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This Bible was begun in 1607, but was not completed and published till 1611; and there are copies of it which, in their litle-pages, have the dates 1612 and 1613. This translation was corrected, and many parallel iexts added, by Dr. Scattergood, in 1683; Dr. Lloyd, bishop of London, in 1701; and afterward by Dr. Paris, at Cambridge: but the most thorough revision was made by Dr. Blayney, in the year 1769, under the direction of the vice-chancellor and delegates of the university of Oxford ; in which, 1. The punctuation has been thoroughly revised; 2. The words printed in italics examined, and corrected by the Hebrew and Greek originals; 3. The proper names, to the etymology of which allusions are made in the text, translated, and entered in the margin; 4. The heads and running titles corfected ; 5. Some material errors in the chronology rectified; and, 6. The marginal references re-examined, corrected, and their number greatly increased. Copies of this revision are those which are termed above, the most correct copies of the present authorized version ; and it is this revision, re-collated, re-examined, and corrected from typographical inaccuracies, in a great variety of places, that has been followed for the text prefixed to these notes. But, besides these corrections, I have found it necessary to re-examine all the italics ; by those, I mean the words interspersed through the text, avowedly not in the original, but thought necessary by our translators to complete the sense, and accommodate the idioms of the Hebrew and Greek to that of the English language. In these I found gross corruptions, particularly where they have been changed for Roman characters, whereby words have been attributed to God which he never spoke.
The punctuation, which is a matter of no small importance to a proper understanding of the sacred text, I have examined with the greatest care to me possible; by the insertion of commas where there were none before, putting semicolons for commas, the better to distinguish the members of the sentences; changing colons for semicolong, and vice versa ; and full points for colons, I have been in many instances, enabled the better to preserve and distinguish the sense, and carry on a narration to its close without interrupting the reader's attention by the intervention of improper stops.
The references I have in many places considerably augmented, though I have taken care to reprint all that Dr. Blayney has inserted in his edition, which I scruple not to say are the best collection ever edited; and I hope their worth will suffer nothing by the additions I have made.
After long and diligently weighing the different systems of chronology, and hesitating which to adopt, I ultimately fixed on the system commonly received; as it appeared to me on the whole, though encumbered with many difficulties, to be the least objectionable.' In fixing the dates of particular transactions, I have found much difficulty; that this was never done in any edition of the Bible hitherto offered to the public, with any tolerable correctness, every person acquainted with the subject must acknowledge. I have endeavoured carefully to fix the date of each transaction where it occurs, (and where it could be ascertained) showing throughout the whole of the Old Testament, the year of the world, and the year before Christ, when it happened. From the beginning of Joshua, I have introduced the years not be unacceptable to the reader to hear how the present liturgy was compiled; and who the persons were to whom this work was assigned: a work almost universally esteemed by the devout and pious of every denomination, and the greatest effort of the Reformation, next to the translation of the Scriptures into the English language. The word liturgy, rotouer 1% from gorn, prayer, and odgou, work, signifies literally, the work, or labour of prayer, or supplication; and he who labours not in his prayers, prays not at all: or Ansteupyoz, from 4.50795, public, and optow, work, the public or common prayer or service, in which all should engage: and from 2072*, prayers, comes litany. 10T*!**, supplication, a collection of prayers in the liturgy, or public service of the church. Previous to the reign of Henry VIII. the liturgy was all said or sung in Latin, except the creed, the Lord's prayer, and the len commandments, which, in 1536, were translated into English for the use of the cominon people, by the king's command. In 1545, the “ liturgy was also permitted in English;' as Fuller expresses it, "and this was the farthest pace the reformation stept in the reign of Henry the eighth."
In the first year of Edward VI. 1547, it was recommended to certain grave and learned bishops and others, then assembled by order of the king, at Windsor Castle, to draw up a communion service, and to revise and reform all other offices in the divine service: this service was accordingly proposed and published, and strongly recommended by special letters from Seymour, Lord Protector, and the other lords of the council. The persons who compiled this work were the following: 1. Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury.
9. John Taylor, then dean, afterward bishop of Lincoln 2. George Day, bishop of Chichester.
10. Doctor Haines, dean of Exeter. 3. Thomas Goodrick, bishop of Ely.
11. Doctor Robinson, afterward dean of Durham. 4. John Skip. bishop of Hereford.
12. Doctor John Redman, master of Trinity College, Cam. 3. Henry Holbeach, bishop of Lincoln.
bridge. 6. Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester.
