however name veas given to Jacoh, because it was found he had this might have been, afterward the priesthood is never laid hold on his brother's heel, which was emblematical of reckoned among the privileges of the first-horn. his supplanting Esau, and defrauding him of his birthright. That the birth-right was a matter of very great importVerse 27. A man of the field] 17V win Ish Sadch, I ance, there can be no room to doubt; and that it was a

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and he sware unto him: and he sold his birth 2 | And the Lord appeared unto him and said, right unto Jacob.

Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land 31 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage which I shall tell thee of: of lentiles; and he did eat and drink, and rose 3 Sojourn in this land, and I will be with up, and went his way: thus Esau despised his thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee, and birth-right.

unto thy seed, i I will give all these countries; CHAPTER XXVI.

and I will perform the oath which I sware unto

Abraham thy father: A famine in the larrl obliger Isaac to leave Beer-shebu and go to Cerar, 1. God ap. pens to him, mans him not to go to Egypt, 2 Renews the promises to hin 4 And I will make thy seed to multiply as the Which he had made to his father Abraham, 3-5. Isac dwells at Gerar, 6. Being questionet tonearring Hotekah, at tearing to lose his life on her account, be calls stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all ber bis sister, 7. Abimelech the king discovers, by certain lamharities which be

these countries; mand in thy seed shall all the and not been leac aml Retreat, that she was his trife,& Calle Isaac and repruache bim for his maincerity, 2, 1. He gives a strict command to all bis nations of the earth be blessed;

5 Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, ami brug of cattle, and be a great increas, 12-11'ls envied by the Philis turnes

, on arp up tle selle tee tuul digged, 15. Is desite by Abimelech to remove; and kept my charge, my commandments, my 16: het is, il fixes his tent in the alloy of Cerar, 17. Open the wells dug in the days of Abraham, which the Philistines had stopped up, 18. Dig the well statutes, and my laws. E rt, 19, 20, and the well Sirink, 21; and the well Rehoboth 22 Returns to Beer-la, 23 Gol appar to him and renews his prunira, 21. He builds in

6 | And Isaac dwelt in Gerar: altar ther, pitches bis tent, and is a well, 25. Abimelech. Aburaath, an Phichol

7 And the men of the place asked him of his vint him, 3. Ta ac accuses urn of unkindnes, 27. 'They leg him to make a

He makes them a fent, and they bind themelves to wife; and he said, She is my sister: for Phe each other by an eh, 30, 31. The well digget by Isaac'emur alled feared to say She is my wife ; lest, said he, the

, forty , wives of the Hiltiles, 31. at shich Isaac and Rebekah are grieved, 35.

men of the place should kill' me for Rebekah; A M. cir. 220. B. C. cir. 104. besides the first famine that was

it came to pass, when he had been there in the da of Abraham. And Isaac went unto a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philis& Abimelech king of the Philistines, unto Gerar. tines looked out at a window, and saw, and,

a leb. 12. 16. - Ferles S. 15. Isai. 22. 13. 1 Cor. 15. 32. Ch. 12. 10.-ich. 20. iCh. 13. 15. 15. 18. ---k Ch. 22. 16. Psa. 105. 9. ---Ch. 15. 5. & 22. 17.---- Ch.12 3. 2-Ch 12 Ch 29. 1. Pa 9. 12 Heb. 11. 9.-- Ch. 23. 15.---h Ch. 12 1. & 22 18.-n Ch. 22. 16, 18. --oCh. 12. 13. & 20.2, 13. --- Prov. 29. 25. Ch. 21. 16. transferable property, the transaction here, sufficiently should not we do likewise ? The present moment and its proves.

duties are ours; every past moment was once present; Verse 34. Pottage of lentiles! See on verse 29. every future will be present; and, while we are thinking

Thus Esau despised his birth-right] On this account on the subject, the present is past, for life is made up of the apostle, Heb. xii. 16. calls Esau a profane person, the past and the present. Are our past moments the cause because he had by this act, alienated from himself and of deep regret and Irumiliation ? then let us use the present family, those spiritual offices connected with the rights of so as not to increase this lamentable cause of our distresses. primogeniture. While we condemn Esau for this bad In other words, let us now believe-love-obey. Regardaction, for he should rather have perished than have less of all consequences let us, like Abraham, follow the alienated this right; and while we consider it as a proof directions of God's word, and the openings of his provithat his mind was little affected with divine or spiritual dence, and leave all events to Him who doth all things things; what shall we say of his most unnatural brother well. Jacob, who refused to let him have a morsel of food to See to what a state of moral excellence the grace of God preserve him from death, unless he gave him up his birth- can exalt a character, when there is simple implicit faith, right? Surely he who bought it in such circumstances, and prompt obedience! Abraham walked before God, and was as bad as he who sold it. Thus Jacob verified his Abraham was perfect. Perhaps no human being ever right to the name of supplanter; a name which in its first exhibited a fairer, fuller portrait of the perfect man, than imposition appears to have had no other object in view, Abraham. The more I consider the character of this most than the circumstance of his catching his brother by the amiable patriarch, the more I think the saying of Calmet hed; but all his subsequent conduct proved that it was justifiable. “In the life of Abraham," says he, "we find truly descriptive of the qualities of his mind; as his whole an epitome of the whole law of nature, of the written law, life till the time his name was changed, and then he had a and of the Gospel of Christ. He has manifested in his change of nature, was a tissue of cunning and deception, own person those virtues, for which reason and philosophy the principles of which had been very early instilled into could scarcely find out names, when striving to sketch the him by a mother, whose regard for truth and righteous- character of their sophist, wise, or perfect man. St. ness appears to have been very superficial. See on chap. Ambrose very properly observes, that "Philosophy itself, xxvii.

could not equal in its descriptions and wishes, what was The death of Abraham, recorded in this chapter, natur exemplified by this great man, in the whole of his conally calls to mind the virtues and excellencies of this duct.' Magnus planè vir, quem rotis suis philosophia extraordinary man. His obedience to the call of God and non potuit equare; denique minus est quod illa finxit, faith in his promises, stand supereminent. No wonders, quam quod ille gessit. The LAW which God gave to signs, or miraculous displays of the great and terrible Moses, and in which he has proposed the great duties of God, as Israel required in Egypt, were used, or were the law of nature, seems to be a copy of the life of Abraham. necessary to cause Abraham to believe and obey. He left This patriarch, without being under the law, has perhis own land, not knowing where he was going, or for formed the most essential duties it requires : and as to the what purpose God had called him to remove. Exposed Gospel, its grand object was that on which he had fixed to various hardships, in danger of losing his life, and of his eye; that Jesus whose day he rejoiced to see: and as to witnessing the violation of his wife, he still obeyed and its spirit and design, they were wondrously exernplified in went on : courageous, humane, and disinterested, he cheer. that faith which was imputed to him for righteousness; fully risked his life for the welfare of others; and con receiving that grace which conformed his whole heart and tented with having rescued the captives and avenged the life to the will of his Maker, and enabled him to persevere oppressed, he refused to accept even the spoils he had unto death. “Abraham,” says the writer of Ecclesiasticus, taken from the enemy, whom his skill and valour had xliv. 20, &c. "was a great father of many people: in glory vanquished. At the same time, he considers the excellency was there none like unto him who kept the law of the Most of the power to be of God; and acknowledges this by High, and was in covenant with him: he established the giving to him the tenth of those spoils, of which he would covenant in his flesh, and when he was tried he was found reserve nothing for his private use. His obedience to God faithful.” -See Calmet. in offering up his son Isaac, we have already seen and As a son, as a husband, as a faiher, as a neighbour, as a admired ; together with the generosity of his temper, and sovereign, and, above all, as a man of God, he stands un.. that respectful decency of conduct towards superiors and rivalled ; so that under the most exalted and perfect of all inferiors, for which he was so peculiarly remarkable ; see dispensations, the Gospel of Jesus Christ, he is proposed on chap. xxii. Without disputing with his Maker, or and recommended as the model and pattern, according to doubting in his heart, he credited every thing that God which, the faith, obedience, and perseverance of the followhad spoken: hence he always walked in a plain way. ers of the Messiah are to be formed. Reader, while you The authority of God was always suflicient for Abraham, admire the man, do not forget the God that made him so he did not weary himself to find reasons for any line-of great, so good, and so useful-even Abraham had nothing conduct which he knew God had prescribed : it was his but what he had received: from the free unmerited mercy duty to obey; the success and the event he left with God. of God proceeded all his excellencies: but he was a worker His obedience was as prompt as it was complete-As soon together with God, and therefore did not receive the grace as he hears the voice of God, he girds himself to his work! of God in vain. Go thou, believe, love, obey, and persoNot a moment is lost! How rare is such conduct! But vere in like manner.