13. Doctor Richard Cox, then almoner to the king, and after. 7. Thomas Thirlby, bishop of Westininster.
ward bishop of Ely. 8. Doctor May, dean of St. Paul's.
It is worthy of remark, that as the first translators of the Scriptures into the English language, were several of them, pero secuted unto death by the papists, so, some of the chief of those who translated the Book of Common Prayer, (Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Ridley,) were burnt alive by the same faction.
This was what Mr. Fuller calls the first edition of the Common Prayer. Some objections having been made to this work by Mr. John Calvin abroad, and sone learned men at home, particularly in reference to the commemoration of the dead, the use of chrism, and extreme unction, it was ordered by a statute in Parliament (5 and 6 of Edward VI.) that it should be faithfully and godly perused, erplained, and made fully perfect. The chief alterations made in consequence of this order were these: the general confession and absolution were added, and the communion service was made to begin with the ten commandments; the use of oil in confirmation and entreme unction were left out, also prayers for the dead, and certain expressions that had a tendency to countenance the doctrine of transubstantiation,
The same persons to whom the compiling of the communion service was intrusted, were employed in this revision, which was completed and published in 1548. On the accession of Queen Mary, this liturgy was abolished, and the Prayer Book as it stood in the last year of Henry VIII. commanded to be used in its place. In the first year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1559, the former liturgy was restored, but it was subjected to a farther revision, by which some few passages were altered, and the petition in the litany for being delivered from the tyranny and all the detestable enormities of the bishop of Rome, left out, in order that conscientious Catholics might not be prevented from joining in the common service. This being done it was presented to parliament, and by them received and established, and the act for uniformity, which is usually printed with the liturgy, published by the queen's authority, and sent throughout the nation. The persons employed in this revision were the following: 1. Master Whitehead, once chaplain to Queen Anna Bollein. 5. James Pilkington, afterward bishop of Durham. 2. Matthew Parker, afterward archbishop of Canterbury, 6. Doctor May, dean of St. Paul's and master of Trinity Col3. Edmund Grindall, afterward bishop of London.
lege. Cambridge, 4. Richard Cox, afterward bishop of Ely.
7. Sir Thomas Smith, principal secretary of state. of these Drs. Cor and May were employed on the first edition of this work, as appears by the preceding list.
In the first year of King James. 1003, another revision took place, and a few alierations were made, which consisted prin. cipally in the addition of some prayers and thanksgivings, sonie alteration in the rubrics ralative to the office of private bap. tism, and the addition of that part of the catechism which contains the doctrine of the sacraments.
In this state the Book of Common Prayer continued till the reign of Charles II. who, the 25th of October, 1600. "granted his commission under the great seal of England, to several bishops and divines, to review the Book of Common Prayer, and 1o prepare such alterations and additions as they thought fit to offer." In the following year, the king assembled the convocations of both the provinces of Canterbury and York, and " autborized the presidents of those convocations, and other, the bishops and clergy of the same, to review the said Book of Comnion Prayer,” &c. requiring them, " after mature consideration, to make such alterations and additions as to them should seem meet and convenient." This was accordingly done, sev. eral prayers and some whole services added, and the whole published with the act of uniformity in the 14th of Charles II. 166): since which time it has undergone no farther revision. This is a short history of a work which all who are acquainted with it, deem superior to every thing of the kind produced either by ancient or modern times.
It would be disingenuous not to acknowledge, that the chief of those prayers were in use in the Roman Catholic church, from which the church of England is reformied:' and it would betray a want of acquaintance with ecclesiastical antiquity, to suppose that those prayers and services originated in that church, as several of them were in use from the first ages of Christianity, and many of the best of them, before the name of pope or popery was known in the carth.
before the building of Rome till the seven hundred and fifty-third year before Christ, when the foundation of that city was laid, and also introduced the Olympiads from the time of their commencement, as both these æras are of the utmost use to all who read the Sacred Writings, connected with the histories of the times, and peoples, to which they frequently refer. And who that reads his Bible, will not be glad to find at what time of the sacred history, those great events fell out, of which he has been accustomed to read in the Greek and Roman historians? This is a gratification which the present work will afford from a simple inspection of the margin, at least as far as those facts and dates have been ascertained by the best chronologists.