behold, Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his his tent in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt there. wife.

18 T And Isaac digged again the wells of 9 And Abimelech called Isaac and said, Be- water, which they had digged in the days of hold, of a surety she is thy wife, and how saidst Abraham his father; for the Philistines had thou, She is my sister ? And Isaac said unto stopped them after the death of Abraham: mand him, Because I said, Lest I die for her.

he called their names after the names by which 10 And Abimelech said, What is this thou his father had called them. has done unto us? one of the people might 19 And Isaac's servants digged in the valley, lightly have lien with thy wife, and a thou and found there a well of "springing water. shouldest have brought guiltiness upon us.

20 And the herdmen of Gerar o did strive 11 And Abimelech charged all his people with Isaac's herdmen, saying, The water is saying, He that b toucheth this man or his wife ours: and he called the name of the well shall surely be put to death.

p Ezek; because they strove with him. 12 | Then Isaac sowed in that land, and 21 And they digged another well, and strove e received in the same year dan hundred' fold : for that also: and he called the name of it and the LORD e blessed him:

9 Sitnah, 13 And the man 'waxed great, and & went 22 And he removed from thence, and digged forward, and grew until he became very great: another well; and for that they strove not: and

14 For he had possession of flocks, and pos- he called the name of it Rehoboth; and he eession of herds, and great store of " servants: said, For now the LORD hath made room for us, and the Philistines i envied him.

and we shall * be fruitful in the land. 15. For all the wells k which his father's ser 23 | And he went up from thence to Beervants had digged in the days of Abraham his sheba. father, the Philistines had stopped them, and 24. And the LORD appeared unto him the same filled them with earth.

night, and said, 'I am the God of Abraham thy 16 And Abimelech said unto Isaac, Go from father: u fear not, for I am with thee, and will us; for thou art much mightier than we. bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant 17 And Isaac departed thence, and pitched Abraham's sake.

a Ch. 20.9.-- Pra. 105. 15.-c Heb. found.-Matt. 13. 8. Mark 4.8.- Ver. 3. Ch. 21. 1, 35. Job 12. 12. - Ch. 24. 35. Pea. 112. 3 Pros. 10. 2.- Heb. soent going. 1. Or, husbandry.- Ch 37, 11. Eccles. 4.4.-k Ch 21.30. - Exod. 1 9.

m Ch. 21.31.-n Heb liring - Ch.21. 25.--p That is, Contention-That is, Hatred.---- That is, Room - Ch. 17. 6. & 23. 3. & 41. 52. Exod. 1. 7.- Ch. 17. 7. & 24. 12. & B 13. Exod. 3. 6. Acls 7. 32--u Ch. 15. I.- Var. 3. 4.


might make a bad use of it in extenuation of their own Verse 1. There was a famine] When this happened sins; but there are certain cases which, from the nature of we cannot tell: it appears to have been after the death of their circumstances, may often occur, where a candid Abraham. ---Concerning the first famine, see chap. xii. 10. acknowledgment, with suitable advice, may prevent those

Abimelech] As we know not the time when the famine children from repeating the evil; but ihis should be done happened, so we cannot tell whether this was the same with great delicacy and caution, lest even the advice itself Abimelech, Phichol, &c. which are mentioned, chap. xx. should serve as an incentive to the evil. I had not known 1, &c. or the sons, or other descendants of these persons. lust, says St. Paul, if the law had not said, Thou shalt