In the Pentateuch, I have not introduced either the years of Rome or the Olympiads : because the transactions related in the Mosaic writings, are in general too remote from these æras, to be at all affected by them; and I judged it early enough to commence with them at the time when Israel was governed by the Judges.
As to marginal readings, I could, with very little trouble, have added many hundreds, if not thousands : but as I made it a point of conscience strictly to adhere to the present authorized version in the text, I felt obliged, by the same principle, scrupulously to follow the marginal readings without adding or omitting even one. Had I inserted some of my own, then my text would be no longer the text of the authorized version, but an altered translation, for the marginal readings constitute an integral part, properly speaking, of the authorized version; and to add any thing, would be to alter this version, and to omit any thing, would be to render it imperfect. When Dr. Blayney revised the present version in 1769, and proposed the insertion of the translations of some proper names, to the etymology of which reference is made in the text, so scrupulous was he of making any change in this respect, that he submitted all his proposed alterations to a select commiliee of the university of Oxford, the vice-chancellor and the principal of Hertford college, and Mr. Professor Wheler; nor was even the slightest change made but by their authority. All this part, as well as the entire text, I must therefore, to be consistent with my proposals, leave conscientiously as I found them, typographical errors and false italics excepted. Whatever emendations I have proposed, either from myself or others, I have included among the notes.
That the marginal readings in our authorized translation are essential to the integrity of the version itself, I scruple not to assert; and they are of so much importance, as to be in several instances preferable to the textual readings themselves. Our conscientious translators, not being able, in several cases, to determine which of two meanings borne by a word, or which of two words found in different copies, should be admitted into the text, adopted the measure of receiving both, placing one in the margin and the other in the text; thus leaving the reader at liberty to adopt either, both of which, in their apprehension, stood nearly on the same authority. On this very account, the marginal readings are essential to our version; and I have found on collating many of them with the originals, that those in the margin are to be preferred to those in the text, in the proportion of at least eight to ten.
To the geography of the Sacred Writings I have also paid the utmost attention in my power. I wished in every case to be able to ascertain the ancient and modern names of places, their situation, distances, &c. &c. but in several instances, I have not been able to satisfy myself. I have given those opinions which appeared to me to be best founded; taking frequently the liberty to express my own doubts or dissatisfaction. I must therefore bespeak the reader's indulgence not only in reference to the work in general, but in respect to several points both in the Scripture geography and chronology in particular, which may appear to him not satisfactorily ascertained; and have only to say that I have spared no pains, to make every thing as correct and accurate as possible, and hope I may without vanity, apply to myself on these subjects, with a slight change expression, what was said by a great man, of a great work: "For negligence or deficience, I have perhaps not need of more apology than the nature of the work will furnish: I have left that inaccurate, which can never be made exact; and that imperfect, which can never be completed.”—Johnson. For particulars under these heads, I must refer to Dr. Hales's elaborate and useful work, entitled, A New Analysis of Chronology, 2 vols. 4to. 1809–10.
The summaries to each chapter are entirely written for the purpose, and formed from a careful examination of the chapter, verse by verse, so as to make them a faithful table of contents, constantly referring to the verses themselves. By this means, all the subjects of each chapter may be immediately seen, so as, in many cases, to preclude the necessity of consulting a concordance.
In the heads or head-lines to each page, I have endeavoured to introduce, as far as the room would admit, the chief subject of the columns underneath; so as immediately to catch the eye of the reader.
Quotations from the original texts I have made as sparingly as possible: those which are introduced, I have endeavoured to make plain by a literal translation, and by putting them in European characters. The reader will observe, that though the Hebrew is here produced without the points, yet the reading given in European characters, is according to the points, with very few exceptions. I have chosen this middle way to please, as far as possible, the opposers and the friends of the Masoretic system.
The controversies among religious people I have scarcely ever mentioned: having very seldom referred to the creed of any sect or party of Christians: nor produced any opinion, merely to confute or establish it. I simply propose what I believe to be the meaning of a passage ; and maintain what I believe to be the truth, but scarcely ever in a controversial way. I think it quite possible to give my own views of the doctrines of the Bible, without introducing a single sentence at which any Christian might reasonably take offence. And I hope that no provocation which I may receive, shall induce me to depart from this line of conduct. * It may be expected
by some, that I should enter at large into the proofs of the authenticity of Divine Revelation.This has been done amply by others; and their works have been published in every form, and with a very laudable zeal, spread widely through the public : on this account, I think it unnecessary to enter professedly into the subject. The different portions of the Sacred Writings, against which the shafts of infidelity have been levelled, I have carefully considered ; and I hope, sufficiently defended, in the places where they respectively occur.