Verse 2. Go not down into Egypt) As Abraham had not covet. On Abraham's case, see the notes on chap. xii. taken refuge in that country, it is probable that Isaac was 11, &c. xx. 2. 'Isaac could not say of Rebekah, as preparing to go thither also; and God, foreseeing that he Abraham had done of Sarah, she is my sister : in the case would there meet with trials, &c. which might prove fatal of Abraham this was literally true: it was not so in the to his peace, or to his piety, warns him not to fulfil his case of Isanc, for Rebekah was only his cousin. Besides, intention.

though relatives, in the Jewish forms of speaking, are Verse 3. Sojourn in this land] In Gerar, whither he often called brothers and sisters, and the thing may be had gone, ver. 1. and where we find he setiled, ver. 6. perfectly proper, when this use of the terms is generally though the land of Canaan in general might be here known and allowed, yet nothing of this kind can be pleaded intended. That there were serious and important reasons here, in behalf of Isaac; for he intended that the Gerariles why Isaac should not go to Egypt, we may be fully assured, should understand him in the proper sense of the term: though they be not assigned here; it is probable that even and consequently have no suspicion that she was his trife. Isaac himself was not informed why he should not go We have already seen that the proper definition of a lie is, down to Egypt. I have already supposed that God saw any word spoken with the intention to deceite-See chap. trials in his way, which he might not have been able to

XX. 12. bear. While a man acknowledges God in all his ways, Verse 8. Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his wife] he will direct all his steps, though he may not choose to Whatever may be the precise meaning of the word, it give him the reasons of the working of his providence. evidently implies, that there were liberties taken, and Abraham might go safely to Egyp!- Isaac might not: in freedoms used on the occasion, which were not lawful but firmness and decision of character, there was a wide differ- between man and wife. ence between the two men,

Verse 10. Thou shouldest have brought guiltiness upon Verse 4. I will make thy seedas the stars of heaven] us] It is likely that Abimelech might have bad some A promise often repeated to Abraham, and wbich has been knowledge of God's intentions concerning the family of most amply fulfilled both in its literal and spiritual sense. Abraham, and that it must be kept free from all impure

Verse 5. Abraham obeyed my roicc] pio Meimri, my and alien mixtures; and that consequently, had he or any WORD.-See chap. xv. l.

of his people taken Rebekah, the divine judgments might My charge) noun Mishmareti, from now shamar, have fallen upon the land. Abimelech was a good and he kept, observed, &c. the ordinances or appointments of holy man: and he appears to have considered aduliery as God.--These were always of two kinds: 1. Such as a grievous and destructive crime. tended to promote moral improvement, the increase of Verse 11. He that toucheth] He who injures Isaac, or piety, the improvement of the age, &c.' And 2. Such as defiles Rebekah, shall certainly die for it : death was the were typical or representative of the promised seed, and punishment for adultery among the Canaanites, Philistines, the salvation which was to come by him. For command and Hebrews.--See chap xxxviii. 24. ments, statutes, &c. the reader is particularly desired to Verse 12. Isaac soucd in that land] Being now perfectly refer to Lev. xvi. 15, &c. where these things are all free from the fear of evil, he bétakes himself to agriculanalyzed and explained in the alphabetical order of the tural and pastoral pursuits, in which he has the especial Hebrew words.

blessing of God, so that his property becomes greatly Verse 7. He said, She is my sister! It is very strange increased. that in the same place, and in similar circumstances, Isaac A hundred fold] Onyo na Meah Shéarim, literally should have denied his wife, precisely as his father had "A hundredfold of barley:" and so the Septuagint, done before him! It is natural to ask, Did Abraham never κατοστευουσαν κριθην. Perhaps such a crop of this grain mention this circumstance to his son ? Probably he did was a rare occurrence in Gerar. The words however not, as he was justly ashamed of his weakness on the may be taken, in a general way, as signifying a very great occasion—the only blot in his character: the son, there increase : so they are used by our Lord, in the parable of fore, not being forewarned, was not armed against the the sower: Mati. xiii. 3, 23. Mark iv. 8, 20. Luke viii. & temptation. It may not be well, in general, for parents to 15. tell their children of their former failings or vices, as this Verse 13. The man waxed great] There is a strange might lessen their authority or respect ; and the children and observable recurrence of the same term in the origi