For a considerable time I hesitated whether I should attach to each chapter what are commonly called reflections, as these do not properly belong to the province of the commentator. It is the business of the preacher, who has the literal and obvious sense before him, to make reflections on select passages, providential occurrences, and particular histories; and to apply the doctrines contained in them, to the hearts and practices of his hearers. The chief business of the commentator is critically to examine his text, give the true meaning of every passage in reference to the context, to explain words that are difficult or of dubious import; illustrate local and provincial customs, manners, idioms, laws, &c. and from the whole, to collect the great design of the inspired writer.
Many are of opinion, that it is an easy thing to write reflections on the Scriptures. My opinion is the reverse : common-place observations which may arise on the surface of the letter, may be easily made by any person possessing a little common sense, and a measure of piety; but reflections such as become the oracles of God, are properly inductive reasonings on the facts stated, or the doctrines delivered, and require not only a clear head, and a sound heart, but such a compass and habit of philosophic thought, such a power to discern the end from the beginning, the cause from its effect, and where several causes are at work, to ascertain their respective results, so that every effect may be attributed to its true cause, falls to the lot of but few men. Through the flimsy, futile, and false dealing of the immense herd of spiritualizers, metaphor-men, and allegorists, pure religion has been often disgraced. Let a man put his reason in ward, turn conscience out of its province, and throw the reins on the neck of his fancy, and he may write-reflections without end. The former description of reflections I rarely attempt for want of adequate powers; the latter my reason and con
* Some gentlemen who can know nothing of my work, because they have never seen one line of it, have expressed, " great anxiety to see it published, that they might tear it to pieces !" I should not have believed that so unprincipled a man could be found, professing to be a Christian minister, bad I not happened to be in the place (unknown) where one of these gentle: men was declaring it to another. It is not difficult to hit blots; and no doubt, with alì my conscientious care, my work will furnish butts enowy of this kind for the unprincipled and the malevolent to shoot at; from such as the above, candid criticism can never be expected, who, in opposition to every dictate of justice and mercy, condemn without hearing :--and to serve a party or a system, sacrifice decency, propriety, honour, and conscience. For the credit of the land, and particularly for the honour of the Christian ministry, I hope few such characters as these are to be found.
science prohibit—Let this be my excuse with the intelligent and pious reader. I have, however, in this way, done what I could. I have generally, at the close of each chapter, summed up in a few particulars, the facts or doctrines contained in it; and have endeavoured to point out to the reader, the spiritual and practical use he should make of them. To these inferences, improvements, or whatever else they may be called, I have given no specific name, and of them can only say that he who reads them, though he may be sometimes disappointed, will not always lose his labour. At the same time, I beg leave to inform him, that I have not deferred spiritual uses of important texts to the end of the chapter : where they should be noticed in the occurring verse, I have rarely passed them by.
Before I conclude, it may be necessary to give some account of the original Versions of the Sacred Writings, which have been often consulted, and to which occasional references are made in the ensuing work. These are the Samaritan, Chaldaic, Æthiopic, Septuagint, with those of Aguila, Symmachus, and Theodotion ; the Syriac, Vulgate, Arabic, Coptic, and Persian.
1. The SAMARITAN version differs widely from the Samaritan text ; the latter is pure Hebrew, in what are called the Samaritan characters; the former is a literal version of the Hebreo-Samaritan texi, into the Chaldaico-Samaritan dialect. When this was done it is impossible to say, but it is allowed to be very ancient, considerably prior to the Chris
The language of this version is composed of pure Hebrew, Syro-Chaldaic, and Cuthite terms. It is almost needless to observe that the Samaritan text and Samaritan version extend no farther than the five books of Moses: as the Samaritans received no other parts of the Sacred Writings.
2. The CHALDAIC version or TARGUms have already been described among the commentators, in the preceding pages. See page i.
3. The SEPTUAGINT translation, of all the versions of the Sacred Writings, has ever been deemed of the greatest importance by competent judges. 'I do not, however, design to enter into the controversy concerning this venerable version: the history of it by Aristæus I consider, in the main to be a mere fable, worthy to be classed with the tale of Bel and the Dragon, and the stupid story of Tobit and his Dog: Nor do I believe, with many of the Fathers, that “Seventy or Seventy-two elders, six out of each of the twelve tribes, were employed in the work : that each of these translated the whole of the Sacred Books from Hebrew into Greek, while confined in separate cells in the Island of Pharos;" or that they were so particularly inspired by God, that every species of errour was prevented, and that the seventy-two copies, when compared together, were found to be precisely the same, verbatim et literatim. My own opinion, on the controversial part of the subject, may be given in a few words. I believe that the five books of Moses, the most correct and accurate part of the whole work, were translated from the Hebrew into Greek in the time of Ptolomy Philadelphus, king of Egpyt, about 285 years before the Christian æra: that this was done, not by seventytro, but probably by five learned and judicious men; and that when completed it was examined, approved, and allowed as a faithful version, by the seventy or seventy-tro elders, who constituted the Alexandrian sanhedrim: and that the other books of the Old Testament were done at different times, by different hands, as the necessity of the case demanded, or the providence of God appointed. It is pretty certain, from the quotations of the evangelists the apostles, and the primitive fathers, that a complete version into Greek of the whole Old Testament, probably called by the name of the Septuagint, was made, and in use before the Christian æra : but it is likely that some of the books of that ancient version are now lost; and that some others which now go under the name of the Septuagint, were the production of times posterior to the incarnation.
4. Under the word Targum, or Chaldee version, are included the Targum of Onkelos, Jonathan, and that of Jerusalem, for an account of which see page i. of this preface.
5. The Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, are frequently referred to. Aquila was first a heathen, then a Christian, and lastly a Jew. He made a translation of the Old Testament into Greek, so very literal, that St. Jerom said, it was a good dictionary to give the genuine meaning of the Hebrew words. He finished and published this work in the twelfth year of the reign of the emperor Adrian, A. D. 128.
6. Theodotion was a Christian of the Ebionite sect, and is reported to have begun his translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, merely to serve his own party: but from what remains of his version it appears to have been very literal, at least as far as the idioms of the two languages would bear. His translation was made about the year of our Lord 180. All this translation is lost, except that of the prophet Daniel, and some fragments.
7: Symmachus was originally a Samaritan, but became a convert to Christianity, as professed by the Ebionites. In forming his translation, he appears to have aimed at giving the sense rather than a literal version of the sacred text. His work seems to have been completed abont A. D. 200.
These three versions were published by Origen, in his famous work entitled Hcrapla, of which they formed the third, fourth, and sixth columns. All the remaining fragments have been carefully collected by Father Montfaucon, and published in a work entitled Herapla Origenis quæ supersunt, &c. Paris, 1713, 2 vols. folio.
8. The Æthiopic version comprehends only the New Testament, the Psalms, some of the minor prophets, and a few fragments of other books. It was probably made in the fourth century.
9. The Coptic version includes only the five books of Moses, and the New Testament. It is supposed to have been made in the fifth century. 10. The Syriac version is very valuable and of great authority. It was probably made as early as the sccond century.
11. The Vulgate or Latin version was formed by Saint Jerom at the command of Pope Damasus, A. D. 384. Previous to this, there were a great number of Latin versions made by different hands, extremely corrupt, and self-contradictory. These versions have the general name of the old Itala or Antehieronymian. Jerom appears to have formed his texi, in general, out of these: collating the whole with the Hebrew and Greek, from which he professes to have translated several books entire. The New Testament he is supposed to have taken wholly from the original Greek: yet there are sufficient evidences that he often regulated even this text by the ancient Latin versions.
12. The Arabic is not a very ancient version ; but is of great use in ascertaining the signification of several Hebrew words and forms of speech.
13. The Persian includes only the five books of Moses, and the four Gospels. The former was made from the Hebrew text, by a Jew named Yacoub Toosce: the latter, by a Christian of the Catholic persuasion, Simon Ibn Yusuf Ibn Ibraheem al Tubreezce, about the year of our Lord, 1341.
These are the principal versions which are deemed of authority in settling controversies relative to the text of the original. There are some others, but of less importance, such as the Slavonic, Anglo-Saxon, Gothic, Sahidic, and Armenian; for detailed accounts of which, as also of the preceding, as far as the New Testament is concerned, I beg leave to refer the reader to Michaelis's Lectures, in the translation, and with the notes of the Rev. Dr. Herbert Marsh: and for farther information concerning Jewish and Christian commentators, he is requested to consult Bartoloccius's Bibliotheca Rabbinnica, and the Bibliotheca Theologica of father Calmet.