25 And he builded an altar there, and called 28 And they said, 'We saw certainly that the upon the name of the Lord, and pitched his tent LORD 6 was with thee: and we said, Let there be there: and there Isaac's servants digged a well. now an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and

26 | Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, thee, and let us make a covenant with thee: and Ahuzzath one of his friends, and Phichol 29'b That thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have the chief captain of his army.

not touched thee, and as we have done unto 27 And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore come thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away ye to me, seeing dye hate me, and have sent in peace: I thou art now the blessed of the me away from you?

LORD. a Ch. 12 7. & 13 18.- Paa. 116. 17.-c Ch 2. 22–2 Judg. 11. 7.

(Heb. Seeing we eam.-- Ch. 21. 22, 23,-h Heb. If thou shalt, &c.

i Th. 2: 31. Paa'115, 15.

e Ver. 16.

nal: ND 32 19 7y 5729795775 577 vayigdal ha-ish and Phicho came with a company of their friends.” The vaiyeloc haloc re-gadel ad ki gadal meod, And the man Septuagint calls him Ox0625 o rupe oxywy 05, Ochozath the was GREAT, and he went, going on, and was GREAT, until paranymph, or friend of the bridegroom, he who conthat he was ercceding GBEAT. How simple is this lan- ducts the bride to the bridegroom's house. Could we guage, and yet how forcible!

depend on the correctness of this version, we might draw Verse 14. He had possession of flocks) He who the following curious conclusions from it: 1. That this blessed him in the increase of his fields, blessed him also was the son of that Abimelech, the friend of Abraham. in the increase of his flocks ; and as he had extensive 2. That he had been lately married, and on this journey possessions, so he must have many hands to manage such brings with him his confidential friend, to whom he had concerns; therefore it is added, he had great store of lately intrusted the care of his spouse. servants--he had many domestics, some born in his Verse 27. Seeing ye hate me] He was justified in house, and others purchased by his money:

thinking thus: because, if they did not injure him, they had Verse 15. For all the wells--the Philistincs had stopped connived at their servants doing it. them) In such countries a good well was a great acquisi Verse 28. Let there be now an oath between us] Let tion; and hence, in predatory wars, it was usual for us make a covenant by which we shall be mutually bound; either party to fill the wells with earth or sand, in order and let it be ratified in the most solemn manner. to distress the enemy. The filling up the wells in this Verse 30. He made them a feast) Probably on the case was a most unprincipled transaction; as they had sacrifice, that was offered on the occasion of making this pledged themselves to Abraham, by a solemn oath, not to covenant. This was a common custom. injure each other in this or any other respect.-See chap. Verse 31. They rose up betimes] Early rising was xxi. 25—31.

general among the primitive inhabitants of the world: Verse 16. Go from us, for thou art much mightier and this was one cause which contributed greatly to their than we] This is the first instance on record of what was health and longevity. termed among the Greeks ostracism ; i. e. the banishment Verse 33. He called it Shebah] This was probably the of a person from the state, of whose power, influence, or same well which was called Beersheba in the time of Abrariches, the people were jealous. There is a remarkable ham, which the Philistines had filled up: and which the saying of Bacon on this subject, which seems to intimate servants of Isaac had re-opened. The same name is therethat he had this very circumstance under his eye : “Public fore given to it which it had before, with the addition of the envy is an ostracism that eclipseth men when they grow emphatic letter a hè, by which its signification became too great." On this same principle Pharaoh oppressed extended, so that now it signified not merely an oath or the Yeraelites.

full, but satisfaction and abundance.-See the use made Verse 18. In the days of Abraham) Instead of a of this letter in the names of Abraham and Sarahi, chap. bimey, in the days, Houbigant contends we should read xvii. 5. 1929 abedey, servants. Isaac digged again the wells The name of the city is Beer-sheba] This name was which the sertants of Abraham his father had digged. This given to it a hundred years before this time; but as the welt reading is supported by the Samaritan, Septuagint, from which it had this name originally, was closed up by Syriac, and Vulgate, and it is probably the true one. the Philistines, probably the name of the place was abol