ADAM CLARKE. LONDON, July 2nd, 1910.
DELIVERED AT SOUTHWARK CHAPEL, ON SUNDAY EVENING, SEPTEMBER, 2, 1832:-OCCA
SIONED BY THE DEATH OF ADAM CLARKE, LL. D. F. S. A. M. R. I. A. &c. &c.
BY THE REV. J. E. BEAUMONT.
“Jesus said, I am the resurrection." John, xi. 25.
" For ever his dear ancred namo
THE voice said, Cry! And the prophet said, What soever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. Jesus
shall I cry?” The voice said, "Proclaim!" And saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again. Martha the prophet said, “What shall I proclaim--what now saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the shall I announce?” “ All
flesh is grass-all flesh is grass ! resurrection at the last day. Jesus said unto her"-himself The grass withereth, the flower fadeth ; because the Spirit bearing witness unto the truth—"Jesus said unto her, I of the Lord bloweth upon it: surely the people is grass.
am the resurrection and the life: he that believeth on me, The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of though he were dead, yet shall he live." our God shall stand for ever."
I confess that my own feeble mind has been so stunned I heard another voice from heaven, saying, “Write.” by the sore calamity that has come upon the church of “I heard a voice from heaven"--and this voice relieves God-by the indescribably-awful affliction that has overus under the pressure of the burden of the other commu taken us, as a section of that church,--that it has been all nication—"I heard a voice from heaven, saying, From but impossible for me to attempt to fasten my attention henceforth blessed are the dead that die in the Lord. Even upon any subject whatever. At ihe request of Mr. Toase, so, saith the Spirit, for they rest from their labors, and my superintendant, and at the request of the Leader's their works do follow them.” That is the last beatitude meeting of this circuit, I had yielded so far as to say that in the Bible : the fifth chapter of Matthew has many beati I would attempt, on this evening, God willing, some imtudes in it, bui it has not all the beatitudes. The series of provement of the bewildering, withering, overwhelming beatitudes that are in the fifth of Matthew, have their visitation that has so suddenly overtaken us all. It has growth and their development here; but the last beatitude been but some few desultory fragments of time, except the that closes the Apocalypse, the revelation that was an hours at the dead of the night, that I have been able to nounced by a voice from heaven—that has its ripeness secure to myself for any thing like a consideration of this hereafter.
matier; and aware that those who might visit this house But here is in the text, another voice-the voice of Jesus. this evening would visit it not to hear the sermon so much Oh, let me hear this voice!
as to catch some notice of the history and the character of the much-honored, much-loved, eminently-lamented man of God, who has passed away from us, I have occupied the most of those moments that I have been able to keep for the purpose, in drawing up such a notice of him as my
own knowledge and the universal testimony of mankind "Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection and the life; and the church of Christ had supplied concerning him. he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he Therefore, what I am going to say on the text is merely live; and whosoever liveth and believeth in me, shall introductory to that. never die. Believest thou this ?” said he unto Martha at
There are three things on which I propose to fasten the grave of Lazarus. Here, in passing, let me remark, your attention for a short time. I am sure that I need not how thankful we ought to be for the Gospel according to say to you, that on this occasion, perhaps, more than on John. It was penned after the other Gospels, and answers any preceding one in my public life, I need the sympathy a particular purpose. It seldom narrates the facts of evan- and the prayers of the people whom I am addressing, God gelical history which had already been substantiated in grant that "by the sadness of the countenance the heart the mouth of two or three previous witnesses; but it pos- may be made better!” sesses incidents, full of value and encouragement, which propose first to develope the ravages of death, as imhad been overlooked by the former evangelists, or which, plied in the language of the text; secondly, to contemat any rate, they had formed no place for in their records. plate the resurrection of the pious dead, as promised in the John, you know, was the beloved and the loving disciple: text; and, thirdly, to show you the connexion between and while the private friendship of Jesus had made but a that magnificent event and the mediation of the Redeemer, slight impression on minds of a sterner order, it put an the Lord Jesus Christ. “Jesus said unto her, I am the indelible stamp on his softer nature, and met with a faithful resurrection and the life.” May God assist us in this historian in his hands. The other evangelists proclaimed service! to the four winds of heaven the public doings and sayings First : THE RAVAGES OF DEATH. These have of late and sufferings of their Lord. John, the beloved—John, been most afflictingly exhibited before us; but at present I whose heart was made of love, records the incidents that propose to confine my attention to the death of ministers. arc of a more private, but not less instructive and encour Lazarus was a minister-a minister of the Lord Jesus aging character.