Verse 19. A well of springing water] Oun ona ished with the well: when, therefore Isaac re-opened the beer mayim chayim, A well of living waters. This is well, he restored the ancient name of the place. the oriental phrase for a spring; and this is its mean Verse 34. He took to wife-the daughter, &c.] It is ing both in the Old and New Testaments; Lev. xiv. very likely that the wives taken by Esau were daughters 5, 50. xv. 30. Num. xix. 17. Cant. iv, 15. see also John of chiefs among the Hittites; and by this union he sought iv. 10–14. vii. 38. Rev. xxi. 6. xxii. 1. And by these to increase and strengthen his secular power and influScriptures we find that an unfailing spring was an emblem of the graces and influences of the Spirit of Verse 35. Which were a grief of mind) Not the marGod.

riage, though that was improper, but the persons ; they, Verse 21. They digged another well] Never did any by their perverse and evil ways brought bitterness, into the man more implicitly follow the divine command-resist hearts of Isaac and Rebekah. The Targum of Jonathan not evil-than Isaac : whenever he found that his work ben Uzziel, and that of Jerusalem, say they were addicted was likely to be a subject of strife and contention, he gave to idol-worship, and rebelled against and would not hearken place, and rather chose to suffer wrong than to have his to the instructions either of Isaac or Rebekah. From own peace of mind disturbed. Thus he overcame evil Canaanites a different conduct could not be reasonably with good.

expected: Esau was far from being spiritual, and his Verse 24. The Lord appeared unto him) He needed wives were wholly carnal. especial encouragement when insulted and outraged by the The same reflections which were suggested by AbraPhilistines; for having returned to the place where his ham's conduct in denying his wife in Egypt and Gerar, noble father had lately died, the remembrance of his will apply to that of Isaac; but the case of Isaac was wrongs, and the remembrance of his loss, could not fail to much less excusable than that of Abraham. The latter afflict his mind; and God immediately appears, to comfort told no falsity; he only, through fear, suppressed a part and support him in his trials, by a renewal of all his of the truth. promise.

1. A good man has a right to expect God's blessing on Verse 25. Builded an altar there) That he might have his honest industry: Isaac bowed, and received a hundreda place for God's worship; as well as a place for him- fold, and he had possessions of flocks, &c. for the Lord self and family to dwell in.

blessed him. Worldly men, if they pray at all, ask for And called upon the name of the Lorul? And invoked temporal things: "What shall we cat, what shall we in the name of Jehovoh.-See on chaps. xii. 8. xiii. 15. drink, and wherewitha) shall we be clothed ?" Most of

Verse 26. Abimelech went to him) When a man's ways the truly religious people go into another extreme-they please God, he makes even his enemies to be at peace with forget the body and ask only for the soul ! And yet there him; so Isaac experienced on this occasion. Whether are " things requisite and necessary as well for the body this was the same Abimelech and Phichol mentioned chap. as the soul,” and things which are only at God's disposal. xxi. 22. we cannot tell; it is possible both might have been The body lives for the soul's sake; its life and comfort are now alive, provided we suppose them young in the days of in many respects essentially requisite to the salvation of Abraham, but it is more likely that Abimelech was a gene- the soul; and therefore the things necessary for its supral name of the Gerarite kings, and that Phichol was a port,

should be earnestly asked from the God of all grace, name of office.

the Father of bounty and providence. Ye have not, beAhuzzath) The Targum translates this word a com cause ye ask not-may be said to many poor afflicted pany; not considering it as a proper name: "Abimelech I religious people; and they are afraid to ask, lest it should


a Ch. 19. 3.-b Ch. 2 31.-c That

1 Sam. 3. 2

30 a And he made them a seast, and they did

CHAPTER XXVII. cat and drink.

Isaac, grown old and feeble, and apprehending the approach of death, deaire his son 31 And they rose up betimes in the morning, Exau to prurile semne si vuiry meat for him, that having eaten of it be night cott

yey to him the blessing counected with the right of primigeniture, I-- Re and "sware one to another; and Isaac sent them behah, bearing of it, relates the matter to Jacob, and directs him how to personale away, and they departed from him in peace.

his brother, anl, by deceiving his father, chenin the blessing, 5--10. Jacob hesitata,

11, 12; that, being counsellel o encontra el tuy tus niother, he at Lust context to 32 And it came to pass the same day, that use the means she prrihed, 11. Rebekah diseti Jucah, anx Buitwis hinals per

sunate his brother, 15-17. Jacob come to his fauer, au profit inreli w tre Isaac's servants came, and told him concerning Esau, 18, 19 Isaac doubts, questions, and examines him closely, alloet net the well which they had digged, and said unto

dia over the deception, 0-24 He ears of the situry ineal, Jl conters the bees

ing upon Jacob, 25-27. In what the blessing consiste 2, 2. Era annan him, we have found water.

the field with the meat he had gone to provide, at presenta limeli tetore faitet,

30,31. lsare discovers the fraud of Jacoh, and is much atcete, 32, 33 33 And he called it Shebah: d therefore the

really distressed on bearing that we blessing hard tren received by other, name of the city is e Beer-sheba unto this day.

lanc accuse Jucah of decent, 35. Exau explan and prays for a wenga

La describe the blessing which he has already conveyed, 37 ERU Fun! 34 T ' And Esau was forty years old when he euroestly implores a blessing, 34. Isaac pronouncey a beasing on Eriu, anal

propleries that his posterity should, in process of time, ceas to be inary in the took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the pus erity of Jacob, 39, 10. Esuu purposes to kill his brother, al. Rebalo bicus of Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon

it, and counsel Jacuh to take retige with her brother Lalan, in Pretan Aram,

42-45. She proles to be greatly alamed lext Jacob should like any of the the Hittite:

Canaanites to wife, 16. 35. Which were h a grief of mind unto Isaac AND it came to pass that when it comes and to Rebekah

, his

f Ch. 36. 2-8 Ch. 27. 46. & 21.8.-h Heb. bitterness of spirit Ch 48 10. Ident on the pathd Ch. 21. 31.-e That is, The appear mercenary, or that they sought their portion in this commandments, with the long catalogue of crimes which life. They should be better taught. Surely to none of proceed from pampered appetites, and unsubdued passions ; these will God give a stone if they ask bread: he who is and on the other, murmuring, repining, discontent, and 80 liberal of his heavenly blessings will not withhold often insubordination and rerolt, the most fell and most earthly ones, which are of infinitely less consequence. destructive of all the evils that can degrade and curse civil Reader, expeet God's blessing on thy honest industry; pray society. Hence wars, fightings, and revolutions of states, for it, and believe that God does not love thee less, who and public calamities of all kinds. . Bad as the world and hast taken refuge in the same hope, than he loved Ísaac. the times are, men have made them much worse, by their Plead not only his promises, but plead on the precedents he unnatural methods of providing for the support of life. has set before thee-Lord, thou didst so and so to Abraham, When shall men learn, that even this is but a subordinate to Isaac, to Jacob, and to others who trusted in thee; bless pursuit; and that the cultivation of the soul in the knowmy field, bless my flocks, prosper my labour; that I may ledge, love, and obedience of God, is essentially necessary, be able to provide things honest in the sight of all men, not only to future glory, but to present happiness ! and have something to dispense to those who are in want.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVII. And will not God hear such prayers ? Yea, and answer them Verse 1. Isaac was old] It is conjectured, on good too, for he does not willingly afflict the children of men, grounds, that Isaac was now about one hundred and sevenand we may rest assured that there is more aflliction and teen years of age, and Jacob about fifty-seven; though the poverty in the world, than either the justice or providence commonly received opinion makes Isaac one hundred and of God requires. There are, however, many who owe thirty-seven and Jacob seventy-seven: but see the notes on their poverty to their want of diligence and economy: they chap. xxxi. 38, &c. sink down into indolence, and forget that word, Whatsó And his eyes were dim] This was probably the effect ever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might: nor of that affliction, of what kind we know not, under which do they consider, that by idleness, a man is clothed with Isanc now laboured; and from which, as well as from the rags. Be diligent in business, and fervent in spirit, and aftliction, he probably recovered, as it is certain he lived God will withhold from thee no manner of thing that is forty, if not forty-three years after this tine; for he lived goud.