Christ; not a preacher, indeed—not an evangelist; but he Such is the history of our Saviour's friendship with the was an eminent friend of the Redeemer, and therefore no family of Lazarus and Mary and Martha. The informa- unfit type of the man of God whose death we mourn. tion was conveyed to Christ of the sickness of Lazarus. Ministers must die; we must change the pulpit for the It was thought that he would have immediately sped unto grave-we must put off this tabernacle, as our Lord and the scene of affliction; but he tarried where he was for Master bath shown us--we must put away the sacerdotal some time before he moved to the house of mourning. garment for the shroud: our voices that fall upon your Upon his arrival, Lazarus was dead and buried. “Then ears must be choked and suffocated in death : the sancMartha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went tuary, the pulpit, the place that now knows us, must know and met him: but Mary sat still in the house. Then said us no more. - Ministers have their afflictions. He that Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my entereth on the work of the ministry, entereth into tribubrother had not died. But I know that, even now, what- / lation. Jesus said unto Peter—"Feed my sheep"-"feed
my lambs." Then said he unto him, "When thou wast he is excepted which did put all things under him. And young, thou girdest thyself and walkedst whither thou when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the wouldest; but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry under him, that God may be all in all.” This passage is thee whither thou wouldest not."
dark with excess of brightness: it reveals, however, clearly, The death of ministers is exceedingly monitory and in the resurrection of the dead. structive. It may be a chastisernent upon themselves or But all must die now. There have been exceptions upon the church. They may have been unfaithful in some made, indeed: there was the exception of Enoch, in the matter they may have grieved the Lord as Moses did; antediluvian world, and the exception of Elijah in the and the Lord may say to them, as he said to Moses, that posediluvian world; one from each world, to afford a he must die: or as Aaron grieved the Lord; and Aaron pledge of the resurrection of the antediluvian and the died on the top of the mount; and Moses took the robes postdiluvian worlds. A human body went from the anteof Aaron and put them on his son.
diluvian world to heaven, and a human body went from The death of ministers may be a chastisement upon the the postdiluvian world to heaven, without the passage church: either the church has made too much of them, or of death, without the degradation of the grave, to announce loo little of them. It is not usual for the former to be the to us--and their translation is worth a thousand arguments, case-it is more usual for the latter. The church of Christ, both as to the immortality of the soul and the resurrection I verily believe, is not guilty in the latter matter, as to the of the body-they died not at all to tell us that those that venerable man that is gone. The people of God for fifty lived and died in both worlds shall live again. "I am the years had invariably, transcendantly, unequivocally, uni resurrection." Now we have no reason to expect that any versally honored and revered him : and no vicissitude that exception will be made again, until the end of the world; has occurred within half a century, has lowered him in for one generation after another must pass away by death, the estimation of the members of Christ. His sun is gone until the last generation. The last generation shall not down: you are told that he was seventy-two years of age; die. Oh, how beautifully has the Apostle unfolded this to and although three score years and ten, his sun has gone us! "If,” says he, “we believe that Jesus died and rose down while it was yet day; for his natural strength was again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God not much diminished; his eye had much of its original bring with him. For this we say unto you by the word fire; there was much energy locked up in the sinews of of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the his arms; there was a mass of muscular vigor in his coming of the Lord, shall not prevent them which are trunk ; there was astonishing power about him, physical asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven and mental, to the last morning of his earthly existence; with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with and therefore, in some sort he was not worn out. Oh, no! the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: and this makes his death so much the more affecting. But then we which are alive and remain, shall be caught up s'ill we learn from this history, that the death of ministers, together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the and even ministers in the very efflorescence of their vigor-air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.” A change in the height of their usefulness-on the very summit of shall pass on those who shall be found alive at the second their influence, is for the glory of God. Stephen died in coming of Christ, analogous to that that shall pass on the very height of his usefulness: the attention of the those that have died in the processes of the resurrection. church of Christ was drawn much to Stephen; he was How shall the bodies of those that shall be alive be developing amazing powers for the furtherance of the changed into immortal, seeing they die not, seeing they cause of God; but suddenly he was cut off. John the rise not? How was the water at the marriage of Cana Baptist died in the midst of his years—in the very centre, in Galilee turned into wine? The ordinary process of as it seemed, of his energies. Ah! what has not death making wine is this—the rain descends from the clouds, done! What mighty energies has it not stifled! What falls upon the earth, meanders upon the soil, enters into bright intellects has it not, apparently to us, quenched! the root of the vine, climbs up through the blood-vessels Oh, the mighty dead! But it is all for the glory of God of the tree, circulates by the sap through the whole subit is all for the glory of Christ. So when Jesus was told stance of the tree: a thousand atmospherical changes that Lazarus was dead, and found all weeping and lamen- occur, and ultimately there is the juice of the grape extation on that account, he told them that it was " for the pressed from the fruit by the hand of man. That is the glory of God." Ministers die; but Christ liveth : he liveth ordinary way. But see Jesus at the marriage in Cana of and reigneth for ever; his immortality secureth the wel- Galilee. They told him that they wanted wine; and fare of the church; his ascension to the right hand of the must they wait for wine to be prepared in the usual way? Majesty on high, is a pledge that his church shall flourish Oh, no! In a moment–instantly-was the water changed till the end of time. "I am the resurrection."