till the return of Jacob from Padan Aram.-Chap. xxxv. 2. From many examples, we find that the wealth of the 27–29. primitive inhabitants of the world did not consist in gold, Verse 2. I know not the day of my death] From his silver, or precious stones, but principally in flocks of use present weakness, he had reason io suppose that his death ful cattle, and the produce of the field. With precious could not be at any great distance, and therefore would metals and precious stones they were not unacquainted, leave no act undone, which he believed it his duty to perand the former were sometimes used in purchases, as we form. He who lives not in reference to eternity, lives not have already seen in the case of Abraham buying a field at all. from the children of Heth. But the blessings which God Verse 3. Thy reupons] The original word 52 keley, promises are such as spring from the soil. Isaac sowed signifies vessels and instruments of any kind; and is proin the land, and had possessions of flocks and herds, and bably used here for a hunting-spear, jarelines, sword, &c. great store of serranis, ver. 12–14. Commerce, by which Quirer] sn teli, from bn talah, to hang or suspend. nations and individuals so suddenly rise, and as suddenly had not the Septuagint translated the word caciter, and fall, had not been then invented : every man was obliged the Vulgate pharetram, a quiver, I should have rather to acquire property by honest and persevering labour, or supposed some kind of shield meant; but either can be be destitute. Lucky hits, fortunate speculations, and 'ad- suspended on the arm or from the shoulder. Some think venturous risks, could then have no place: the field must a sword is meant; and because the original signifies to be tilled, the herds watched and sed, and the proper seasons hang or suspend; hence, they think, is derived our word for ploughing, soving, reaping, and laying up, be care- hanger, so called because it is generally worn in a pendant fully regarded and improved. No man, therefore, could posture; but the word hanger did not exist in our langrow rich by accident. Isaac wared great, and went for- guage previous to the crusades, and we have evidently ward, and grew until he becume very great, ver. 13. derived it from the Persian istis: khanjar, a poniard

Speculation was of no use, for it could have no object; or dugger, the use of which, not only in battles, but in and consequently many incitements to knavery, and to private assassinations, was well known. idleness, that bane of the physical and moral health of the Verse 4. Saroury meal) dibyoo matcammim, from body and soul of man, could not show themselves. Happy ayo taâm to taste or relish; how dressed, we know not, times! when every man wrought with his hands, and God but its name declares its nature. particularly blessed his honest industry. As he had no That I may eat; that my soul may bless thee] The luxuries, he had no unnatural and factitious wants, few blessing which Isaac was io confer on his son was a diseases, and a long life.

species of divine right, and must be communicated with "0! fortunatos nimium rua si bona norint!

appropriate ceremonies. As eating and drinking were Agricolas."

used among the Asiatics on almost all religious occasions, Oh, thrice happy husbandlinen! ye but know your own merciez.

and especially in making and confirming covenants, it is But has not what is termed commerce, produced the re reasonable to suppose that something of this kind was verse of all this? A few are speculators, and the many essentially necessary on this occasion; and that Isaac are comparatively slaves; and slaves, not to enrich them- could not convey the right, till he had eaten of the meat selves; this is impossible: but to enrich the speculators provided for the purpose, by him, who was to receive the and adventurers, by whom they are employed. "Even the blessing. As Isaac was now old, and in a feeble and farmers become, at least partially, commercial men; and languishing condition, it was necessary that the flesh used the soil, the fruitful parent of natural wealth, is compara on this occasion should be prepared in such a way as to tively disregarded : the consequence is, that the misery of invite the appetite, that a sufficiency of it might be taken the many, and the lurury of the few increase; and from to revive and recruit his drooping strength, that he might both these spring, on the one hand, pride, insolence, con be the better able to go through the whole of this ceretempt of the poor, contempt of God's holy word and I mony.

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