and became wine. Just so shall it be at the last day.--Secondly: Let me notice THE DELIGHTFUL DOCTRINE How shall it be with those who shall be found alive when CỤ THE TEXT, CONCERNING THE RESURRECTION OF THE the Saviour descends in the clouds of the air? They shall PIOUS DEAD. –The resurrection of the dead is a doctrine not undergo the long processes of the transmutation that of revelation. The heathen had some notion of the im- the dead in Christ undergo. In a moment in the lwinkmortality of the soul: the light of nature, the teachings ling of an eye, the pulse of immortality shall beat and of philosophy, analogy, and many things, seemed to hold throb through the whole of their frames, and all the faculout to them some faint notice touching the immortality of ties of their primitive nature and their physical condition the soul: but as to the resurrection of the body, that was shall pass away in an instant: and there they are, immortal never so much as dreamed of by any of the sages of an as those that have been raised from the dead. tiquity. The Bible teaches the resurrection of the dead, We might be led to expect the resurrection of the body, and that not merely in certain passages, on the surface of from the fact of the incarnation of our Lord and sawhich the doctriné lies before us; because, if you could viour Jesus Christ. He became a partaker of our flesh: expunge and separate those particular passages-which in that same body that he had in Bethlehem-that he had in so many words contain the promise and the pledge of the Gethsemane—that he had on Mount Calvary—that he had resurrection of the body-from the Divine record, still in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea—that he had on Mount there would remain enough behind to substantiate the doc- Olivet, -that same body is now in the heaven of heavens, trine; for every essential doctrine of Scripture is not upon the pinnacle of the universe, crowned with light and merely taught in some obvious passages, but it runs as glory and blessedness. What! and shall Jesus Christ have clearly through the whole substance of revelation-it is taken hold of human nature--shall a body have been premixed up with the whole mass. There are many passages, pared for him-shall he have taken part and parcel of our indeed, that teach the doctrine most fully and strikingly common humanity-shall he have identified that with his Thus, for instance, in the lesson which forms part of the own primitive and unoriginated nature, as the Son of God, service of the burial of the dead-—"Now is Christ risen the second person in the adorable Trinity-and shall that from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that human nature remain part of the person of the Son of God slept. For since by man came death, by man came also through all the coming revolutions of eternity-and shall the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even all the redeemed be gazing on human nature in the person so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in of their Redeemer,--and shall they be without their own. his own order : Christ the first fruits; afterward they that body? The fact of the incarnation of Christ, thereforeare Christ's at his coming. Then cometh the end”-that the fact of his having assumed our nature and taken that is, the consummation-"when he shall have delivered up nature with him-having assumed a body and taken that the kingdom to God, even the Father ; when he shall with him into the heaven of heavens,—is a pledge that the have put down all rule and all authority and power. bodies of his people shall be there also. For he must reign till he hath put all enemies under his So again the fact that the body of the believer is the feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. temple of the Holy Ghost, is another pledge of the resur. For he hath put all things under his feet. But when
he rection of the body. What! shall the Holy Ghost make saith, All things are put under him, it is manifest that I the very body of the believer his temple-shall the Holy VOL. 1.-3